Background: Acute gastroenteritis remains a global public health problem and human noroviruses persist a cause of gastroenteritis.
Objectives: To determine the rate of human norovirus infections among children with gastroenteritis in Diyala governorate by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immuneochromatography, also to assess genogroup 1(GGI) and genogroup 2(GGII) by nested polymerase chain reaction among study population.
Patients and methods: Cross sectional study were carried out on 182 children under five years old with acute gastroenteritis who attended the emergency department of pediatrics in Al-Batool Teaching Hospital in Baqubah city, during the period from 6th September 2018 till 4th of March 2019. Stool samples were collected from each participant and stored as frozen at -70 °C to use for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and quick qualitative immunochromatographic test, finally positive results for human norovirus was used for RNA extraction and nested polymerase chain reaction.
Results: The rate of human norovirus infection was 6.04%, most common among females 6 (54.55%). Age group (1-12) months showed highest frequency 8 (72.73%). The primary education of the mothers was noted in (54.55 %) followed by (18.18 %) for each secondary and higher education. Children with artificial milk feeding constituted (81.82%) and (18.18%) were mixed feeding, while no positive results recorded among children with breast feeding. The highest infection rate was noticed among patients used filtered and boiled water (54.54 %) followed by filtered water (27.28 %). Among clinical features caused by virus infection, abdominal pain constituted 11(100%), vomiting 10(90.09%), and nausea was noted in 7(63.63%). The results of nested polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that only one case was positive for human norovirus genogroup 2(GGII).
Conclusion: Human norovirus genogroup II appear to play a major role in acute gastroenteritis among children.
Gastroenteritis, human norovirus, PCR