Research Article
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Investigation of Pharmaceuticals in Sakarya Sewage Wastewater

Year 2022, Volume 26, Issue 6, 1209 - 1223, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1060212

Abstract

Active substances of drugs can cause various adverse effects by accumulating in the ecosystem. Many medications are resistant to biodegradation, given the recipient media in conventional wastewater treatment plants, and are thus released into the environment after only partial purification or no purification at all. The study focuses on 13 different pharmaceutical compounds belonging to drug classes of anti-depressants, antiepileptic’s, anti-inflammatories, beta-blockers, lidocaine, and stimulants. These compounds were selected with reference to the literature as the ones most commonly encountered in domestic wastewater, surface, and groundwater. The presence of these compounds in the wastewater samples from Sakarya sewage and wastewater treatment plant was investigated. For this purpose, composite samples were taken at various sampling points, and duly analyzed. The analysis revealed the presence of the pharmaceutical residues in the sewage waters from Sakarya Municipality. Some of them were still present in the effluent of the treatment plant. On the other hand, fluoxetine, propranolol, and metoprolol drug active ingredients were not detected at any sampling point. Among all the compounds examined, the highest percentage of residues were observed in the case of active caffeine and paracetamol. In the light of these findings, advanced treatment units such as high-pressure membrane systems (including ozonizing, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis) can help adsorption rates at the treatment plant, increasing removal efficiency regarding drug compounds.

