Research Article
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Determination of Pesticide Residues in Water Using Extraction Method

Year 2023, Volume: 27 Issue: 6, 1355 - 1366, 18.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1225445

Abstract

In this work organochlorine pesticides were first extracted from water using a solvent mixture (hexane:dichloromethane) and the quantities were then determined using a GC-MS fitted with an Electron Ionization (EI) and Selective Ion Monitoring (SIM) method. At the same time changes in the recovery ratios of spike levels were seen ranging from 73.6% to 96.1% (Chlorfenapyr). The recovery values that we found to be the lowest and greatest were 0.100 µg L-1 and 1.600 µg L-1 respectively. We also noticed that the Bromophos-ethyl, Bromophos-methyl and Chlorfenapyr pesticides had the lowest recovery efficiency. Additionally, the important values of pesticides with double benzene rings were detected in the following decreasing order: 4.4'-DDE > 4.4'-DDD > o.p'-DDE > Chlorfenapyr > 2.4'-DDD.

References

  • N. Alexandratos, J. Bruinsma, “World agriculture towards 2030/2050,”ESA Working Paper No.12-03, 2012.
  • M. W. Bevan, R. B. Flavell, M. D. A. Chilton, “Chimaeric antibiotic resistan-ce gene as a selectable marker for plant cell transformation,” Nature, vol. 304, pp. 184-187, 1983.
  • A. F. Hernández, T. Parrón, A.M. Tsat-sakis, M. Requena, R. Alarcon, O. L. Guarnido “Toxic effects of pesticide mixtures at a molecular level: Their relevance to human healt,” Toxicology, vol. 377, pp. 136-145, 2013.
  • M. Kanpolat, K. Kara, T. Balkan, “Verification of QuEChERS method for the analysis of pesticide residues and their risk assessment in some fruits grown in Tokat, Turkey,” Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi), vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 573-588, 2023.
  • E. B. Serbes, O. Tiryaki, “Determination of insecticide residues in Bayramiç Beyazı nectarines and their risk analysis for consumers,” Turkish Journal of Entomology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 73-85, 2023.
  • D. K. Soydan, N. Turgut, M. Yalçın, C. Turgut, P. B. K. Karakuş, “Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the Aegean region of Turkey and assessment of risk to consumers,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 28, pp. 27511-27519, 2021.
  • P. A. Abrams, “Implications of dynami-cally variable traits for identifying, classifying and measuring direct and indirect effects in ecological communities,” The American Natura-list, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 112-134, 1995.
  • Z. N. Top, O. Tiryaki, B. Polat, “Monitoring and environmental risk assessment of agricultural fungicide and insecticides in water, sediment from Kumkale Plain, Çanakkale, Turkey,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, vol. 58, pp. 304-315, 2023.
  • B. Polat, O. Tiryaki, “Determination of insecticide residues in soils from Troia agricultural fields by the QuEChERS method,” Turkish Journal of Entomolgy, vol. 46, pp. 251-261, 2022.
  • WHO “Public health impact of pesticides used in agriculture,” accessed june, 2019.
  • W. Boedeker, M. Watts, P. Clausing, E. Marquez, “The global distribution of acute unintentional pesticide poisoning: estimations based on systematic review, ” BMC Public Health, vol. 20, pp. 1-19, 2020.
  • L. Douglas, G. MacKinnon, G. Cook, H. Duncan, A. Briddon, S. Seamark, “Determination of chlorpropham (CIPC) residues in the concrete flooring of potato stores using quantitative (HPLC-UV/VIS) and qualitative (GCMS) methods,” Chemosphere, vol. 195, pp. 119-124, 2018.
  • J. Wu, C. Tragas, H. Lord, J. Pawliszyn, “Analysis of polar pesticides in water and wine samples by automated in tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 976, pp. 357-367, 2002.
