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İki Yaş Altında Supraventriküler Taşikardi Tanısı Alan Çocuk Hastaların Klinik İzlem Sonuçlarının Değerlendirilmesi

Year 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, 70 - 77, 01.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.21765/pprjournal.1130374

Abstract

Amaç: İki yaş altında supraventriküler taşikardi tanısı alan yenidoğan ve süt çocuklarının klinik izlem sonuçlarının değerlendirilmesi amaçlandı. Gereç ve Yöntem: Çalışmaya toplam 50 hasta dahil edildi. Alınan olguların tıbbi kayıtları retrospektif olarak incelendi ve demografik ve klinik özellikleri ve izlem sonuçları çıkarıldı. Bulgular: Hastaların yaş ortalaması 3.28±6.02 ay olup %60 vaka yenidoğandı. Hastaların %32’sinde konjenital kalp hastalığı saptandı. Bir hastada taşikardi cerrahi ilişkili idi. Hastalarımızın 30’u kliniğimize taşikardi esnasında başvurmuştu. Hastalarımızın %30’unda başvuru esnasında kalp yetersizliği bulguları mevcut idi. Üç hastada fetal supraventriküler taşikardi tespit edilmiş, ikisinde hidrops gelişmişti. En sık elektrofizyolojik mekanizma atriyoventriküler reentry taşikardi (%70) olarak düşünüldü. Toplam 43 hastaya akut tedavi verildi. Bunların ikisinde taşikardi durdurulamadı. Toplam 49 hastaya kronik tedavi başlandı. Tekli veya kombine kronik antiaritmik tedavi başlanmış olup kronik izlem yapılabilmiş olan 34 hastanın izlem süresi ortalama 43.4±44.4 ay’dı. Hastaların %85,3’ünün ilaçları takipte kesildi; spontan rezolüsyon=%93.1, ablasyon sonrası=%6,9. Spontan rezolüsyon düşünülerek ilaçları kesilen üç hastada aritmi nüks etti. Wolff-Parkinson-White paterni saptanan ve izlemi yapılabilen kalan 6 hastadan üçüne ablasyon yapılması sağlandı. Sonuç: Verilerimiz, 2 yaş altındaki çocuklarda görülen supraventriküler taşikardilerin büyük çoğunluğunun atriyoventriküler reentrant taşikardi nedeniyle oluştuğuna, kalp yetersizliği bulguları olan süt çocuklarında supraventriküler taşikardi yönünden değerlendirmenin önemli olduğuna, vakaların büyük çoğunluğunun kronik profilaksiye ihtiyaç duyduğuna işaret etmektedir. Vakaların çoğunluğunda tek ilaçla profilaksi mümkün olmakta, az sayıda hastada kombinasyon tedavisi gerekmektedir. Önemli sayıda süt çocuğunda spontan rezolüsyon görülmüştür. Kesin tedavide uygun hastalar için kateter ablasyon önemli bir seçenektir.

