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Farklı Liglerdeki Futbolcuların Vücut Kompozisyonu, Beslenme ve Hidrasyon Durumlarının Sezon İçi Dönemde Değerlendirilmesi

Year 2021, Volume 32, Issue 4, 183 - 196, 17.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.817101

Abstract

Bu çalışma, farklı lig kategorilerinde oynayan futbol oyuncularının besin tüketim durumları, vücut kompozisyonları ve hidrasyon durumlarının sezon içi dönemde değerlendirilmesi amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırma, Gençlerbirliği Spor Kulübü (Süper Toto Süper Lig), Hacette pe Spor Kulubü (2. Lig) ve Etimesgut Spor Kulubünde (3. Lig) profesyonel olarak futbol oynayan 48 sporcu üzerinde yapılmıştır. Katılımcıların beslenme durumlarının değerlendirilmesi için futbolcuların 1 günü antrenmanlı, 1 günü maç günü ve 1 günü antrenman sız günlere denk gelecek şekilde 3 günlük besin tüketim ve fiziksel aktivite kayıtları alınmıştır. Aynı günlerdeki hidrasyon düzeylerinin belirlenmesi amacı ile spot idrar ile idrar yoğunluğu ölçülmüştür. Aynı hafta içerisinde Dual enerji x ray absorbsiyom etri (DXA) ile vücut yağ kütlesi, kas kütlesi ve yağ yüzdeleri ölçülmüştür. Çalışmaya katılan futbolcuların yaş ortalaması 24.5± 3.56 yıldır. Futbolcuların ortalama boy uzunluğu 181.5±5.97 cm, vücut ağırlığı 77.9±7.41 kg, vücut yağ yüzdesi %16.3±2.87 olara k belirlenmiştir. Futbolcuların vücut yağ yüzdeleri süper lig, 2. lig ve 3. lig oyuncularında sırasıyla %15.5±2.95, %16.5±3.26 ve %16.9±2.38 olarak saptanmıştır (p>0.05). Çalışmaya katılan tüm oyuncuların diyetle enerji alım ortalaması 2727.6±380.78 kkal, enerji harcaması ortalaması 3216.5 ±192.34 kkal olarak Toplam enerjinin %43.9±4.84’ünün karbonhidrattan, %16.4±2.84’ünün proteinden ve %39.5±3.87’sinin yağdan geldiği belirlenmiştir. Çalışmaya katılan süperlig, 2. lig ve 3. lig oyuncularının or talama günlük sıvı alımları sırasıyla 3334.1±309.23 mL; 3305.6±291.81 mL; 3373.1±574.76 mL olarak saptanmıştır (p>0.05). Ortalama idrar dansitelerine bakıldığında süperlig oyuncularının 1021.1±2.15, 2. lig oyuncularının 1024.4±3.57 ve 3. lig oyuncularının 1 024.6±5.21 olarak bulunmuştur (p<0.05). Sonuç olarak; çalışmaya katılan tüm futbolcuların yetersiz besin ve sıvı alımı içerisinde olduğu ve literatüre göre yüksek vücut yağ yüzdesine sahip oldukları belirlenmiştir.

