Research Article
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Electrical Resistance, Stability and Mechanical Properties of PVC Composites Containing Graphite and Semiconductor for Sensor Technologies

Year 2023, Volume: 27 Issue: 6, 1159 - 1173, 18.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1185381

Abstract

This study aimed to obtain a new flexible poly vinyl chloride (PVC) based composite with conductive or semiconductor properties. Additives were graphite and semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO). A non-ionic surfactant was also firstly used to obtain a homogeneous composite. For the characterization of these new composites; humidification, electrostatic discharge (ESD), electrical resistance, thermal shock measurements, tensile test and morphological and microscopic (SEM) measurements were performed. For the light test, a “Solar simulator” with a 1000 W xenon lamp was used. The electrical resistance and tensile strength of the materials were measured at each test step. According to the data obtained, it was determined that the electrical resistance of the materials with high graphite content, without ZnO, is still stable, while the electrical resistance of the ZnO-doped materials decreases and their conductivity increases considerably in special stimuli such as light. P3G2Z (32% PVC, 60% Graphite, 8% ZnO) was greater than 3 MΩ, with a large change in conductivity after electrostatic discharge, reaching 1078.33 kΩ, with the largest difference observed. It was determined that the resistance of P2G3Z and P1G1Z composite materials under solar radiation decreased approximately 81 and 23 times, respectively. This event proves that the composites become light sensitive semiconductor. As a result, the electrical and mechanical data of flexible, sensitive, conductive and semiconductor new polymers by doping PVC with graphite and ZnO nanoparticles at different rates will make a great contribution to the sensor, actuator, management system control mechanisms, and the robots used in the automotive and defense industries.

Supporting Institution

Ege Üniversitesi GÜNEŞ ENERJİSİ ENSTİTÜSÜ- Laboratuvar imkanları

Thanks

We thank to Ege University Solar Energy Institute for for allowing the use of the Preparation, Photochemistry and Spectroscopy Laboratories and Research Center of Test and Analysis Laboratory (MATAL) for the tensile strength, SEM and EDS analyses. We are also grateful to Karabacak Madencilik A.Ş for which we supplied the sample of graphite material and CGS Test Center Laboratory for conditioning chambers, resistance measurement devices and ESD test setup.