References

  • 1. Karpawich PP, Pettersen MD, Gupta P, et al. Infants and children with tachycardia: natural history and drug administration. Curr Pharm Des 2008; 14(8): 743-52.
  • 2. Park M, Guntheroth W (eds). How to Read Pediatric ECGs, 4th ed. USA, Mosby, 2006.
  • 3. Salerno JC, Seslar SP. Supraventricular tachycardia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2009; 163(3): 268-74.
  • 4. Dindar A. Çocukluk Çağı Aritmileri. Türkiye Klinikleri Journal of Internal Medical Sciences 2005; 1(15): 123-34.
  • 5. Garson A, Jr. Gillette PC, McNamara DG. Supraventricular tachycardia in children: clinical features, response to treatment, and long-term follow-up in 217 patients. J Pediatr 1981; 98(6): 875-82.
  • 6. Tripathi A, Black GB, Park YM, et al. Factors associated with the occurrence and treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in a pediatric congenital heart disease cohort. Pediatr Cardiol 2014; 35(2): 368-73.
  • 7. Satar M, Narlı N, Özbarlas N, et al. Yenidoğan döneminde aritmi gelişen 21 vakanın değerlendirilmesi. Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Dergisi 2006; 49: 107-11.
  • 8. Katipoğlu N, Çalkavur Ş, Olukman Ö, et al. Yenidoğan Döneminde Supraventriküler Taşikardi: Tanı, Tedavi ve Prognoza Etki Eden Faktörler. Çocuk Dergisi 2017; 17(4): 163-8.
  • 9. Canpolat E, Korkmaz A, Yurdakök M, et al. Neonatal aritmiler: yenidoğan yoğun bakım ünitesinde on yıllık deneyim. Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Dergisi 2002; 46: 187-94.
  • 10. Öztekin O, Kalay S, Tezel G, et al. Yenidoğan Döneminde Supraventriküler Taşikardi ve Tedavi Yaklaşımları. Türkiye Çocuk Hastalıkları Dergisi 2016; 1: 31-4.
  • 11. Üçsel R, Çıtak A, Karaböcüoğlu M, et al. Çocukluk Çağında Supraventriküler Taşikardiye Acil yaklaşım. Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine 2011; 63(4).
  • 12. Balaguer Gargallo M, Jordán García I, Caritg Bosch J, et al. Supraventricular tachycardia in infants and children. An Pediatr (Barc) 2007; 67(2): 133-8.
  • 13. Losek JD, Endom E, Dietrich A, et al. Adenosine and pediatric supraventricular tachycardia in the emergency department: multicenter study and review. Ann Emerg Med 1999; 33(2): 185-91.
  • 14. Walsh EP. Ebstein's Anomaly of the Tricuspid Valve: A Natural Laboratory for Re-Entrant Tachycardias. JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2018; 4(10): 1271-88.
  • 15. Smith WM, Gallagher JJ, Kerr CR, et al. The electrophysiologic basis and management of symptomatic recurrent tachycardia in patients with Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve. Am J Cardiol 1982; 49(5): 1223-34.
  • 16. Khan IA, Biddle WP, Najeed SA, et al. Isolated noncompaction cardiomyopathy presenting with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia--case report and literature review. Angiology 2003; 54(2): 243-50.
  • 17. Delhaas T, Sarvaas GJ, Rijlaarsdam ME, et al. A multicenter, long-term study on arrhythmias in children with Ebstein anomaly. Pediatr Cardiol 2010; 31(2): 229-33.
  • 18. Bharati S, Rosen K, Steinfield L, et al. The anatomic substrate for preexcitation in corrected transposition. Circulation 1980; 62(4): 831-42.
  • 19. Snyder CS, Fenrich AL, Friedman RA, et al. Usefulness of echocardiography in infants with supraventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol 2003; 91(10): 1277-9.
  • 20. Peretto G, Durante A, Limite LR, et al. Postoperative arrhythmias after cardiac surgery: incidence, risk factors, and therapeutic management. Cardiol Res Pract 2014; 2014: 615987.
  • 21. Sekar RP. Epidemiology of arrhythmias in children. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J 2008; 8(Suppl. 1): S8-s13.
  • 22. Dervişoğlu P, Kösecik M. Fetal ve postnatal dönemde rabdomiyom ve aritmi birlikteliği olan iki olgu. İzmir Dr. Behçet Uz Çocuk Hast. Dergisi 2018; 8(3): 235-238.
  • 23. Uzun H, Yavuz T, Şenses DA, et al. Supraventriküker taşikardi ile kendini gösteren üç aylık tuberoskleroz olgusu. Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi 2009; 5(2): 75-7.
  • 24. Hallıoğlu O, Giray D, Karpuz D, et al. Fetal tanı alan ve yenidoğan döneminde supraventriküler taşikardi geliştiren intraperikardiyal sol ventrikül duvarına invaze dev rabdomiyomlu bir olgu. Mersin Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 2017; 10(2): 151-5.
  • 25. Wu CT, Chen MR, Hou SH. Neonatal tuberous sclerosis with cardiac rhabdomyomas presenting as fetal supraventricular tachycardia. Jpn Heart J 1997; 38(1): 133-7.
  • 26. Geva T, Santini F, Pear W, et al. Cardiac rhabdomyoma. Rare cause of fetal death. Chest 1991; 99(1): 139-42.
