Year 2020, Volume 12 , Issue 2, Pages 281 - 303 2020-04-30

المسائل النحويّة في رسالة الصاهل والشاحج لأبي العلاء المعرّي
EBU’L-ALÂ EL-MA'ARRÎ'NİN RİSÂLETU’S-S-SÂHİL VE’Ş-ŞAHİC ADLI ESERİNDEKİ GRAMER KONULARI
THE GRAMMATICAL ISSUES IN THE BOOK OF “THE MESSAGE OF THE SAHEL AND THE SHAHİJ” OF ABU ALA MA'ARİ

Aslam JANKIR [1]


يتناول هذا البحث المسائلَ النحويّة في كتاب (رسالة الصاهل والشاحج) لأبي العلاء المعرّي، فقد زخر بها الكتاب مع أنّه كتاب في الأدب رفيع. اعتمدتُ المنهجَ الوصفيَّ التحليليَّ وأدرتُ عملي على محورين أولهما تحقيق ما احتاج إلى التحقيق من هذه المسائلِ، فخرّجتُ الشواهد الشعرية والأحاديث الشريفة والأقوال من مظانّها، وترجمتُ للأعلام.
ثانيهما ذكرتُ فيه المسائل كما ذكرها أبو العلاء، ووضعت كلّ مسألةٍ منها تحت عنوانٍ وفق مضمونها، ثمّ عرضتُ كلّ مسألةٍ على مقالاتِ العلماء وأوجزتُ أهمّها معلّقًا عليها ومرجّحًا أقواها، ثمّ ذكرت رأي أبي العلاء فيها. وختمتُ البحث بأهمّ النتائجِ التي توصّل إليها، وبقائمة المصادر والمراجع.
إضافةً إلى أنّ لي غاية أخرى من هذا البحث غير ما ذكرتُ هي توضيحُ أنّ القدماء على الرغم من تميّزهم في ميدانٍ من ميادين اللغة في أحَدِ كُتُبِهِم، كتميّزهم في الأدب لم يستطيعوا التحرّر الكامل من النحو الذي بقي يجري في دمائهم ويسيل من أفواه أقلامهم على كثير من كتب الأدب وغيرها؛ بين الفقرةِ والفقرةِ أو الفكرةِ والفكرةِ أو الموقف والموقف، وكأنّهم لا يرونَ جمالًا في أدبهم ولا يتذوّقونَ له طعمًا إلّا بهذا النحو الذي شبّهه القدماءُ بالملحِ فقالوا: النحو في الكلام كالملحِ في الطعامِ. ولا شكّ أنّ هذا الذي فعلوه يدلّ دلالةً قويّةً وواضحةً على أهمّيّة النحو العربيّ عند القدماء وعلى حرصهم الشديد على تعليمهِ وكأنّه واجبٌ عليهم لا مفرَّ من تأديتهِ.

Öz
Bu araştırma, Ebu’l-Alâ el-Ma'arrî'nin Risâletu’s-s-Sâhil ve’ş-Şahic adlı eserindeki gramer konularını ele almaktadır. Yüksek edebî meseleleri barındırmasına karşın bu eser, nahiv meselelerini de içermektedir. Bu eseri tercih etmemin nedeni buydu ve bunu araştırmam için iyi bir materyal olarak gördüm. Kitabı incelerken Arap nahvi/dilbilgisi açısından bazı zorluklarla karşılaştım. Eser, yazarın kıvrak zekâsıyla oluşturduğu kurgusal bir stilde olduğundan çalışmamda tanımlayıcı analitik yaklaşımı benimsedim. Çalışmayı iki yönden inceledim; bunlardan ilki, eserdeki nahiv meseleleri hakkında yeterli bilgi vermekle birlikte şiir, mesel, hadis-i şerif ve söylenceler gibi şevâhidi tespit etmek ve eserde bahsi geçen kişileri tanıtmak.
İkincisine gelince, nahiv meselelerini Ebu’l-Alâ'nın zikrettiği gibi ele aldım ve her konuyu ilgili başlık altında topladım. Sonra bu konuları âlimlerin görüşlerine arz ettim. Bunlar ile Ebu’l-Alâ’nınkini mukayese ederek tercih edilen görüşü zikrettim. Daha sonra ise, çalışmama kaynakların ve referansların bir listesini ekledim.
Anlattıklarıma ek olarak bu çalışmayı hazırlamamın başka bir nedeni de eskilerin eserlerini kaleme alırken dil alanındaki maharetlerine ek olarak kaleme aldıkları edebi eserlerinde nahiv meselelerinden tam olarak sıyrılamamış olduklarını, bu durumun onların damarlarında akan kanda sürekli var olduğunu, bunun kalemlerinden akarak bir çok edebiyat eseri ve diğer çalışmalarda tebarüz ettiğini; fıkradan fıkraya, fikirden fikire, halden hale dönüştüğünü ve sanki bu âlimler, eskilerin tuz gibi gördüğü ve “sözdeki nahiv yemekteki tuz gibidir” şeklinde ifadesini bulan nahiv ilmi olmaksızın edebi eserlerinde bir güzellik ve tad görmediklerini dile getirmek içindir. Hiç şüphesiz bu durum Arap nahvinin eski âlimlerin yanındaki önemine güçlü ve açık bir işarettir ve bunu öğretmelerindeki şiddetli hırs ise kendisinden kaçınılması mümkün olmayan bir vacib olduğunu göstermektedir.