References

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  • [2] C. Morosini, E. Postè, M. Mostachetti, Vincenzo Torretta, “Pharmaceuticals in water cycle: a review on risk assessment and wastewater and sludge treatment,” Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, Vol.19, No. 8, 1339-1378, August 2020.
  • [3] P. K. Mutiyar, S. K. Gupta, A. K. Mittal, “Fate of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) from River Yamuna, India: An ecotoxicological risk assessment approach,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 150, pp. 297-304, 15 April 2018.
  • [4] C. G. Daughton, T. A. Ternes, “Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 107, pp 907–938, 6 December 1999.
  • [5] G. Knopp, C. Prasse, T. A. Ternes, P. Corne, “ Elimination of micropollutants and transformation products from wastewater treatment plant effluent through pilot scale ozonation followed by various activated carbon and biological filters,” Water Research, vol. 100, pp. 580-592, 1 September 2016.
  • [6] C. Dai, S. Li, Y. Duan, K. H. Leong, Y. Tu, L. Zhou, “Human health risk assessment of selected pharmaceuticals in the five major river basins, China,” Science of The Total Environment, 801, 149730, 2021.
  • [7] Q. Sui, J. Huang, S. Deng, G. Yu, Q. Fan, “Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals, caffeine and DEET in wastewater treatment plants of Beijing, China,” Water Research, vol. 44, pp. 417–426, 2010.
  • [8] B. Subedi, N. Codru, D. M. Dziewulski, L. R. Wilson, J. Xue, S. Yun, K. Kannan, “A pilot study on the assessment of trace organic contaminants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products from on-site wastewater treatment systems along Skaneateles Lake in New York State, USA,” Water Research, vol.72, pp.28-39, 2015.
  • [9] B. Subedi, K. Balakrishna, D. I. Joshua, K. Kannan, “Mass loading and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products including psychoactives, antihypertensives, and antibiotics in two sewage treatment plants in southern India,” Chemosphere, vol. 167, pp. 429-437, January 2017.
  • [10] A. J. Ebele, M. A. E. Abdallah, S. Harrad,” Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the freshwater aquatic environment,” Emerging Contaminants, vol 3(1), p.p1-16., 2017.
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  • [12] K. Fent, A. A. Weston, D. Caminada, “Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals,” Aquatic Toxicology, vol.76 (2), p.p 122-159, 2006.
  • [13] A, Kurt, B. K. Mert, N. Özengin, Ö. Sivrioğlu, T. Yonar, “Treatment of antibiotics in wastewater using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs),” Physico-Chemical Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery, Intech Open Science, Londrina, pp. 175-211, 2017.
  • [14] V. Singh, S. Suthar, “Occurrence, seasonal variations, and ecological risk of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in River Ganges at two holy cities of India,” Chemosphere, 268, 129331, 2021.
  • [15] N. Han Tran, K. Y. Hoong Gin, “Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal careproducts, and endocrine disrupters in a full-scale water reclamation plant,” Science of the Total Environment, pp.1503–1516, 2017.
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  • [19] D. W. Kolpin, E. T. Furlong, M. T. Meyer, E. M. Thurman, S. D. Zaugg, L. B. Barber, H. T. Buxton, “Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in U.S. Streams, 1999−200: A National Reconnaissance,” Environmental Science Technology, vol.36, no.6, pp. 1202–1211, 2002. [20] Nikolaou, S. Meric, D. Fatta, “Occurrence patterns of pharmaceuticals in water and wastewater environments. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry,” vol. 387, no.4, pp. 1225-1234, 2007.
  • [21] J. Sui, H. Afzalimehr, A. K. Samani, M. Maherani, “Clear-water scour around semi-elliptical abutments with armored beds,” International Journal of Sediment Research, vol.25, no.3, pp. 233-245, 2010.
  • [22] A. S. Ajibola, S. T. Fawole, F. O. Ajibola, G. O. Adewuyi, “Diclofenac and ibuprofen determination in sewage sludge using a QuEChERS approach: Occurrence and ecological risk assessment in three Nigerian wastewater treatment plants,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 106(4), 690-699, 2021.
  • [23] J. P. Fernandes, C. M. R. Almeida, M. A. Salgado, M. F. Carvalho, A. P. Mucha, “Pharmaceutical compounds in aquatic environments—Occurrence, fate and bioremediation prospective,” Toxics, 9(10), 257, 2021.
  • [24] PubChem, National Institutes of Health. (2022). National Library of Medicine [Online] Available: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  • [25] E. W. Rice, R. B. Baird, A. D. Eaton, L. S. Clesceri, APHA, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21th Ed. American Public Health Association Publication, Washington, USA, 2012.
  • [26] O. F. S. Khasawneh, P. Palaniandy, “Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants,” Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 150, 532-556, 2021.