  • 27. Range FT, Paul M, Schäfers KP, et al. Myocardial perfusion in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy with and without atrial fibrillation. J Nucl Med 2009; 50(3): 390-6.
  • 28. Masarone D, Limongelli G, Rubino M, et al. Management of Arrhythmias in Heart Failure. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2017; 4(1).
  • 29. Hahurij ND, Blom NA, Lopriore E, et al. Perinatal management and long-term cardiac outcome in fetal arrhythmia. Early Hum Dev 2011; 87(2): 83-7.
  • 30. Krapp M, Kohl T, Simpson JM, et al. Review of diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of fetal atrial flutter compared with supraventricular tachycardia. Heart 2003; 89(8): 913-7.
  • 31. Ko JK, Deal BJ, Strasburger JF, et al. Supraventricular tachycardia mechanisms and their age distribution in pediatric patients. Am J Cardiol 1992; 69(12): 1028-32.
  • 32. Venugopalan P, Shakeel A, Al Amry A, et al. Supraventricular tachycardia in children: a report of three cases, diagnosis and current management. J Sci Res Med Sci 2000; 2(1): 59-64.
  • 33. Ceresnak SR, Tanel RE, Pass RH, et al. Clinical and electrophysiologic characteristics of antidromic tachycardia in children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2012; 35(4): 480-8.
  • 34. de Caen AR, Berg MD, Chameides L, et al. Part 12: Pediatric Advanced Life Support: 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2015; 132(18 Suppl 2): S526-42.
  • 35. Chu PY, Hill KD, Clark RH, et al. Treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in infants: Analysis of a large multicenter database. Early Hum Dev 2015; 91(6): 345-50.
  • 36. Lewis J, Arora G, Tudorascu DL, et al. Acute Management of Refractory and Unstable Pediatric Supraventricular Tachycardia. J Pediatr 2017; 181: 177-82.e2.
  • 37. Brembilla-Perrot B, Olivier A, Villemin T, et al. Follow-up of children or teenagers with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, but without pre-excitation syndrome. Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2017; 110(11): 599-606.
  • 38. Philip Saul J, Kanter RJ, Abrams D, et al. PACES/HRS expert consensus statement on the use of catheter ablation in children and patients with congenital heart disease.. Heart Rhythm 2016; 13(6): e251-89.
  • 39. Kay GN, Epstein AE, Dailey SM, et al. Role of radiofrequency ablation in the management of supraventricular arrhythmias: experience in 760 consecutive patients. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1993; 4(4): 371-89.
  • 40. Brugada J, Blom N, Sarquella-Brugada G, et al. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy for arrhythmias in the pediatric population: EHRA and AEPC-Arrhythmia Working Group joint consensus statement. Europace 2013; 15(9): 1337-82.
  • 41. Ramesh Iyer V. Drug therapy considerations in arrhythmias in children. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J 2008; 8(3): 202-10.
  • 42. Moak JP, Smith RT, Garson A. Jr Newer antiarrhythmic drugs in children. Am Heart J 1987; 113(1): 179-85.
  • 43. Spearman AD, Williams P. Supraventricular tachycardia in infancy and childhood. Pediatr Ann 2014; 43(11): 456-60.
  • 44. Perry JC, Garson A Jr. Supraventricular tachycardia due to Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in children: early disappearance and late recurrence. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990; 16(5): 1215-20.
  • 45. Kugler JD, Danford DA, Deal BJ, et al. Radiofrequency catheter ablation for tachyarrhythmias in children and adolescents. The Pediatric Electrophysiology Society. N Engl J Med 1994; 330(21): 1481-7.
  • 46. Kugler JD, Danford DA, Houston K, et al. Radiofrequency catheter ablation for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in children and adolescents without structural heart disease. Pediatric EP Society, Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Registry. Am J Cardiol 1997; 80(11): 1438-43.
  • 47. An HS, Choi EY, Kwon BS, et al. Radiofrequency catheter ablation for supraventricular tachycardia: a comparison study of children aged 0-4 and 5-9 years. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2013; 36(12): 1488-94.
  • 48. Ozaki N, Nakamura Y, Suzuki T, et al. Safety and Efficacy of Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation for Tachyarrhythmia in Children Weighing Less Than 10 kg. Pediatr Cardiol 2018; 39(2): 384-9.
  • 49. Cohen MI, Triedman JK, Cannon BC, et al. PACES/HRS expert consensus statement on the management of the asymptomatic young patient with a Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW, ventricular preexcitation) electrocardiographic pattern. Heart Rhythm 2012; 9(6): 1006-24.