References

  • [1] R. Babinsky, “PVC additives: a global review PVC compounds account for the greatest volume of plastics additives.”, Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,, vol. 13, pp. 1 – 4, 2007
  • [2] J. Yu, L. Sun, C. Ma, Y. Qiao, H. Yao, “Thermal degradation of PVC: A review,” Waste Management, vol. 48, pp. 300–314, 2016.
  • [3] H. Kaczmarek, J. Kowalonek, D. Ołdak, “The influence of UV-irradiation on poly(vinyl chloride) modified by iron and cobalt chlorides,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 231–240, 2003.
  • [4] Y. zhong Bao, H. Zhi-ming, L. Shenxing, W. Zhi-xue, “Thermal stability, smoke emission and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl chloride) / hydrotalcite nanocomposites,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 448–455, 2008.
  • [5] E. Calò, A. Greco, A. Maffezzoli, “Effects of diffusion of a naturallyderived plasticizer from soft PVC,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 784–789, 2011.
  • [6] X. Zhang, L. Zhou, H. Pi, S. Guo, J. Fu, “Performance of layered double hydroxides intercalated by a UV stabilizer in accelerated weathering and thermal stabilization of PVC,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 204–211, 2014.
  • [7] R. Singh, D. Pant, “Polyvinyl chloride degradation by hybrid (chemical and biological) modification,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 123, pp. 80–87, 2016.
  • [8] Y. T. Shieh, K. C. Hsieh, C. C. Cheng, “Carbon nanotubes stabilize poly(vinyl chloride) against thermal degradation,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 144, pp. 221–230, 2017.
  • [9] N. Merah, A. Bazoune, A. Fazal, Z. Khan, “Weathering degradation mechanisms of chlorinated PVC,” Int. Journal of Plastic Technology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 111–122, 2013.
  • [10] A. Kausar, S. Anwar, “Graphite FillerBased Nanocomposites with Thermoplastic Polymers: A Review,” Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 565– 580, 2018.
  • [11] A. T. Lawal, “Graphene-based nano composites and their applications. A review,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 141, no. May, p. 111384, 2019.
  • [12] D. G. Papageorgiou, I. A. Kinloch, R. J. Young, “Graphene/elastomer nanocomposites,” Carbon, vol. 95, pp. 460–484, 2015.
  • [13] M. S. Kim, J. Yan, K. M. Kang, K. H. Joo, Y. J. Kang, S. H. Ahn, “Soundproofing ability and mechanical properties of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet/carbon nanotube (PP/xGnP/CNT) composite,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1087–1092, 2013.
  • [14] W. W. Focke, H. Muiambo, W. Mhike, H. J. Kruger, O. Ofosu, “Flexible PVC flame retarded with expandable graphite,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 63–69, 2014.
  • [15] B. Dittrich, K. A. Wartig, D. Hofmann, R. Mülhaupt, B. Schartel, “Flame retardancy through carbon nanomaterials: Carbon black, multiwall nanotubes, expanded graphite, multilayer graphene and graphene in polypropylene,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 98, no. 8, pp. 1495– 1505, 2013.
  • [16] S. N. Tripathi, G. S. S. Rao, A. B. Mathur, R. Jasra, “Polyolefin/graphene nanocomposites: A review,” RSC Adv., vol. 7, no. 38, pp. 23615–23632, 2017.
  • [17] V. N. Gorshenev, A. N. Shchegolikhin, “Thermophysical studies of the expansion of graphite in thermoplastic polymeric compositions,” Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 123–127, 2008.
  • [18] International Organization for Standardization. Road vehicles — The humidification conditioning in automotive (ISO Standard No.16750-4) Clause 5.7, 2008.
  • [19] International Organization for Standardization. Road vehicles — Test methods for the electrostatic standard (ISO Standard No.10605, 2008.
  • [20] A. G. Hadi, E. Yousif, G. A. El-Hiti, D.S. Ahmed, K. Jawad, M. H. Alotaibi, H. Hashim, "Long-Term Effect of Ultraviolet Irradiation on Poly(vinyl chloride) Films Containing Naproxen Diorganotin(IV) Complexes", Molecules, 24, 2396, 2019.
  • [21] B. Dindar, A. C. Güler, “Comparison of facile synthesized N doped, B doped and undoped ZnO for the photocatalytic removal of Rhodamine B,” Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management, vol. 10, pp. 457–466, 2018.
  • [22] International Organization for Standardization. Road vehicles — Test methods for rapid temperature change of (ISO Standard No. 16750-4), 2008.
  • [23] I. Krupa, I. Chod, “Physical properties of thermoplastic / graphite composites,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 37, pp. 2159–2168, 2001.
  • [24] P. Vilímová, J. Tokarský, P. Peikertová, K. Mamulová Kutláková, T. Plaček, “Influence of thermal and UV treatment on the polypropylene/graphite composite,” Polymer Testing, vol. 52, pp. 46–53, 2016.
  • [25] R. Sengupta, M. Bhattacharya, S. Bandyopadhyay, A. K. Bhowmick, “A review on the mechanical and electrical properties of graphite and modified graphite reinforced polymer composites,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 638–670, 2011.
  • [26] K. S. R. C. Murthy, K. Ramkumar, M. Satyam, “Electrical properties of PVCgraphite thick films,” Journal of Materials Science Letters, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 813–816, 1984.
  • [27] A. M. Bagoji and S. T. Nandibewoor, “Electrocatalytic redox behavior of graphene films towards acebutolol hydrochloride determination in real samples”, The Royal Society of Chemistry, New Journal of Chemistry, 40, 3763-3772, 2016.
Year 2023, Volume: 27 Issue: 6, 1159 - 1173, 18.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1185381