  • S. J. Lehotay, “Validation of a fast and easy method for the determination of residues from 229 pesticides in fruits and vegetables using gas and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric detection,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 595-614, 2005.
  • T. Balkan, H. Karaağaçlı, “Determination of 301 pesticide residues in tropical fruits imported to Turkey using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS,” Food Control, vol. 147, 2023.
  • O. Golge, B. Kabak, “Evaluation of QuEChERS sample preparation and liquid chromatographytriplequadrupole mass spectrometry method for the determination of 109 pesticide residues in tomatoes,” Food Chemistry, vol. 176, pp. 319-332, 2015.
  • N. M. Brito, S. Navickiene, L. Polese, E. F. G. Jardim, R. B. Abakerli, M. L.Riberio, “Determination of pesticide residues in coconut water by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography with electron- capture plus thermionic specific detection and solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 957, pp. 201-209, 2002.
  • B. Bayrak, “Method development and validation for the determination of the pesticide residues in water by GC-NPD,” Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology, vol. 28, no.1, pp. 133-141, 2018.
  • F. Ahmadi, Y. Assadi, S. R. M. Hosseini, M. Rezaee “Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples by single drop microextraction and gas chromatography-flame photometric detector,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1101, pp. 307-312, 2006.
  • E. Kusvuran, D. Yildirim, F. Mavruk, M. Ceyhan, “Removal of chloropyrifos ethyl, tetradifon and chlorothalonil pesticide residues from citrus by using ozone,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 241, no. 242, pp. 287-300, 2012.
  • S. Biswasa, R. Mondal, A. Mukherjee, M. Sarkara, R. K. Kole, “Simultaneous determination and risk assessment of fipronil and its metabolites in sugarcane, using GC-ECD and confirmation by GC- MS/MS,” Food Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 3, pp. 559-567, 2019.
  • S. Aslantas, O. Golge, M. A. G. Curbelo, B. Kabak, “Determination of 355 pesticides in lemon and lemon juice by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS,” Foods, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1-12, 2023.
  • H. P. Thier, H. Zeumer, “Manual of pesticide residue analysis,” Weinheim: Wiley VCH, vol. 2, pp. 26-28, 1992.
  • J. F. Garcia-Reyes, B.Gilbert-Lopez, A. Molina-Diaz, “Determination of pesticide residues in fruit-based soft drinks,” Analtyical Chemistry, vol. 80, pp. 8966-8974, 2008.
  • S. Z. Zaidon, Y. B. Ho, H. Hamsan, Z. Hashima, N. Saari, S.M. Praveena,“ Improved QuEChERS and soil phase extraction for multi-residue analysis of pesticides in paddy soil and water using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 45, pp. 614-621, 2019.
  • S. Grimalt, O. J. Pozo, J. V. Sancho, F. Hernandez, “Use of liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to investigate pesticide residues in fruits,” Analtyical Chemistry, vol. 79, pp. 2833-2843, 2007.
  • A. G. Frenich, M. J. Gonzalez-Rodriguez F. J. Arrebola, J. L. M. Vida, “Potentiality of gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in vanguard and rearguard methods of pesticide residues in vegetables,” Analtyical Chemistry, vol. 77, pp. 4640-4648, 2005.
  • H. Koçyiğit, F. Sinanoğlu,“ Investigation of pesticide residue limits in the surface water, case study: Alara stream in Alanya,” Journal of Natural Hazards and Environmen, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 224-236, 2019.
  • Ş. Kıvrak, T. Göktürk, “Pesticide analysis and method validation with GC/MSD instrument in environmental water samples,” Nevşehir Journal of Science, vol. 6, pp. 407-414, 2017.
  • Z. N. Top, O. Tiryaki, “Investigation of herbicide residues in sediment and water samples in Çanakkale Batak ovası,” COMU Journal of Agriculture Faculty, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 428-438, 2022.