Clinical follow-up results of the children with supraventricular tachycardia under two years of age

Year 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, 70 - 77, 01.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.21765/pprjournal.1130374

Abstract

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the follow-up results of children with supraventricular tachycardia under two years of age. Material and Method: Fifty patients included into the study. Medical records of the patients were retrospectively evaluated and demographic and clinical features and follow-up results were obtained. Results: Mean age was 3.28±6.02 months, and 60% were newborns. Congenital heart disease was detected in 32%. In one patient, supraventricular tachycardia was related to cardiac surgery. Thirty patients admitted during supraventricular tachycardia. Of patients, 30% had signs of heart failure. In three patients, fetal supraventricular tachycardia was detected and two had hydrops fetalis. Most frequent (70%) mechanism was atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia. Acute treatment was administered to 43 patients, but tachycardia resisted in two. In 49, chronic prophylaxis was started. In 34 patients, follow up was available, and mean follow-up period was 43.4±44.4 months. Prophylaxis were discontinued in 85.3% of the patients; spontaneous resolution=93.2%, after ablation 6.9%. Of the patients with spontaneous resolution, three developed recurrences. Of the 10 patients with Wolff- Parkinson-White pattern, 6 could be followed and in three, ablation was performed. Conclusion: Our results indicate that; supraventricular tachycardia in children under two years are mostly due to atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia, evaluation in terms of supraventricular tachycardia is important in infants with heart failure and most of the patients need chronic prophylaxis. In most of the patients, prophylaxis with single drug is possible. Spontaneous resolution frequent. Catheter ablation is an important permanent treatment choice.