  • [27] O. Golovko, V. Kumar, G. Fedorova, T. Randak, R. Grabic, “Seasonal changes in antibiotics, antidepressants/psychiatric drugs, antihistamines and lipid regulators in a wastewater treatment plant,” Chemosphere, vol. 111, pp. 418–426, 2014.
  • [28] Q. Sui, X. Cao, S. Lu, W. Zhao, Z. Qiu, G. Yu, “Occurrence, sources and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the groundwater: A review” Emerging Contaminants, pp.14-24, 2015.
  • [29] S. W. Nam, B.-Il Jo, Y. Yoon, K. D. Zoh, “Occurrence and removal of selected micropollutants in a water treatment plant,” Chemosphere, vol.95, pp.156–165, 2014.
  • [30] Y. Luo, W. Guo, H. H. Ngo, L. D. Nghiem, F. I. Hai, J. Zhang, S. Liang, X C. Wang, “A review on the occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment and their fate and removal during wastewater treatment,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 473–474, pp. 619–641, 2014.
  • [31] Strenn, M. Clara, O. Gans, N. Kreuzinger, “Carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen and bezafibrate-investigations on the behaviour of selected pharmaceuticals during wastewater treatment,” Water Science Technology., vol.50 (5), pp. 269–276, 2004.
  • [32] M. Clara, B. Strenn, O. Gans, E. Martinez, N. Kreuzinger, H. Kroiss, “Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, fragrances and endocrine disrupting compounds in a membrane bioreactor and conventional wastewater treatment plants, ”Water Research. Vol.39 (19), pp. 4797-4807, 2005.
  • [33] J. Rivera-Utrilla, M. Sánchez-Polo, M. Á. Ferro-García, G. Prados-Joya, R. Ocampo-Pérez, “Pharmaceuticals as emerging contaminants and their removal from water. A review,” Chemosphere, vol. 93(7), pp. 1268-1287, 2013.
  • [34] Y. Vystavnaa, Z. Frkovaa, L. Marchan, Y. Vergeles, F. Stolberg, “Removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in a full scale constructed wetland in East Ukraine”, Ecological Engineering, vol.108, , , pp.50-58, November 2017.
  • [35] Ş. Saygı, D. Battal, N. Ö. Şahin, “Çevre ve insan sağlığı yönünden ilaç atıklarının önemi,” Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal,vol. 16, pp. 82-90, 2012.
  • [36] M. Khamis, R. Karaman, F. Ayyash, A. Qtait, O. Deeb, A. Manssra, “Efficiency of Advanced Membrane Wastewater Treatment Plant towards Removal of Aspirin, Salicylic Acid, Paracetamol and p-Aminophenol,” Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 121-137, 2011.
  • [37] E. A. Serna-Galvis, A. M.Botero-Coy, M. Rosero-Moreano, J. Lee, F. Hernández, R. A. Torres-Palma, “An initial approach to the presence of pharmaceuticals in wastewater from hospitals in Colombia and their environmental risk,” Water, 14(6), 950, 2022.
  • [38] R. Lopez-Serna, A. Jurado, E. Vazquez-Sune, J. Carrera, M. Petrovic, D. Barcelo, “Occurrence of 95 pharmaceuticals and transformation products in urban groundwaters underlying the metropolis of Barcelona, Spain,” EnvironmentalPollution,vol.174, pp.305-315, 2013.
  • [39] J. A. Rivera-Jaimes, C. Postigo, R. M. Melgoza-Alemán, J. Aceña, D. Barceló, M. López de Alda “Study of pharmaceuticals in surface and wastewater from Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico: Occurrence and environmental risk assessment,” Science of the Total Environment, vol.613–614, pp.1263–1274, 2018.
  • [40] R. Salgado, V. J. Pereira, G. Carvalho, R. Soeiro, V. Gaffney, C. Almeida, V. Vale Cardoso, E. Ferreira, M.J. Benoliel, T.A. Ternes, A. Oehmen, M.A.M. Reis, J. P. Noronha, “Photodegradation kinetics and transformation products of ketoprofen, diclofenac and atenolol in pure water and treated wastewater,” Journal of Hazardous Materials,vol. 244– 245, pp. 516– 527, 2013.
  • [41] P. C., Rua-Gomez, W. Püttmann, “Occurrence and removal of lidocaine, tramadol, venlafaxine, and their metabolites in German wastewater treatment plants,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.19(3), pp.689-699, 2012a.
  • [42] P. C., Rua-Gomez, W. Püttmann, “Impact of wastewater treatment plant discharge of lidocaine, tramadol, venlafaxine and their metabolites on the quality of surface waters and groundwater,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, vol. 12, pp. 3047- 3310, 22 November 2012b.
  • [43] J. L. Santos, I. Aparicio, E. Alonso, “Occurrence and risk assessment of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater treatment plants. A case study: Seville city (Spain),” Environment International, vol. 33, pp. 596–601, 2007.
  • [44] J. M. Philip, U.K. Aravind, C. T. Aravindakumar,“Emerging contaminants in Indian environmental matrices - A review,” Chemosphere, vol. 190, pp.307-326, 2018.
  • [45] D. Ramírez-Morales, M. Masís-Mora, J.R. Montiel-Mora, J. C. Cambronero-Heinrichs, S. Brice˜no-Guevara, C. E. Rojas-Sánchez, M. Méndez-Rivera, V. Arias-Mora, R. Tormo-Budowski, L. Brenes-Alfaro, C. E. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, “Occurrence of pharmaceuticals, hazard assessment and ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater treatment plants in Costa Rica,”Science Total Environment,746, 141200, 2020.