  • Z. Yurtkuran, Y. Saygı, “Assessment of pesticide residues in Karaboğaz lake from Kızılırmak delta, Turkey,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 91, pp. 165-170, 2013.
  • İ. Yildirim, H. Özcan, “Determination of pesticide residues in water and soil resources of Troia (Troy),” Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, vol.16, no. 1, pp. 63-70, 2007.
  • O. Kuzukiran, B. Yurdakok Dikmen, F. E, Totan, C. Celik, E. C. Orhan, E. K. Bilir, E. Kara, A. Filazi, “Analtical method development and validation for some persistent organic pollutants in water and sediment by gas chromatography mass spectrometry,” International Journal of Environmental Research, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 104-110, 2016.
  • Z. Baloğlu, E. N. Bozkurt, A. Binici, “Determination of pesticides in water by LC-MS/MS,” Turkish Journal of Hygiene and Experimental Biology, vol. 74, pp. 41-48, 2017.
  • M. D .H. Prodhan, M. S. Ahmed, N. K, Dutta, D. Sarker, S. N. Alam, “Determination of organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in water samples collected from different locations of Bangladeshid,” Journal of Biophysical Chemistry, vol.12, pp. 11-21, 2021.
  • Y. Jabali, M. Millet, M. El-Hoz, “Optimization of a DI-SPME-GC- MS/MS method for multi-residue analysis of pesticide in waters,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 147, pp. 83-92, 2019.
  • M. D. H. Prodhan, E. N. Papadakis, E. P. Mourkidou, “Determination of multiple pesticide residues in eggplant with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry,” Food Analytical Methods, vol. 8, pp. 229-235, 2015.
  • M. Anastassiades, S.J. Lehotay, D. Stajnbaher, F. J. Schenck, “Fast and easy multiresidue method employing acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and“dispersive solid-phase extraction” for the determination of pesticide residues in produce,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 86, pp. 412-431, 2003.
  • Eurachem, “The fitness for purpose of analytical methods,” 2014.
  • European commission, “Guidance document on analytical quality control and method validation procedures for pesticides residues and analysis in food and feed document no. SANTE/12682/2019. European commission directorate-general for health and food safety, https://www.eurlpesticides.eu/userfiles file/EurlALL/AqcGuidance_SANTE_202019_12682.pdf ,” Accessed 11 May 2020.
  • M. Tankiewicz, C. Morrison, M. Biziuk, “Multi-residue method for the determination of 16 recently used pesticides from various chemical groups in aqueous samples by using DI-SPME coupled with GC-MS,” Talanta, vol. 107, pp. 1-10, 2013.
  • A. M. Filho, F.N. dos Santos, P. A. D. P. Pereira, “Development, validation and application of a method based on DI- SPME and GC MS for determination of pesticides of different chemical groups in surface and groundwater samples,” Microchem Journal, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 139-145, 2010.
  • A. Rodriguez-Lafuente, H. Piri- Moghadam, H. L. Lord, T. Obal, J. Pawliszyn, “Inter-laboratory validation of automated SPME-GC/MS for determination of pesticides in surface and ground water samples: Sensitive and green alternative to liquid–liquid extraction,” Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 331-343, 2016.
  • Codex Alimentarus, “Pesticides residues in food, methods of analysis and sampling,” 2nd edition, part 1, 2000.
  • A. B. Vega, A. G. Frenich, J. L. M. Vidal, “Monitoring of pesticides in agricultural water and soil samples from andalusia by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 538, pp.117-127, 2005.
  • D. G. Hayward, J. M. Wong, “Organohalogenandorganophosphorous pesticide method for ginseng roots a comparison of gas chromatography-single quadrupole mass spectrometry with high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 81, pp. 5716-5723, 2009.
Year 2023, Volume: 27 Issue: 6, 1355 - 1366, 18.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1225445