References

  • 1. Karpawich PP, Pettersen MD, Gupta P, et al. Infants and children with tachycardia: natural history and drug administration. Curr Pharm Des 2008; 14(8): 743-52.
  • 2. Park M, Guntheroth W (eds). How to Read Pediatric ECGs, 4th ed. USA, Mosby, 2006.
  • 3. Salerno JC, Seslar SP. Supraventricular tachycardia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2009; 163(3): 268-74.
  • 4. Dindar A. Çocukluk Çağı Aritmileri. Türkiye Klinikleri Journal of Internal Medical Sciences 2005; 1(15): 123-34.
  • 5. Garson A, Jr. Gillette PC, McNamara DG. Supraventricular tachycardia in children: clinical features, response to treatment, and long-term follow-up in 217 patients. J Pediatr 1981; 98(6): 875-82.
  • 6. Tripathi A, Black GB, Park YM, et al. Factors associated with the occurrence and treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in a pediatric congenital heart disease cohort. Pediatr Cardiol 2014; 35(2): 368-73.
  • 7. Satar M, Narlı N, Özbarlas N, et al. Yenidoğan döneminde aritmi gelişen 21 vakanın değerlendirilmesi. Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Dergisi 2006; 49: 107-11.
  • 8. Katipoğlu N, Çalkavur Ş, Olukman Ö, et al. Yenidoğan Döneminde Supraventriküler Taşikardi: Tanı, Tedavi ve Prognoza Etki Eden Faktörler. Çocuk Dergisi 2017; 17(4): 163-8.
  • 9. Canpolat E, Korkmaz A, Yurdakök M, et al. Neonatal aritmiler: yenidoğan yoğun bakım ünitesinde on yıllık deneyim. Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Dergisi 2002; 46: 187-94.
  • 10. Öztekin O, Kalay S, Tezel G, et al. Yenidoğan Döneminde Supraventriküler Taşikardi ve Tedavi Yaklaşımları. Türkiye Çocuk Hastalıkları Dergisi 2016; 1: 31-4.
  • 11. Üçsel R, Çıtak A, Karaböcüoğlu M, et al. Çocukluk Çağında Supraventriküler Taşikardiye Acil yaklaşım. Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine 2011; 63(4).
  • 12. Balaguer Gargallo M, Jordán García I, Caritg Bosch J, et al. Supraventricular tachycardia in infants and children. An Pediatr (Barc) 2007; 67(2): 133-8.
  • 13. Losek JD, Endom E, Dietrich A, et al. Adenosine and pediatric supraventricular tachycardia in the emergency department: multicenter study and review. Ann Emerg Med 1999; 33(2): 185-91.
  • 14. Walsh EP. Ebstein's Anomaly of the Tricuspid Valve: A Natural Laboratory for Re-Entrant Tachycardias. JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2018; 4(10): 1271-88.
  • 15. Smith WM, Gallagher JJ, Kerr CR, et al. The electrophysiologic basis and management of symptomatic recurrent tachycardia in patients with Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve. Am J Cardiol 1982; 49(5): 1223-34.
  • 16. Khan IA, Biddle WP, Najeed SA, et al. Isolated noncompaction cardiomyopathy presenting with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia--case report and literature review. Angiology 2003; 54(2): 243-50.
  • 17. Delhaas T, Sarvaas GJ, Rijlaarsdam ME, et al. A multicenter, long-term study on arrhythmias in children with Ebstein anomaly. Pediatr Cardiol 2010; 31(2): 229-33.
  • 18. Bharati S, Rosen K, Steinfield L, et al. The anatomic substrate for preexcitation in corrected transposition. Circulation 1980; 62(4): 831-42.
  • 19. Snyder CS, Fenrich AL, Friedman RA, et al. Usefulness of echocardiography in infants with supraventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol 2003; 91(10): 1277-9.
  • 20. Peretto G, Durante A, Limite LR, et al. Postoperative arrhythmias after cardiac surgery: incidence, risk factors, and therapeutic management. Cardiol Res Pract 2014; 2014: 615987.
  • 21. Sekar RP. Epidemiology of arrhythmias in children. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J 2008; 8(Suppl. 1): S8-s13.
  • 22. Dervişoğlu P, Kösecik M. Fetal ve postnatal dönemde rabdomiyom ve aritmi birlikteliği olan iki olgu. İzmir Dr. Behçet Uz Çocuk Hast. Dergisi 2018; 8(3): 235-238.
  • 23. Uzun H, Yavuz T, Şenses DA, et al. Supraventriküker taşikardi ile kendini gösteren üç aylık tuberoskleroz olgusu. Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi 2009; 5(2): 75-7.
  • 24. Hallıoğlu O, Giray D, Karpuz D, et al. Fetal tanı alan ve yenidoğan döneminde supraventriküler taşikardi geliştiren intraperikardiyal sol ventrikül duvarına invaze dev rabdomiyomlu bir olgu. Mersin Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 2017; 10(2): 151-5.
  • 25. Wu CT, Chen MR, Hou SH. Neonatal tuberous sclerosis with cardiac rhabdomyomas presenting as fetal supraventricular tachycardia. Jpn Heart J 1997; 38(1): 133-7.
  • 26. Geva T, Santini F, Pear W, et al. Cardiac rhabdomyoma. Rare cause of fetal death. Chest 1991; 99(1): 139-42.
  • 27. Range FT, Paul M, Schäfers KP, et al. Myocardial perfusion in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy with and without atrial fibrillation. J Nucl Med 2009; 50(3): 390-6.
  • 28. Masarone D, Limongelli G, Rubino M, et al. Management of Arrhythmias in Heart Failure. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2017; 4(1).