Year 2022, Volume 26, Issue 6, 1209 - 1223, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1060212

Abstract

References

  • [1] R. R. Z. Tarpani, A. Azapagic “Life cycle environmental impacts of advanced wastewater treatment techniques for removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs),” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 215, pp. 258-272, June 2018.
  • [2] C. Morosini, E. Postè, M. Mostachetti, Vincenzo Torretta, “Pharmaceuticals in water cycle: a review on risk assessment and wastewater and sludge treatment,” Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, Vol.19, No. 8, 1339-1378, August 2020.
  • [3] P. K. Mutiyar, S. K. Gupta, A. K. Mittal, “Fate of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) from River Yamuna, India: An ecotoxicological risk assessment approach,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 150, pp. 297-304, 15 April 2018.
  • [4] C. G. Daughton, T. A. Ternes, “Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 107, pp 907–938, 6 December 1999.
  • [5] G. Knopp, C. Prasse, T. A. Ternes, P. Corne, “ Elimination of micropollutants and transformation products from wastewater treatment plant effluent through pilot scale ozonation followed by various activated carbon and biological filters,” Water Research, vol. 100, pp. 580-592, 1 September 2016.
  • [6] C. Dai, S. Li, Y. Duan, K. H. Leong, Y. Tu, L. Zhou, “Human health risk assessment of selected pharmaceuticals in the five major river basins, China,” Science of The Total Environment, 801, 149730, 2021.
  • [7] Q. Sui, J. Huang, S. Deng, G. Yu, Q. Fan, “Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals, caffeine and DEET in wastewater treatment plants of Beijing, China,” Water Research, vol. 44, pp. 417–426, 2010.
  • [8] B. Subedi, N. Codru, D. M. Dziewulski, L. R. Wilson, J. Xue, S. Yun, K. Kannan, “A pilot study on the assessment of trace organic contaminants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products from on-site wastewater treatment systems along Skaneateles Lake in New York State, USA,” Water Research, vol.72, pp.28-39, 2015.
  • [9] B. Subedi, K. Balakrishna, D. I. Joshua, K. Kannan, “Mass loading and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products including psychoactives, antihypertensives, and antibiotics in two sewage treatment plants in southern India,” Chemosphere, vol. 167, pp. 429-437, January 2017.
  • [10] A. J. Ebele, M. A. E. Abdallah, S. Harrad,” Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the freshwater aquatic environment,” Emerging Contaminants, vol 3(1), p.p1-16., 2017.
  • [11] Holm, M. Bakken, O. Vangen, R. Rekaya, “Genetic analysis of age at first service, return rate, litter size, and weaning-to-first service interval of gilts and sows,” Journal Animal Scence vol. Pp. 83:41-48, 2005.
  • [12] K. Fent, A. A. Weston, D. Caminada, “Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals,” Aquatic Toxicology, vol.76 (2), p.p 122-159, 2006.
  • [13] A, Kurt, B. K. Mert, N. Özengin, Ö. Sivrioğlu, T. Yonar, “Treatment of antibiotics in wastewater using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs),” Physico-Chemical Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery, Intech Open Science, Londrina, pp. 175-211, 2017.
  • [14] V. Singh, S. Suthar, “Occurrence, seasonal variations, and ecological risk of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in River Ganges at two holy cities of India,” Chemosphere, 268, 129331, 2021.
  • [15] N. Han Tran, K. Y. Hoong Gin, “Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal careproducts, and endocrine disrupters in a full-scale water reclamation plant,” Science of the Total Environment, pp.1503–1516, 2017.