Abstract

References

  • N. Alexandratos, J. Bruinsma, “World agriculture towards 2030/2050,”ESA Working Paper No.12-03, 2012.
  • M. W. Bevan, R. B. Flavell, M. D. A. Chilton, “Chimaeric antibiotic resistan-ce gene as a selectable marker for plant cell transformation,” Nature, vol. 304, pp. 184-187, 1983.
  • A. F. Hernández, T. Parrón, A.M. Tsat-sakis, M. Requena, R. Alarcon, O. L. Guarnido “Toxic effects of pesticide mixtures at a molecular level: Their relevance to human healt,” Toxicology, vol. 377, pp. 136-145, 2013.
  • M. Kanpolat, K. Kara, T. Balkan, “Verification of QuEChERS method for the analysis of pesticide residues and their risk assessment in some fruits grown in Tokat, Turkey,” Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi), vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 573-588, 2023.
  • E. B. Serbes, O. Tiryaki, “Determination of insecticide residues in Bayramiç Beyazı nectarines and their risk analysis for consumers,” Turkish Journal of Entomology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 73-85, 2023.
  • D. K. Soydan, N. Turgut, M. Yalçın, C. Turgut, P. B. K. Karakuş, “Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the Aegean region of Turkey and assessment of risk to consumers,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 28, pp. 27511-27519, 2021.
  • P. A. Abrams, “Implications of dynami-cally variable traits for identifying, classifying and measuring direct and indirect effects in ecological communities,” The American Natura-list, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 112-134, 1995.
  • Z. N. Top, O. Tiryaki, B. Polat, “Monitoring and environmental risk assessment of agricultural fungicide and insecticides in water, sediment from Kumkale Plain, Çanakkale, Turkey,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, vol. 58, pp. 304-315, 2023.
  • B. Polat, O. Tiryaki, “Determination of insecticide residues in soils from Troia agricultural fields by the QuEChERS method,” Turkish Journal of Entomolgy, vol. 46, pp. 251-261, 2022.
  • WHO “Public health impact of pesticides used in agriculture,” accessed june, 2019.
  • W. Boedeker, M. Watts, P. Clausing, E. Marquez, “The global distribution of acute unintentional pesticide poisoning: estimations based on systematic review, ” BMC Public Health, vol. 20, pp. 1-19, 2020.
  • L. Douglas, G. MacKinnon, G. Cook, H. Duncan, A. Briddon, S. Seamark, “Determination of chlorpropham (CIPC) residues in the concrete flooring of potato stores using quantitative (HPLC-UV/VIS) and qualitative (GCMS) methods,” Chemosphere, vol. 195, pp. 119-124, 2018.
  • J. Wu, C. Tragas, H. Lord, J. Pawliszyn, “Analysis of polar pesticides in water and wine samples by automated in tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 976, pp. 357-367, 2002.
  • S. J. Lehotay, “Validation of a fast and easy method for the determination of residues from 229 pesticides in fruits and vegetables using gas and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric detection,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 595-614, 2005.
  • T. Balkan, H. Karaağaçlı, “Determination of 301 pesticide residues in tropical fruits imported to Turkey using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS,” Food Control, vol. 147, 2023.
  • O. Golge, B. Kabak, “Evaluation of QuEChERS sample preparation and liquid chromatographytriplequadrupole mass spectrometry method for the determination of 109 pesticide residues in tomatoes,” Food Chemistry, vol. 176, pp. 319-332, 2015.
  • N. M. Brito, S. Navickiene, L. Polese, E. F. G. Jardim, R. B. Abakerli, M. L.Riberio, “Determination of pesticide residues in coconut water by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography with electron- capture plus thermionic specific detection and solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 957, pp. 201-209, 2002.
  • B. Bayrak, “Method development and validation for the determination of the pesticide residues in water by GC-NPD,” Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology, vol. 28, no.1, pp. 133-141, 2018.
  • F. Ahmadi, Y. Assadi, S. R. M. Hosseini, M. Rezaee “Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples by single drop microextraction and gas chromatography-flame photometric detector,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1101, pp. 307-312, 2006.
  • E. Kusvuran, D. Yildirim, F. Mavruk, M. Ceyhan, “Removal of chloropyrifos ethyl, tetradifon and chlorothalonil pesticide residues from citrus by using ozone,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 241, no. 242, pp. 287-300, 2012.
  • S. Biswasa, R. Mondal, A. Mukherjee, M. Sarkara, R. K. Kole, “Simultaneous determination and risk assessment of fipronil and its metabolites in sugarcane, using GC-ECD and confirmation by GC- MS/MS,” Food Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 3, pp. 559-567, 2019.
  • S. Aslantas, O. Golge, M. A. G. Curbelo, B. Kabak, “Determination of 355 pesticides in lemon and lemon juice by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS,” Foods, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1-12, 2023.
  • H. P. Thier, H. Zeumer, “Manual of pesticide residue analysis,” Weinheim: Wiley VCH, vol. 2, pp. 26-28, 1992.
  • J. F. Garcia-Reyes, B.Gilbert-Lopez, A. Molina-Diaz, “Determination of pesticide residues in fruit-based soft drinks,” Analtyical Chemistry, vol. 80, pp. 8966-8974, 2008.