  • 29. Hahurij ND, Blom NA, Lopriore E, et al. Perinatal management and long-term cardiac outcome in fetal arrhythmia. Early Hum Dev 2011; 87(2): 83-7.
  • 30. Krapp M, Kohl T, Simpson JM, et al. Review of diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of fetal atrial flutter compared with supraventricular tachycardia. Heart 2003; 89(8): 913-7.
  • 31. Ko JK, Deal BJ, Strasburger JF, et al. Supraventricular tachycardia mechanisms and their age distribution in pediatric patients. Am J Cardiol 1992; 69(12): 1028-32.
  • 32. Venugopalan P, Shakeel A, Al Amry A, et al. Supraventricular tachycardia in children: a report of three cases, diagnosis and current management. J Sci Res Med Sci 2000; 2(1): 59-64.
  • 33. Ceresnak SR, Tanel RE, Pass RH, et al. Clinical and electrophysiologic characteristics of antidromic tachycardia in children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2012; 35(4): 480-8.
  • 34. de Caen AR, Berg MD, Chameides L, et al. Part 12: Pediatric Advanced Life Support: 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2015; 132(18 Suppl 2): S526-42.
  • 35. Chu PY, Hill KD, Clark RH, et al. Treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in infants: Analysis of a large multicenter database. Early Hum Dev 2015; 91(6): 345-50.
  • 36. Lewis J, Arora G, Tudorascu DL, et al. Acute Management of Refractory and Unstable Pediatric Supraventricular Tachycardia. J Pediatr 2017; 181: 177-82.e2.
  • 37. Brembilla-Perrot B, Olivier A, Villemin T, et al. Follow-up of children or teenagers with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, but without pre-excitation syndrome. Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2017; 110(11): 599-606.
  • 38. Philip Saul J, Kanter RJ, Abrams D, et al. PACES/HRS expert consensus statement on the use of catheter ablation in children and patients with congenital heart disease.. Heart Rhythm 2016; 13(6): e251-89.
  • 39. Kay GN, Epstein AE, Dailey SM, et al. Role of radiofrequency ablation in the management of supraventricular arrhythmias: experience in 760 consecutive patients. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1993; 4(4): 371-89.
  • 40. Brugada J, Blom N, Sarquella-Brugada G, et al. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy for arrhythmias in the pediatric population: EHRA and AEPC-Arrhythmia Working Group joint consensus statement. Europace 2013; 15(9): 1337-82.
  • 41. Ramesh Iyer V. Drug therapy considerations in arrhythmias in children. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J 2008; 8(3): 202-10.
  • 42. Moak JP, Smith RT, Garson A. Jr Newer antiarrhythmic drugs in children. Am Heart J 1987; 113(1): 179-85.
  • 43. Spearman AD, Williams P. Supraventricular tachycardia in infancy and childhood. Pediatr Ann 2014; 43(11): 456-60.
  • 44. Perry JC, Garson A Jr. Supraventricular tachycardia due to Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in children: early disappearance and late recurrence. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990; 16(5): 1215-20.
  • 45. Kugler JD, Danford DA, Deal BJ, et al. Radiofrequency catheter ablation for tachyarrhythmias in children and adolescents. The Pediatric Electrophysiology Society. N Engl J Med 1994; 330(21): 1481-7.
  • 46. Kugler JD, Danford DA, Houston K, et al. Radiofrequency catheter ablation for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in children and adolescents without structural heart disease. Pediatric EP Society, Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Registry. Am J Cardiol 1997; 80(11): 1438-43.
  • 47. An HS, Choi EY, Kwon BS, et al. Radiofrequency catheter ablation for supraventricular tachycardia: a comparison study of children aged 0-4 and 5-9 years. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2013; 36(12): 1488-94.
  • 48. Ozaki N, Nakamura Y, Suzuki T, et al. Safety and Efficacy of Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation for Tachyarrhythmia in Children Weighing Less Than 10 kg. Pediatr Cardiol 2018; 39(2): 384-9.
  • 49. Cohen MI, Triedman JK, Cannon BC, et al. PACES/HRS expert consensus statement on the management of the asymptomatic young patient with a Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW, ventricular preexcitation) electrocardiographic pattern. Heart Rhythm 2012; 9(6): 1006-24.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Original Articles
Authors

Enver AVAL> (Primary Author)
SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ERZURUM BÖLGE SAĞLIK UYGULAMA VE ARAŞTIRMA MERKEZİ
0000-0001-6620-3300
Türkiye


Fuat LALOĞLU>
ATATURK UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-1595-4723
Türkiye


Naci CEVİZ>
ATATURK UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-2911-6483
Türkiye

Publication Date September 1, 2022
Acceptance Date August 17, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2

Cite

Vancouver Aval E. , Laloğlu F. , Ceviz N. İki Yaş Altında Supraventriküler Taşikardi Tanısı Alan Çocuk Hastaların Klinik İzlem Sonuçlarının Değerlendirilmesi. Pediatric Practice and Research. 2022; 10(2): 70-77.