Abstract

References

  • [1] R. Babinsky, “PVC additives: a global review PVC compounds account for the greatest volume of plastics additives.”, Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,, vol. 13, pp. 1 – 4, 2007
  • [2] J. Yu, L. Sun, C. Ma, Y. Qiao, H. Yao, “Thermal degradation of PVC: A review,” Waste Management, vol. 48, pp. 300–314, 2016.
  • [3] H. Kaczmarek, J. Kowalonek, D. Ołdak, “The influence of UV-irradiation on poly(vinyl chloride) modified by iron and cobalt chlorides,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 231–240, 2003.
  • [4] Y. zhong Bao, H. Zhi-ming, L. Shenxing, W. Zhi-xue, “Thermal stability, smoke emission and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl chloride) / hydrotalcite nanocomposites,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 448–455, 2008.
  • [5] E. Calò, A. Greco, A. Maffezzoli, “Effects of diffusion of a naturallyderived plasticizer from soft PVC,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 784–789, 2011.
  • [6] X. Zhang, L. Zhou, H. Pi, S. Guo, J. Fu, “Performance of layered double hydroxides intercalated by a UV stabilizer in accelerated weathering and thermal stabilization of PVC,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 204–211, 2014.
  • [7] R. Singh, D. Pant, “Polyvinyl chloride degradation by hybrid (chemical and biological) modification,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 123, pp. 80–87, 2016.
  • [8] Y. T. Shieh, K. C. Hsieh, C. C. Cheng, “Carbon nanotubes stabilize poly(vinyl chloride) against thermal degradation,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 144, pp. 221–230, 2017.
  • [9] N. Merah, A. Bazoune, A. Fazal, Z. Khan, “Weathering degradation mechanisms of chlorinated PVC,” Int. Journal of Plastic Technology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 111–122, 2013.
  • [10] A. Kausar, S. Anwar, “Graphite FillerBased Nanocomposites with Thermoplastic Polymers: A Review,” Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 565– 580, 2018.
  • [11] A. T. Lawal, “Graphene-based nano composites and their applications. A review,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 141, no. May, p. 111384, 2019.
  • [12] D. G. Papageorgiou, I. A. Kinloch, R. J. Young, “Graphene/elastomer nanocomposites,” Carbon, vol. 95, pp. 460–484, 2015.
  • [13] M. S. Kim, J. Yan, K. M. Kang, K. H. Joo, Y. J. Kang, S. H. Ahn, “Soundproofing ability and mechanical properties of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet/carbon nanotube (PP/xGnP/CNT) composite,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1087–1092, 2013.
  • [14] W. W. Focke, H. Muiambo, W. Mhike, H. J. Kruger, O. Ofosu, “Flexible PVC flame retarded with expandable graphite,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 63–69, 2014.
  • [15] B. Dittrich, K. A. Wartig, D. Hofmann, R. Mülhaupt, B. Schartel, “Flame retardancy through carbon nanomaterials: Carbon black, multiwall nanotubes, expanded graphite, multilayer graphene and graphene in polypropylene,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 98, no. 8, pp. 1495– 1505, 2013.
  • [16] S. N. Tripathi, G. S. S. Rao, A. B. Mathur, R. Jasra, “Polyolefin/graphene nanocomposites: A review,” RSC Adv., vol. 7, no. 38, pp. 23615–23632, 2017.
  • [17] V. N. Gorshenev, A. N. Shchegolikhin, “Thermophysical studies of the expansion of graphite in thermoplastic polymeric compositions,” Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 123–127, 2008.
  • [18] International Organization for Standardization. Road vehicles — The humidification conditioning in automotive (ISO Standard No.16750-4) Clause 5.7, 2008.
  • [19] International Organization for Standardization. Road vehicles — Test methods for the electrostatic standard (ISO Standard No.10605, 2008.
  • [20] A. G. Hadi, E. Yousif, G. A. El-Hiti, D.S. Ahmed, K. Jawad, M. H. Alotaibi, H. Hashim, "Long-Term Effect of Ultraviolet Irradiation on Poly(vinyl chloride) Films Containing Naproxen Diorganotin(IV) Complexes", Molecules, 24, 2396, 2019.
  • [21] B. Dindar, A. C. Güler, “Comparison of facile synthesized N doped, B doped and undoped ZnO for the photocatalytic removal of Rhodamine B,” Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management, vol. 10, pp. 457–466, 2018.
  • [22] International Organization for Standardization. Road vehicles — Test methods for rapid temperature change of (ISO Standard No. 16750-4), 2008.
  • [23] I. Krupa, I. Chod, “Physical properties of thermoplastic / graphite composites,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 37, pp. 2159–2168, 2001.
  • [24] P. Vilímová, J. Tokarský, P. Peikertová, K. Mamulová Kutláková, T. Plaček, “Influence of thermal and UV treatment on the polypropylene/graphite composite,” Polymer Testing, vol. 52, pp. 46–53, 2016.
  • [25] R. Sengupta, M. Bhattacharya, S. Bandyopadhyay, A. K. Bhowmick, “A review on the mechanical and electrical properties of graphite and modified graphite reinforced polymer composites,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 638–670, 2011.
  • [26] K. S. R. C. Murthy, K. Ramkumar, M. Satyam, “Electrical properties of PVCgraphite thick films,” Journal of Materials Science Letters, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 813–816, 1984.
  • [27] A. M. Bagoji and S. T. Nandibewoor, “Electrocatalytic redox behavior of graphene films towards acebutolol hydrochloride determination in real samples”, The Royal Society of Chemistry, New Journal of Chemistry, 40, 3763-3772, 2016.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Material Production Technologies
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Bircan DİNDAR 0000-0002-3478-5550

