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Music and Exercise: Does Creating An Expectancy of Enjoyment Increase Reported Enjoyment?

Year 2012, Volume: 3 Issue: 3, 63 - 77, 15.09.2012

Abstract

Many exercisers listen to their favorite music during their workouts, and this has been shown to increase exercise enjoyment and decrease perceptions of exercise exertion.  This study investigated whether suggestion of increased enjoyment from using music would create an expectancy effect that would, in turn, influence actual reported enjoyment of an exercise session. Participants (N=69) intending to voluntarily exercise at a college wellness center while listening to self-chosen music were invited to participate in the study.  All participants were asked to volunteer to fill in an exercise enjoyment scale after their session, but using a simple randomized experimental design in a field setting, expectancy of exercise enjoyment was manipulated by telling half of them that their choice of music was already known to improve exercise enjoyment before they began their workouts.  There was a significant effect (p < .05) on reported exercise enjoyment with the experimental group scoring higher (ES = .48) on the modified PACES scale.  This preliminary study indicates creating expectancy can influence the effect of music on reported exercise enjoyment. This effect might have measurement implications for future research and possible practical implications for the promotion of physical activity for health and wellness reasons.

References

  • Annesi, J. (2001). Effects of music, television, and a combination entertainment system on distraction, exercise adherence and physical output in adults. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 33, 193-202.
  • Barnhill, AQ. (2011). What it takes to defend placebo use. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 21(3), 219-250.
  • Berger, B., and Motl, R. (2001). Physical activity and quality of life. (R.N. Singer, H.A. Hausenblas, Ed.). Handbook of Sport Psychology, pp. 636-671. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Boutcher, S., and Trenske, M. (1990). The effects of sensory deprivation and music on perceived exertion and affect during exercise. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12, 167-176.
  • Bramel, D. and Friend, R. (1981). Hawthorne, the myth of the docile worker, and class bias in psychology. American Psychologist, 36(8), 867–878.
  • Dishman, RK. (1991). Increasing and maintaining exercise and physical activity. Behavior Therapy, 22, 345-378.
  • Dishman, RK. (1994). Prescribing exercise intensity for healthy adults using perceived exertion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 1087-1094).
  • Dyrlund, AK. and Wininger, SR. (2008). The effects of music preference and exercise intensity on psychological variables. Journal of Music Therapy, 45(2), 114-134.
  • Elliot, D., Carr, S., and Savage, D. (2004). Effects of motivational music on work output and affective responses during sub-maximal cycling of a standardized perceived intensity. Journal of Sport Behavior, 27, 162-175.
  • Ernst, E. (2007). Placebo: New insights into an old enigma. Drug Discovery Today, 12(9/10), 413-418.
  • Karageorghis, CI., and Terry, PC. (1997). The psychophysical effects of music in sport and exercise: A review. Journal of Sport Behavior, 20, 54–68.
  • Karageorghis, CI., Terry, PC., and Lane, AM. (1999). Development and initial validation of an instrument to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport: The Brunel Music Rating Inventory. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 713-724.