  • [16] N. Han Tran, M. Reinhard, K. Y. Hoong Gin, “Occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plants from different geographical regions-a review,” Water Research, vol. 133, pp. 182-207, 2018. [17] S. Gaw, K. V. Thomas, T. H. Hutchinson, “Sources, impacts and trends of pharmaceuticals in the marine and coastal environment,” Philos Trans R Soc. Lond. B Biol Sci., 369(1656), Nov 19 2014.
  • [18] P. K. Jjemba, “Excretion and ecotoxicity of pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 63, no. 1, 2006, pp. 113-130, January 2006.
  • [19] D. W. Kolpin, E. T. Furlong, M. T. Meyer, E. M. Thurman, S. D. Zaugg, L. B. Barber, H. T. Buxton, “Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in U.S. Streams, 1999−200: A National Reconnaissance,” Environmental Science Technology, vol.36, no.6, pp. 1202–1211, 2002. [20] Nikolaou, S. Meric, D. Fatta, “Occurrence patterns of pharmaceuticals in water and wastewater environments. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry,” vol. 387, no.4, pp. 1225-1234, 2007.
  • [21] J. Sui, H. Afzalimehr, A. K. Samani, M. Maherani, “Clear-water scour around semi-elliptical abutments with armored beds,” International Journal of Sediment Research, vol.25, no.3, pp. 233-245, 2010.
  • [22] A. S. Ajibola, S. T. Fawole, F. O. Ajibola, G. O. Adewuyi, “Diclofenac and ibuprofen determination in sewage sludge using a QuEChERS approach: Occurrence and ecological risk assessment in three Nigerian wastewater treatment plants,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 106(4), 690-699, 2021.
  • [23] J. P. Fernandes, C. M. R. Almeida, M. A. Salgado, M. F. Carvalho, A. P. Mucha, “Pharmaceutical compounds in aquatic environments—Occurrence, fate and bioremediation prospective,” Toxics, 9(10), 257, 2021.
  • [24] PubChem, National Institutes of Health. (2022). National Library of Medicine [Online] Available: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  • [25] E. W. Rice, R. B. Baird, A. D. Eaton, L. S. Clesceri, APHA, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21th Ed. American Public Health Association Publication, Washington, USA, 2012.
  • [26] O. F. S. Khasawneh, P. Palaniandy, “Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants,” Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 150, 532-556, 2021.
  • [27] O. Golovko, V. Kumar, G. Fedorova, T. Randak, R. Grabic, “Seasonal changes in antibiotics, antidepressants/psychiatric drugs, antihistamines and lipid regulators in a wastewater treatment plant,” Chemosphere, vol. 111, pp. 418–426, 2014.
  • [28] Q. Sui, X. Cao, S. Lu, W. Zhao, Z. Qiu, G. Yu, “Occurrence, sources and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the groundwater: A review” Emerging Contaminants, pp.14-24, 2015.
  • [29] S. W. Nam, B.-Il Jo, Y. Yoon, K. D. Zoh, “Occurrence and removal of selected micropollutants in a water treatment plant,” Chemosphere, vol.95, pp.156–165, 2014.
  • [30] Y. Luo, W. Guo, H. H. Ngo, L. D. Nghiem, F. I. Hai, J. Zhang, S. Liang, X C. Wang, “A review on the occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment and their fate and removal during wastewater treatment,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 473–474, pp. 619–641, 2014.
  • [31] Strenn, M. Clara, O. Gans, N. Kreuzinger, “Carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen and bezafibrate-investigations on the behaviour of selected pharmaceuticals during wastewater treatment,” Water Science Technology., vol.50 (5), pp. 269–276, 2004.
  • [32] M. Clara, B. Strenn, O. Gans, E. Martinez, N. Kreuzinger, H. Kroiss, “Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, fragrances and endocrine disrupting compounds in a membrane bioreactor and conventional wastewater treatment plants, ”Water Research. Vol.39 (19), pp. 4797-4807, 2005.