This research deals with the grammatical issues in the book of “The Message of the Sahel and the Shahij” of Abu Ala Ma'ari, These grammatical issues have stopped me; because it was mentioned in this literary letter in which the author was best known by his poetry, literature and philosophy, and wasn’t known by grammar! This was the reason of my choice for these issues, and I saw it as a good material for research and study, I have encountered some difficulties, the most important of which is the hidden question of grammar in the folds of the book, it was contained in the author's fictional style which was coined by him brilliantly, I have adopted the descriptive analytical approach, my work took two approaches, the first of which was to achieve what I need to investigate in these issues, I took out with poetry evidences, honest Hadiths, and sayings from their doubts, and I translated for the media. As for the second approach, I mentioned the matter as Abu Ala mentioned it, and I put each issue under the title of its content, Then I presented each issue to the scientists’ articles, which I outlined the most important, most likely the strongest and expressing Abu Ala's opinion in the matter and I concluded the research with a conclusion that I outlined the most important results of the research and its recommendations, and a list of sources and references. In addition to that I have another purpose in this research other than what I mentioned is to clarify that the ancients despite their distinction in one of the fields of language in the book of their books, such as their excellence in literature for example, they couldn't fully liberate themselves from the grammar that was still running in their blood and flowing from the mouths of their pens on many books of literature and others; between a paragraph and a paragraph or an idea and an idea or an attitude and an attitude, as if they do not see beauty in their literature and do not taste it except in Arabic grammar, which the ancients likened to salt, so they said: "grammar in speech is like salt in food." There is no doubt that this, which they did, indicates a strong and clear indication of the importance of their Arabic grammar and their keen concern to teach it, as if it was an imperative for them to perform it.

