Year 2020, Volume 8 , Issue 1, Pages 1 - 6 2020-04-30

Detection of Human Norovirus among Children with Gastroenteritis in Diyala Governorate

Marwa Ghazzay DİRAA [1] , Jalil İbrahim AL-EZZİ [2] , Areej Atiya HUSSEİN [3]

Background: Acute gastroenteritis remains a global public health problem and human noroviruses persist a cause of gastroenteritis. Objectives: To determine the rate of human norovirus infections among children with gastroenteritis in Diyala governorate by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immuneochromatography, also to assess genogroup 1(GGI) and genogroup 2(GGII) by nested polymerase chain reaction among study population. Patients and methods: Cross sectional study were carried out on 182 children under five years old with acute gastroenteritis who attended the emergency department of pediatrics in Al-Batool Teaching Hospital in Baqubah city, during the period from 6th September 2018 till 4th of March 2019. Stool samples were collected from each participant and stored as frozen at -70 °C to use for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and quick qualitative immunochromatographic test, finally positive results for human norovirus was used for RNA extraction and nested polymerase chain reaction. Results: The rate of human norovirus infection was 6.04%, most common among females 6 (54.55%). Age group (1-12) months showed highest frequency 8 (72.73%). The primary education of the mothers was noted in (54.55 %) followed by (18.18 %) for each secondary and higher education. Children with artificial milk feeding constituted (81.82%) and (18.18%) were mixed feeding, while no positive results recorded among children with breast feeding. The highest infection rate was noticed among patients used filtered and boiled water (54.54 %) followed by filtered water (27.28 %). Among clinical features caused by virus infection, abdominal pain constituted 11(100%), vomiting 10(90.09%), and nausea was noted in 7(63.63%). The results of nested polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that only one case was positive for human norovirus genogroup 2(GGII). Conclusion: Human norovirus genogroup II appear to play a major role in acute gastroenteritis among children.
Gastroenteritis, human norovirus, PCR
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Primary Language en
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Original Articles

Author: Marwa Ghazzay DİRAA
Institution: College of Medicine , University of Diyala
Country: Iraq

Orcid: 0000-0002-7541-4852
Author: Jalil İbrahim AL-EZZİ (Primary Author)
Institution: University of Diyala /College of Medicine
Country: Iraq

Orcid: 0000-0002-4284-9104
Author: Areej Atiya HUSSEİN
Institution: College of Medicine, University of Diyala
Country: Iraq

Supporting Institution none
Project Number 174

Publication Date : April 30, 2020

Bibtex @research article { pprjournal699412, journal = {Pediatric Practice and Research}, issn = {2147-6470}, address = {}, publisher = {MediHealth Academy Yayıncılık}, year = {2020}, volume = {8}, pages = {1 - 6}, doi = {}, title = {Detection of Human Norovirus among Children with Gastroenteritis in Diyala Governorate}, key = {cite}, author = {Al-ezzi̇, Jalil İbrahim and Hussei̇n, Areej} }
APA Di̇raa, M , Al-ezzi̇, J , Hussei̇n, A . (2020). Detection of Human Norovirus among Children with Gastroenteritis in Diyala Governorate . Pediatric Practice and Research , 8 (1) , 1-6 . Retrieved from
MLA Di̇raa, M , Al-ezzi̇, J , Hussei̇n, A . "Detection of Human Norovirus among Children with Gastroenteritis in Diyala Governorate" . Pediatric Practice and Research 8 (2020 ): 1-6 <>
Chicago Di̇raa, M , Al-ezzi̇, J , Hussei̇n, A . "Detection of Human Norovirus among Children with Gastroenteritis in Diyala Governorate". Pediatric Practice and Research 8 (2020 ): 1-6
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Detection of Human Norovirus among Children with Gastroenteritis in Diyala Governorate AU - Marwa Di̇raa , Jalil İbrahim Al-ezzi̇ , Areej Hussei̇n Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - DO - T2 - Pediatric Practice and Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 6 VL - 8 IS - 1 SN - 2147-6470- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Pediatric Practice and Research Detection of Human Norovirus among Children with Gastroenteritis in Diyala Governorate %A Marwa Di̇raa , Jalil İbrahim Al-ezzi̇ , Areej Hussei̇n %T Detection of Human Norovirus among Children with Gastroenteritis in Diyala Governorate %D 2020 %J Pediatric Practice and Research %P 2147-6470- %V 8 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Di̇raa, Marwa , Al-ezzi̇, Jalil İbrahim , Hussei̇n, Areej . "Detection of Human Norovirus among Children with Gastroenteritis in Diyala Governorate". Pediatric Practice and Research 8 / 1 (April 2020): 1-6 .
AMA Di̇raa M , Al-ezzi̇ J , Hussei̇n A . Detection of Human Norovirus among Children with Gastroenteritis in Diyala Governorate. pediatr pract res. 2020; 8(1): 1-6.
Vancouver Di̇raa M , Al-ezzi̇ J , Hussei̇n A . Detection of Human Norovirus among Children with Gastroenteritis in Diyala Governorate. Pediatric Practice and Research. 2020; 8(1): 1-6.