  • [33] J. Rivera-Utrilla, M. Sánchez-Polo, M. Á. Ferro-García, G. Prados-Joya, R. Ocampo-Pérez, “Pharmaceuticals as emerging contaminants and their removal from water. A review,” Chemosphere, vol. 93(7), pp. 1268-1287, 2013.
  • [34] Y. Vystavnaa, Z. Frkovaa, L. Marchan, Y. Vergeles, F. Stolberg, “Removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in a full scale constructed wetland in East Ukraine”, Ecological Engineering, vol.108, , , pp.50-58, November 2017.
  • [35] Ş. Saygı, D. Battal, N. Ö. Şahin, “Çevre ve insan sağlığı yönünden ilaç atıklarının önemi,” Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal,vol. 16, pp. 82-90, 2012.
  • [36] M. Khamis, R. Karaman, F. Ayyash, A. Qtait, O. Deeb, A. Manssra, “Efficiency of Advanced Membrane Wastewater Treatment Plant towards Removal of Aspirin, Salicylic Acid, Paracetamol and p-Aminophenol,” Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 121-137, 2011.
  • [37] E. A. Serna-Galvis, A. M.Botero-Coy, M. Rosero-Moreano, J. Lee, F. Hernández, R. A. Torres-Palma, “An initial approach to the presence of pharmaceuticals in wastewater from hospitals in Colombia and their environmental risk,” Water, 14(6), 950, 2022.
  • [38] R. Lopez-Serna, A. Jurado, E. Vazquez-Sune, J. Carrera, M. Petrovic, D. Barcelo, “Occurrence of 95 pharmaceuticals and transformation products in urban groundwaters underlying the metropolis of Barcelona, Spain,” EnvironmentalPollution,vol.174, pp.305-315, 2013.
  • [39] J. A. Rivera-Jaimes, C. Postigo, R. M. Melgoza-Alemán, J. Aceña, D. Barceló, M. López de Alda “Study of pharmaceuticals in surface and wastewater from Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico: Occurrence and environmental risk assessment,” Science of the Total Environment, vol.613–614, pp.1263–1274, 2018.
  • [40] R. Salgado, V. J. Pereira, G. Carvalho, R. Soeiro, V. Gaffney, C. Almeida, V. Vale Cardoso, E. Ferreira, M.J. Benoliel, T.A. Ternes, A. Oehmen, M.A.M. Reis, J. P. Noronha, “Photodegradation kinetics and transformation products of ketoprofen, diclofenac and atenolol in pure water and treated wastewater,” Journal of Hazardous Materials,vol. 244– 245, pp. 516– 527, 2013.
  • [41] P. C., Rua-Gomez, W. Püttmann, “Occurrence and removal of lidocaine, tramadol, venlafaxine, and their metabolites in German wastewater treatment plants,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.19(3), pp.689-699, 2012a.
  • [42] P. C., Rua-Gomez, W. Püttmann, “Impact of wastewater treatment plant discharge of lidocaine, tramadol, venlafaxine and their metabolites on the quality of surface waters and groundwater,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, vol. 12, pp. 3047- 3310, 22 November 2012b.
  • [43] J. L. Santos, I. Aparicio, E. Alonso, “Occurrence and risk assessment of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater treatment plants. A case study: Seville city (Spain),” Environment International, vol. 33, pp. 596–601, 2007.
  • [44] J. M. Philip, U.K. Aravind, C. T. Aravindakumar,“Emerging contaminants in Indian environmental matrices - A review,” Chemosphere, vol. 190, pp.307-326, 2018.
  • [45] D. Ramírez-Morales, M. Masís-Mora, J.R. Montiel-Mora, J. C. Cambronero-Heinrichs, S. Brice˜no-Guevara, C. E. Rojas-Sánchez, M. Méndez-Rivera, V. Arias-Mora, R. Tormo-Budowski, L. Brenes-Alfaro, C. E. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, “Occurrence of pharmaceuticals, hazard assessment and ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater treatment plants in Costa Rica,”Science Total Environment,746, 141200, 2020.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Environmental Engineering
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Berna KIRIL MERT> (Primary Author)
SAKARYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-6993-7916
Türkiye