  • • Ibrahim Bin Al-serri Al-Zajjaj, Kitab Al-Aroud, checked by Suleiman Abo Seta, Mijalat Al-Derasat Al-lughawiya, the sixth volume, number 3, September- November 2004. • Ibrahim Bin Mouhammad Bin Arabshah, checked and commented by Abdul Hamid Hindawi, Scientific Books House, Beirut, Lebanon. • Ibn Al-Sirafi, Sharah Abiyat Sebaweih, checked by Mouhammad Ali Sultani, Al-Asmaa House, Damascus, 2010. • Ibn Sida Al-Andalusi, Al-Muhkam Wa Al-Muheet Al-Aatham, checked by Abdul Hamid Hindawi, Scientific Books House, Beirut, 2000. • Ibn Quteiba Al-Denyouri, Al-Shi’r Wa Al-Shu’araa’, checked by Ahmad Mohammad Shakir, Al-Maarif House, Cairo. • Ibn Maja, Sunin Ibn Maja, checked by Mouhammad Fuad Abdul Baqi, Arab Books Revival House Press • Ibn Malik, Sharah Al-Tasheel, checked by Abdul Rahman Al-Seiyd, Mouhammad Badawi Al-Makhtoun, Hijr House • Ibn Malik, Sharah Al-Kafiya Al-Shafiya, checked by Abdul Manaam Ahmad Hreidi, Um Al-Qura University, Makka Al-Mukarama, 1982. • Ibn Hisham Al-Lakhmi, Al-Madkhal Ila Taqweem Al-Lisan, checked by Hatim Salih Al-Damin, Al-Basha’er Al-Islamiyya House for Printing, Publishing and Distribution, Beirut- Lebanon, 2003. • Abo Hayyan Al-Andalusi, Irtishaf Al-Darb Min Lisan Al-Arab, checked by Rajab Othman Mouhammad and Ramadan Abdul Tawab, Al-Khanji Library. • Abo Dawoud Suleiman Bin Al-Ashaath Al-Sajistani, Sunin Abi Dawoud, checked by Shwayb Al-Arna’out and Mouhammad Kamil qara Belli, International Al-Resala House, Damascus, Private. • Abo Zubeid Al-Taay, Shaar Abi Zubeid Al- Taay, checked by Nouri Al-Hamoudi Al-Qaysi, Al-Maarif House Print, Baghdad, 1967. • Abo Zeid Al-Ansari, Al-Nawadir Fi Al-Lugha, checked by Mouhammad Abdul Qadir Ahmad, Al-Shurouq House, 1981. • Abo Ali Al-Farisi, Kitab Al-Shaar, checked by Mahmoud Mouhammad Al-Tinaji, Al-Khatji Library, Cairo 1988. • Ahmad Bin Khalil Al-Farahidi, Al-Jumal, checked by Fakhir Al-Deen Qabawa, Al-Resala Institution, Beirut, 1985. • Ahmad Bin Abdulla Al-Tanoukhi Al-Maari, Resalat Al-Sahil Wa Al-Shahij, checked by Aisha Abdul Rahman Bint Al-Shati, Al-Maarif House 1948. • Ahmad Bin Mouhammad Al-Khafaji Al-Masri, Sharah Durrat Al-Ghawas Fi Awham Al-Khawas, checked by Abdul Hafeez Farghali Ali Qarni, Al-Jeel House, Beirut- Lebanon, 1996. • Ahmad Bin Yehiya Bin Thaalab, Majalis Thaalab, checked by Abdul Salam Haroun, Al-Maarif House, Egypt, the second publication. • Omru’ Al-Qayis, Diwan Omru’ Al-Qayis, checked by Mouhammad Abo Al-Fadl, Al-Maarif House,1984. • Emil Badea Yaqoub, Al-Muajam Al-Mufasal Fi Elm Al-Aroud Wa Al-Qafiya Wa Funoun Al-Shir, Scientific Books House, Beirut. • Al-Baqouli, Sharah Al-Lamaa, checked by Ibrahim Bin Mouhammad Abo Obada, Saudi Arabia, Culture and Publishing Department at the university, 1990. • Bahaa’ Al-Deen Bin Aqeel, Al-Musaed Ala Tasheel Al-Fawaed, checked by Mouhammad Kamil Barakat, Om Al-Qura University, 1400-1405 H. • Al-Hasan Bin Abdul Ghafar Al-Farsi, Al-Idah Wa Al-Takmila, checked by Kazim Bahr Al-Mirjan, The World of Books, Beirut-Lebanon, the second edition, 1996. • Al-Hasan Bin Abdul Ghafar Al-Farsi, Al-Masael Al-Basariyat, checked by Mouhammad Al-Shatir Ahmad Mouhammad Ahmad, Al-Madani Print House, the Saudi Institution in Egypt, the first edition, 1985. • Al-Hutae’a, Diwanhu Biriywayat Wa Sharah Ibn Al-Skeet, studied by Mufeed Mouhammad Qmeiha, Scientific Books House, Beirut. • Humeid Bin Thor Al-Hilali, Diwan Humeid Bin Thor Al-Hilali, cheked by Abdul Azizi Al-Meymani, the Egyptian Books House, 1951/ • Kheir Al-Deen Al-Zarkali, Al-Aalam, the Science House for Millions, Beirut- Lebanon, 2002. • Tho Al-Rema, Diwanhu, presented and explained by Ahmad Hasan Basaj, the Scientific Books House, Beirut, 