Anıl EKER This is me 0000-0002-3825-1388

Project Number -
Early Pub Date December 1, 2023
Publication Date December 18, 2023
Submission Date October 9, 2022
Acceptance Date September 2, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 27 Issue: 6

Cite

APA DİNDAR, B., & EKER, A. (2023). Electrical Resistance, Stability and Mechanical Properties of PVC Composites Containing Graphite and Semiconductor for Sensor Technologies. Sakarya University Journal of Science, 27(6), 1159-1173. https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1185381
AMA DİNDAR B, EKER A. Electrical Resistance, Stability and Mechanical Properties of PVC Composites Containing Graphite and Semiconductor for Sensor Technologies. SAUJS. December 2023;27(6):1159-1173. doi:10.16984/saufenbilder.1185381
Chicago DİNDAR, Bircan, and Anıl EKER. “Electrical Resistance, Stability and Mechanical Properties of PVC Composites Containing Graphite and Semiconductor for Sensor Technologies”. Sakarya University Journal of Science 27, no. 6 (December 2023): 1159-73. https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1185381.
EndNote DİNDAR B, EKER A (December 1, 2023) Electrical Resistance, Stability and Mechanical Properties of PVC Composites Containing Graphite and Semiconductor for Sensor Technologies. Sakarya University Journal of Science 27 6 1159–1173.
IEEE B. DİNDAR and A. EKER, “Electrical Resistance, Stability and Mechanical Properties of PVC Composites Containing Graphite and Semiconductor for Sensor Technologies”, SAUJS, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1159–1173, 2023, doi: 10.16984/saufenbilder.1185381.
ISNAD DİNDAR, Bircan - EKER, Anıl. “Electrical Resistance, Stability and Mechanical Properties of PVC Composites Containing Graphite and Semiconductor for Sensor Technologies”. Sakarya University Journal of Science 27/6 (December 2023), 1159-1173. https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1185381.
JAMA DİNDAR B, EKER A. Electrical Resistance, Stability and Mechanical Properties of PVC Composites Containing Graphite and Semiconductor for Sensor Technologies. SAUJS. 2023;27:1159–1173.
MLA DİNDAR, Bircan and Anıl EKER. “Electrical Resistance, Stability and Mechanical Properties of PVC Composites Containing Graphite and Semiconductor for Sensor Technologies”. Sakarya University Journal of Science, vol. 27, no. 6, 2023, pp. 1159-73, doi:10.16984/saufenbilder.1185381.
Vancouver DİNDAR B, EKER A. Electrical Resistance, Stability and Mechanical Properties of PVC Composites Containing Graphite and Semiconductor for Sensor Technologies. SAUJS. 2023;27(6):1159-73.

Sakarya University Journal of Science (SAUJS)