  • S. Z. Zaidon, Y. B. Ho, H. Hamsan, Z. Hashima, N. Saari, S.M. Praveena,“ Improved QuEChERS and soil phase extraction for multi-residue analysis of pesticides in paddy soil and water using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 45, pp. 614-621, 2019.
  • S. Grimalt, O. J. Pozo, J. V. Sancho, F. Hernandez, “Use of liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to investigate pesticide residues in fruits,” Analtyical Chemistry, vol. 79, pp. 2833-2843, 2007.
  • A. G. Frenich, M. J. Gonzalez-Rodriguez F. J. Arrebola, J. L. M. Vida, “Potentiality of gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in vanguard and rearguard methods of pesticide residues in vegetables,” Analtyical Chemistry, vol. 77, pp. 4640-4648, 2005.
  • H. Koçyiğit, F. Sinanoğlu,“ Investigation of pesticide residue limits in the surface water, case study: Alara stream in Alanya,” Journal of Natural Hazards and Environmen, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 224-236, 2019.
  • Ş. Kıvrak, T. Göktürk, “Pesticide analysis and method validation with GC/MSD instrument in environmental water samples,” Nevşehir Journal of Science, vol. 6, pp. 407-414, 2017.
  • Z. N. Top, O. Tiryaki, “Investigation of herbicide residues in sediment and water samples in Çanakkale Batak ovası,” COMU Journal of Agriculture Faculty, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 428-438, 2022.
  • Z. Yurtkuran, Y. Saygı, “Assessment of pesticide residues in Karaboğaz lake from Kızılırmak delta, Turkey,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 91, pp. 165-170, 2013.
  • İ. Yildirim, H. Özcan, “Determination of pesticide residues in water and soil resources of Troia (Troy),” Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, vol.16, no. 1, pp. 63-70, 2007.
  • O. Kuzukiran, B. Yurdakok Dikmen, F. E, Totan, C. Celik, E. C. Orhan, E. K. Bilir, E. Kara, A. Filazi, “Analtical method development and validation for some persistent organic pollutants in water and sediment by gas chromatography mass spectrometry,” International Journal of Environmental Research, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 104-110, 2016.
  • Z. Baloğlu, E. N. Bozkurt, A. Binici, “Determination of pesticides in water by LC-MS/MS,” Turkish Journal of Hygiene and Experimental Biology, vol. 74, pp. 41-48, 2017.
  • M. D .H. Prodhan, M. S. Ahmed, N. K, Dutta, D. Sarker, S. N. Alam, “Determination of organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in water samples collected from different locations of Bangladeshid,” Journal of Biophysical Chemistry, vol.12, pp. 11-21, 2021.
  • Y. Jabali, M. Millet, M. El-Hoz, “Optimization of a DI-SPME-GC- MS/MS method for multi-residue analysis of pesticide in waters,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 147, pp. 83-92, 2019.
  • M. D. H. Prodhan, E. N. Papadakis, E. P. Mourkidou, “Determination of multiple pesticide residues in eggplant with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry,” Food Analytical Methods, vol. 8, pp. 229-235, 2015.
  • M. Anastassiades, S.J. Lehotay, D. Stajnbaher, F. J. Schenck, “Fast and easy multiresidue method employing acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and“dispersive solid-phase extraction” for the determination of pesticide residues in produce,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 86, pp. 412-431, 2003.
  • Eurachem, “The fitness for purpose of analytical methods,” 2014.
  • European commission, “Guidance document on analytical quality control and method validation procedures for pesticides residues and analysis in food and feed document no. SANTE/12682/2019. European commission directorate-general for health and food safety, https://www.eurlpesticides.eu/userfiles file/EurlALL/AqcGuidance_SANTE_202019_12682.pdf ,” Accessed 11 May 2020.
  • M. Tankiewicz, C. Morrison, M. Biziuk, “Multi-residue method for the determination of 16 recently used pesticides from various chemical groups in aqueous samples by using DI-SPME coupled with GC-MS,” Talanta, vol. 107, pp. 1-10, 2013.
  • A. M. Filho, F.N. dos Santos, P. A. D. P. Pereira, “Development, validation and application of a method based on DI- SPME and GC MS for determination of pesticides of different chemical groups in surface and groundwater samples,” Microchem Journal, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 139-145, 2010.
  • A. Rodriguez-Lafuente, H. Piri- Moghadam, H. L. Lord, T. Obal, J. Pawliszyn, “Inter-laboratory validation of automated SPME-GC/MS for determination of pesticides in surface and ground water samples: Sensitive and green alternative to liquid–liquid extraction,” Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 331-343, 2016.
  • Codex Alimentarus, “Pesticides residues in food, methods of analysis and sampling,” 2nd edition, part 1, 2000.
  • A. B. Vega, A. G. Frenich, J. L. M. Vidal, “Monitoring of pesticides in agricultural water and soil samples from andalusia by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 538, pp.117-127, 2005.
  • D. G. Hayward, J. M. Wong, “Organohalogenandorganophosphorous pesticide method for ginseng roots a comparison of gas chromatography-single quadrupole mass spectrometry with high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 81, pp. 5716-5723, 2009.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Analytical Chemistry (Other)
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Ali ŞAMİL 0000-0002-4950-1725