  • Karageorghis, CI., and Terry, PC. (2001). The magic of music in movement. Sport and Medicine Today 5, 38-41.
  • Kendzierski, D. and DeCarlo, KJ. (1991). Physical activity enjoyment scale: Two validation studies. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13(1), 50-64.
  • Leventhal, H., and Everhart, D. (1979). Emotion, pain, and physical illness. In CE Izard (Ed.), Emotion and psychopathology. New York: Plenum Press.
  • Lind, E, Ekkekakis, P., and Vazou, S. (2008). The affective impact of exercise intensity that slightly exceeds the preferred level: ‘Pain’ for no additional ‘gain.’ Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 464-468.
  • Lind, E., Welch, AS., Ekkekakis, P. (2009). Do “mind over muscle” strategies work?: Examining the effects of attentional association and dissociation on exertional, affective, and physiological responses to exercise. Sports Medicine, 39(9), 743-764.
  • McCarney, R., Warner, J., Iliffe, S., van Haselen, R., Griffin, M., and Fisher, P. (2007). The Hawthorne effect: A randomised, controlled trial. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 7(1), 30.
  • Motl, RW., Dishman, RK., Saunders, R., Dowda, M., Felton, G., and Pate, RR. (2001). Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in adolescent girls. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 21(2), 110-117.
  • Patel, AD. (2008). Music, language, and the brain. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Pollock, ML. (1978). How much exercise is enough? Physician and Sports Medicine, 6, 60- 64.
  • Potteiger, J., Schroeder, J., and Goff, K. (2000) Influence of music on ratings of perceived exertion during twenty minutes of moderate intensity exercise. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91, 848-854.
  • Priest, DL., Karageorghis, CI., and Sharp, NCC. (2004). The characteristics and effects of motivational music in exercise settings: The possible influence of gender, age, frequency of attendance, and time of attendance. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 44, 77-86.
  • Rejeski, WJ. (1985). Perceived exertion: An active or passive process? Journal of Sport Psychology, 7(4), 371-378.
  • Rhodes, RE., Fiala, B., and Conner, M. (2009). A review and meta-analysis of affective judgments and physical activity in adult populations. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 38(3), 180-204.
  • Schwartz, SE., Fernhall, B. and Plowman, SA. (1990). Effects of music on exercise performance. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation 10, 312–16.
  • Simpson, SH., Eurich, DT., Majumdar, SR., Padwal, RS., Tsuyuki, RT., Varney, J., and Johnson, J.A. (2006). A meta-analysis of the association between adherence to drug therapy and mortality. British Medical Journal, 333, 15.
  • Terry, PC., and Karageorghis, CI. (2006). Psychophysical effects of music in sport and exercise: An update on theory, research and application. In M. Katsikitis (Ed.), Psychology bridging the Tasman: Science, culture and practice – Proceedings of the 2006 Joint Conference of the Australian Psychological Society and the New Zealand Psychological Society (pp. 415-419). Melbourne, VIC: Australian Psychological Society.
  • Whitehead, JR., Kleven, KR., Brinkert, RH., and Short, SM. (2008). The effects of music and music-video distractions on exercise enjoyment, perceived exertion, and work output. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40(5), S365.
  • Wininger, S. and Pargman, D. (2003) Assessment of factors associated with exercise enjoyment. Journal of Music Therapy, 40(1), 57-73.
Year 2012, Volume: 3 Issue: 3, 63 - 77, 15.09.2012