1995. • Ru’ia Bin Al-Ajaj, Diwan Ru’ia Bin Al-Ajaj, corrected and organized by William Bin Al-Ward Al-Barousi, Ibn Quteiba House for printing and publication, Al- Kuwait. • Sebaweih, Al-Kitab, checked by Abdul Salam Haroun, Al-Khanji Library, 2000. • Al-Sayid Ahmad Saqr, Sharah Diwan Alqama Al-Fahl, Al-Mahmoudiya Print House, Cairo, 1935. • Shihab Al-Deen Ahmad Bin Mouhammad Al-Muqri Al-Telmisani, Nafh Al-Teeb Min Ghusn Al-Andalus Al-Rateeb Wa Thikr Wazeerha Lisan Al-Deen Bin Al-Khateeb, checked by Ihsan Abbas, Sadir House, Beirut- Lebanon, 1968. • Salah Al-Deen Al-Zaabalawi Fi Mu’jam Akhtaa’ Al-Kittab, its indexes were put and cared by Mouhammad Makki and Marwan Al-Bawab, Culture and Heritage House , Damascus, 2006. • Dhiaa’ Al-Deen Bin Al-Atheer, Al-Mathal Al-Saer Fi Adab Al-Katib Wa Al-Shaer, presented and commented by Ahmad Al-Houfi and Badawi Tabbana, Al-Nahda House, Egypt. • Tarafa Bin Al-Abid, Diwan Tarafa Bin Al-Abid , presented and explained by Mudhi Mouhammad Nasir, the Scientific Books House, Buirut, 2002. • Abdul Qadir Omar Al-Baghdadi, Khizanat Al-Adab, checked by Abdul Salam Haroun, Al-Khanji Library, Cairo- Egypt, 1996. • Abdulla Jamal Al-Deen Bin Yousif Bin Hisham Al-Ansary, Awdah Al-Masalik Ila Alfiat Ibn Malik, Al-Asria Library, Beirut. • Ali Bin Mouhammad Al-Haroui, Al-Azhia Fi Ilm Al-Harouf, checked by Abdul Mou’een Al-Malouhi, Arabic Language Complex Publications in Damascus, 1993. • Al-Farazdaq, Humam Bin Ghalib, Diwanh, checked by Abdulla Ismail Al-Sawi, Sharah Diwan Al-Farazdaq Biriwayat Al-Sukarai En Mouhammad Bin Habib, Al-Sawi House Print, the first edition, 1936. • Al-Fayrouz Abadi, Al-Qamous Al-Muheet, checked by The Heritage Office at the Al-Resala Institution, supervised by Mohammad Na’eem Al-Ariqsousi, Al-Resalal Institution, Beirut, 2005. • Al-Mebred, Kitab Al-Ta’azi Wa Al-Marathi, checked by Khalil Mansour, the Scientific Books House, Beirut,1996. • Mouhammad Bin Abi Yaqoub Isshaq, Al-Fahrasat Fi Akhbar Al-Olama’a Min Al-Qoudama’a Wa Al-Mouhadetheen Wa Asma’a Kutubuhum, checked by Rida, Tajadud. • Mouhammad Bin Al-Hasan Bin Dureid, Jamharat Al-Lugha, checked by Ibrahim Shams Al-Deen, the Scientific Books House, Beirut. • Mouhammad Bin Othman Al-Zouzani, Sharah Al-Libab together with Mouhammad Al-Isfrayyni, Libab Al-I’rab, checked by Mouhammad Mustafa Al-Khateeb, the Scientific Books House, Beirut. • Mouhammad Bin Makram Ibn Manthour, Lisan Al-Arab, Sadir House, Beirut. • Mouafaq Al-Deen Bin Ya’eesh, Sharah Al-Moufassal, Al-Muneeriya Printing Department, Egypt. • Hibat Allah Abo Al-Sa’adat Ibn Al-Shajri, Amali Ibn Al-Shajri, checked by Mahmoud Mouhammad Al-Tenahi, Al-Khanji Library, Cairo, 1992. • Abo Hayyan Al-Andalusi, Irtishaf Al-darb Min Lisan Al-Arab, checked by Rajab Othman Mouhammad and Ramadan Abdul Tawab, Al-Khanji Library. • Ahmad Bin Faris Bin Zakariya, Al-Sahibi, checked by Al-Sayed Ahmad Saqr, Issa Al-Babi Al-Halabi and his partners, Cairo. • Al-Mubarrid, Al-Kamil, checked by Mouhammad Ahmad Al-Dali, Al-Resala Institution, Beirut, 2008. • Al-Ma’ari, Resalat Al-Ghufran, checked by Aisha Abdul Rahman Bint Al-Shate’, Al-Ma’arif House, Cairo. • Yaqout Al-Hamoui, Mou’jam Al-Odaba’a, revised by Ministry of Public Knowledge House, the last floor.
Primary Language ar
Subjects Social
Journal Section Tema Dışı Makaleler
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-2228-4687
Author: Aslam JANKIR (Primary Author)
Institution: MARDİN ARTUKLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : April 30, 2020

ISNAD Jankır, Aslam . "المسائل النحويّة في رسالة الصاهل والشاحج لأبي العلاء المعرّي". Şarkiyat 12 / 2 (April 2020): 281-303 . https://doi.org/10.26791/sarkiat.689707