Erdal KUŞVURAN 0000-0002-7047-6368

Early Pub Date December 4, 2023
Publication Date December 18, 2023
Submission Date December 28, 2022
Acceptance Date October 16, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 27 Issue: 6

Cite

APA ŞAMİL, A., & KUŞVURAN, E. (2023). Determination of Pesticide Residues in Water Using Extraction Method. Sakarya University Journal of Science, 27(6), 1355-1366. https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1225445
AMA ŞAMİL A, KUŞVURAN E. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Water Using Extraction Method. SAUJS. December 2023;27(6):1355-1366. doi:10.16984/saufenbilder.1225445
Chicago ŞAMİL, Ali, and Erdal KUŞVURAN. “Determination of Pesticide Residues in Water Using Extraction Method”. Sakarya University Journal of Science 27, no. 6 (December 2023): 1355-66. https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1225445.
EndNote ŞAMİL A, KUŞVURAN E (December 1, 2023) Determination of Pesticide Residues in Water Using Extraction Method. Sakarya University Journal of Science 27 6 1355–1366.
IEEE A. ŞAMİL and E. KUŞVURAN, “Determination of Pesticide Residues in Water Using Extraction Method”, SAUJS, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1355–1366, 2023, doi: 10.16984/saufenbilder.1225445.
ISNAD ŞAMİL, Ali - KUŞVURAN, Erdal. “Determination of Pesticide Residues in Water Using Extraction Method”. Sakarya University Journal of Science 27/6 (December 2023), 1355-1366. https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.1225445.
JAMA ŞAMİL A, KUŞVURAN E. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Water Using Extraction Method. SAUJS. 2023;27:1355–1366.
MLA ŞAMİL, Ali and Erdal KUŞVURAN. “Determination of Pesticide Residues in Water Using Extraction Method”. Sakarya University Journal of Science, vol. 27, no. 6, 2023, pp. 1355-66, doi:10.16984/saufenbilder.1225445.
Vancouver ŞAMİL A, KUŞVURAN E. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Water Using Extraction Method. SAUJS. 2023;27(6):1355-66.

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