Abstract

References

  • Annesi, J. (2001). Effects of music, television, and a combination entertainment system on distraction, exercise adherence and physical output in adults. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 33, 193-202.
  • Barnhill, AQ. (2011). What it takes to defend placebo use. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 21(3), 219-250.
  • Berger, B., and Motl, R. (2001). Physical activity and quality of life. (R.N. Singer, H.A. Hausenblas, Ed.). Handbook of Sport Psychology, pp. 636-671. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Boutcher, S., and Trenske, M. (1990). The effects of sensory deprivation and music on perceived exertion and affect during exercise. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12, 167-176.
  • Bramel, D. and Friend, R. (1981). Hawthorne, the myth of the docile worker, and class bias in psychology. American Psychologist, 36(8), 867–878.
  • Dishman, RK. (1991). Increasing and maintaining exercise and physical activity. Behavior Therapy, 22, 345-378.
  • Dishman, RK. (1994). Prescribing exercise intensity for healthy adults using perceived exertion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 1087-1094).
  • Dyrlund, AK. and Wininger, SR. (2008). The effects of music preference and exercise intensity on psychological variables. Journal of Music Therapy, 45(2), 114-134.
  • Elliot, D., Carr, S., and Savage, D. (2004). Effects of motivational music on work output and affective responses during sub-maximal cycling of a standardized perceived intensity. Journal of Sport Behavior, 27, 162-175.
  • Ernst, E. (2007). Placebo: New insights into an old enigma. Drug Discovery Today, 12(9/10), 413-418.
  • Karageorghis, CI., and Terry, PC. (1997). The psychophysical effects of music in sport and exercise: A review. Journal of Sport Behavior, 20, 54–68.
  • Karageorghis, CI., Terry, PC., and Lane, AM. (1999). Development and initial validation of an instrument to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport: The Brunel Music Rating Inventory. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 713-724.
  • Karageorghis, CI., and Terry, PC. (2001). The magic of music in movement. Sport and Medicine Today 5, 38-41.
  • Kendzierski, D. and DeCarlo, KJ. (1991). Physical activity enjoyment scale: Two validation studies. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13(1), 50-64.
  • Leventhal, H., and Everhart, D. (1979). Emotion, pain, and physical illness. In CE Izard (Ed.), Emotion and psychopathology. New York: Plenum Press.
  • Lind, E, Ekkekakis, P., and Vazou, S. (2008). The affective impact of exercise intensity that slightly exceeds the preferred level: ‘Pain’ for no additional ‘gain.’ Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 464-468.
  • Lind, E., Welch, AS., Ekkekakis, P. (2009). Do “mind over muscle” strategies work?: Examining the effects of attentional association and dissociation on exertional, affective, and physiological responses to exercise. Sports Medicine, 39(9), 743-764.
  • McCarney, R., Warner, J., Iliffe, S., van Haselen, R., Griffin, M., and Fisher, P. (2007). The Hawthorne effect: A randomised, controlled trial. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 7(1), 30.
  • Motl, RW., Dishman, RK., Saunders, R., Dowda, M., Felton, G., and Pate, RR. (2001). Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in adolescent girls. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 21(2), 110-117.
  • Patel, AD. (2008). Music, language, and the brain. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Pollock, ML. (1978). How much exercise is enough? Physician and Sports Medicine, 6, 60- 64.
  • Potteiger, J., Schroeder, J., and Goff, K. (2000) Influence of music on ratings of perceived exertion during twenty minutes of moderate intensity exercise. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91, 848-854.
  • Priest, DL., Karageorghis, CI., and Sharp, NCC. (2004). The characteristics and effects of motivational music in exercise settings: The possible influence of gender, age, frequency of attendance, and time of attendance. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 44, 77-86.
  • Rejeski, WJ. (1985). Perceived exertion: An active or passive process? Journal of Sport Psychology, 7(4), 371-378.
  • Rhodes, RE., Fiala, B., and Conner, M. (2009). A review and meta-analysis of affective judgments and physical activity in adult populations. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 38(3), 180-204.
  • Schwartz, SE., Fernhall, B. and Plowman, SA. (1990). Effects of music on exercise performance. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation 10, 312–16.
  • Simpson, SH., Eurich, DT., Majumdar, SR., Padwal, RS., Tsuyuki, RT., Varney, J., and Johnson, J.A. (2006). A meta-analysis of the association between adherence to drug therapy and mortality. British Medical Journal, 333, 15.
  • Terry, PC., and Karageorghis, CI. (2006). Psychophysical effects of music in sport and exercise: An update on theory, research and application. In M. Katsikitis (Ed.), Psychology bridging the Tasman: Science, culture and practice – Proceedings of the 2006 Joint Conference of the Australian Psychological Society and the New Zealand Psychological Society (pp. 415-419). Melbourne, VIC: Australian Psychological Society.
  • Whitehead, JR., Kleven, KR., Brinkert, RH., and Short, SM. (2008). The effects of music and music-video distractions on exercise enjoyment, perceived exertion, and work output. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40(5), S365.
  • Wininger, S. and Pargman, D. (2003) Assessment of factors associated with exercise enjoyment. Journal of Music Therapy, 40(1), 57-73.

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section SPORT PSYCHOLOGY
Authors

James Whitehead

Andrew Knight This is me

Publication Date September 15, 2012
Published in Issue Year 2012 Volume: 3 Issue: 3

Cite

APA Whitehead, J., & Knight, A. (2012). Music and Exercise: Does Creating An Expectancy of Enjoyment Increase Reported Enjoyment?. Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences, 3(3), 63-77.