Cemil YILMAZ>
It is not affiliated with an institution
0000-0002-0283-6296
Türkiye


Nihan ÖZENGİN>
Uludağ Üniversitesi
0000-0002-7647-921X
Türkiye

Project Number “2013-50-01-010”.
Publication Date December 31, 2022
Submission Date January 19, 2022
Acceptance Date October 17, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 26, Issue 6

Cite

Bibtex @research article { saufenbilder1060212, journal = {Sakarya University Journal of Science}, eissn = {2147-835X}, address = {}, publisher = {Sakarya University}, year = {2022}, volume = {26}, number = {6}, pages = {1209 - 1223}, doi = {10.16984/saufenbilder.1060212}, title = {Investigation of Pharmaceuticals in Sakarya Sewage Wastewater}, key = {cite}, author = {Kırıl Mert, Berna and Yılmaz, Cemil and Özengin, Nihan} }
APA Kırıl Mert, B. , Yılmaz, C. & Özengin, N. (2022). Investigation of Pharmaceuticals in Sakarya Sewage Wastewater . Sakarya University Journal of Science , 26 (6) , 1209-1223 . DOI: 10.16984/saufenbilder.1060212
MLA Kırıl Mert, B. , Yılmaz, C. , Özengin, N. "Investigation of Pharmaceuticals in Sakarya Sewage Wastewater" . Sakarya University Journal of Science 26 (2022 ): 1209-1223 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/saufenbilder/issue/74051/1060212>
Chicago Kırıl Mert, B. , Yılmaz, C. , Özengin, N. "Investigation of Pharmaceuticals in Sakarya Sewage Wastewater". Sakarya University Journal of Science 26 (2022 ): 1209-1223
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Investigation of Pharmaceuticals in Sakarya Sewage Wastewater AU - BernaKırıl Mert, CemilYılmaz, NihanÖzengin Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.16984/saufenbilder.1060212 DO - 10.16984/saufenbilder.1060212 T2 - Sakarya University Journal of Science JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1209 EP - 1223 VL - 26 IS - 6 SN - -2147-835X M3 - doi: 10.16984/saufenbilder.1060212 UR - https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1060212 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Sakarya University Journal of Science Investigation of Pharmaceuticals in Sakarya Sewage Wastewater %A Berna Kırıl Mert , Cemil Yılmaz , Nihan Özengin %T Investigation of Pharmaceuticals in Sakarya Sewage Wastewater %D 2022 %J Sakarya University Journal of Science %P -2147-835X %V 26 %N 6 %R doi: 10.16984/saufenbilder.1060212 %U 10.16984/saufenbilder.1060212
ISNAD Kırıl Mert, Berna , Yılmaz, Cemil , Özengin, Nihan . "Investigation of Pharmaceuticals in Sakarya Sewage Wastewater". Sakarya University Journal of Science 26 / 6 (December 2022): 1209-1223 . https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1060212
AMA Kırıl Mert B. , Yılmaz C. , Özengin N. Investigation of Pharmaceuticals in Sakarya Sewage Wastewater. SAUJS. 2022; 26(6): 1209-1223.
Vancouver Kırıl Mert B. , Yılmaz C. , Özengin N. Investigation of Pharmaceuticals in Sakarya Sewage Wastewater. Sakarya University Journal of Science. 2022; 26(6): 1209-1223.
IEEE B. Kırıl Mert , C. Yılmaz and N. Özengin , "Investigation of Pharmaceuticals in Sakarya Sewage Wastewater", Sakarya University Journal of Science, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1209-1223, Dec. 2022, doi:10.16984/saufenbilder.1060212

Sakarya University Journal of Science (SAUJS)