References

  • 1. Aragon-Varnas, L., Moncada-Jimenez, J., Hernandez-Elizondo, J., Barrenechea, A., ve Monge-Alvadaro, M. (2009). Evaluation of pre-game hydration status, heat stress, and fluid balance during professional soccer competition in the heat. European Journal of Sport Science, 5(9).
  • 2. Armstrong, L. E., Maresh, C. M , Castellani, J. W., Bergeron, M. F., Kenefick, R. W., LaGasse, K. E., ve Riebe, D. (1994). Urinary indices of hydration status. International Journal of Sports Nutrition. 3(4), 265-279.
  • 3. Arnason, A. S., Sigurdsson, S. B., Gudmundsson, A., Holme, I., Engebretsen, L., ve Bahr, R. (2004). Physical fitness, injuries and team performance in soccer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 36(2), 278-285.
  • 4. Bandyopadhyay, A. (2007). Anthropometry and Body Composition in Soccer and Volleyball Players in West Bengal, India. Physiological Anthropology. 26(4), 501-505.
  • 5. Calbet, J. A., Dorada, C., Diaz-Herrera, P., ve Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L. P. (2001). High femoral bone mineral contentand density in male football (soccer) players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 33(10), 1682-1687.
  • 6. Cheuvront, S. N., ve Sawka, M. N. (2005). Hydration assessment of athletes. Sport Science Exchange, 2(18).
  • 7. Eichner, E. R. (1995). Overtraining: Consequences and prevention. Journal of Sports Sciences. (13), 41-48.
  • 8. Güvenç, A. (2011). Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Body Composition, Aerobic Performance and Lactate, Heart Rate and Perceptual Responses in Young Soccer Players. Journal of Human Kinetics, (29), 79-91.
  • 9. Gordon, R. E., Kassier, S. M., ve Biggs, C. (2015). Hydration status and fluid intake of urban, underprivileged South African male adolescent soccer players during training. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 21(12).
  • 10. Iglesias-Gutiérrez, E., García, A., García-Zapico, P., Pérez-Landaluce, J., Patterson, A. M., ve García-Rovés, P. M. (2012). Is there a relationship between the playing position of soccer players and their food and macronutrient intake? Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism, 37(2), 225-232.
  • 11. Institute of Medicine. 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  • 12. Kirkendall, D. T. (1993). Effects of nutrition on performance in soccer. Medicine and Sciences in Sports and Exercise. 25(12), 1370-1374.
  • 13. Kreider, R. B., Wilborn, C. D., Taylor, L., Campbell, B., Almada, A. L., Collins, R., . . . ve Antonio, J.. (2010). ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7(7).
  • 14. Kurdak, S. S., Shirreffs, S. M., Maughan, R. J., Ozgünen, K. T., Zeren, Ç., Korkmaz, S., . . . Dvorak, J. (2010). Hydration and sweating responses to hot-weather football competition. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Science Sports, 3(20), 133-139.
  • 15. Leblanc, J. C., Gall, F. L., Grandjean, V., ve Verger, P. (2002). Nutritional intake of French soccer players at the Clairefontaine Training Center. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 12(3), 268-280.
  • 16. Matkovic, B., Misigoj-Durakovic, M., Matkovic, B., Jankovic, S., Ruzic, L., Leko, G., ve Kondric, M. (2003). Morphological Differences of Elite Croatian Soccer Players According to the Team Position. Collegium Antropologicum, 27(1), 167–174.
  • 17. Maughan, R.J. (1997). Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(1), 45-47.
  • 18. Mott, J. W., Wang, J., Thornton, J. C , Allison, D. B., Heymsfield, S. B., ve Pierson Jr, R. N. (1999). Relation between body fat and age in 4 ethnic groups. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, (69), 1007-1013.
  • 19. Nana, A., Slater, G. J., Hopkins, W. G., ve Burke, L. M. (2012). Effects of Daily Activities on Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measurements of Body Composition in Active People. Medicine Science Sports Exercise. 44(1), 180-189.
  • 20. Noda, Y., Iide, K., Masuda, R., Kishida, R., Nagata, A., Hirakawa, F., . . . Imamura, H. (2009). Nutrient intake and blood iron status of male collegiate soccer players. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 3(18), 344-350.
  • 21. Ogle, G. D., Allen, J. R., Humphries, I.R., Lu, P. W., Briody, J. N., Morley, K., … , Cowell, C. (1995). Body-composition assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in subjects aged 4–26 y. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61(4), 746-753.
  • 22. Petrie, H. J., Stover, E. A., ve Horswill, C. A. (2004). Nutritional Concerns for the Child and Adolescent Competitor. Nutrition, 20(7-8), 620-631.
  • 23. Reinke, S., Karhausen, T., Doehner, W., Taylor, W., Hottenrott, K., Duda, G. N., . . . Anker, S. D. (2009). The Influence of Recovery and Training Phases on Body Composition, Peripheral Vascular Function and Immune System of Professional Soccer Players. PLoS ONE, 4(3), e4910.
  • 24. Renon, C., ve Collado, P. (2013). Nutritional Study of a Third Division Soccer Team. 28(2), 319-324.
  • 25. Rico-Sanz, J., Frontera, W. R., Mole, P. A., Rivera, M. A., Rivera-Brown, A., ve Meredith, C. N. (1998). Dietary and performance assessment of elite soccer players during a period of intense training. Internationa Journal of Sport Nutrition, 8(3), 230-240.
  • 26. Ruiz, F., Irazusta, A., Gil, S., Irazusta, J., Casis, L. ve Gil, J. (2005). Nutritional intake in soccer players of different ages. Journal of Sports Science, 23(3), 235-242.
  • 27. Sawka, M. N., Burke, L. M., Eichner, E. R., Maughan, R. J., Montain, S. J. ve Stachenfeld, N. S. (2007). American College of Sport Medicine position stand Exercise and fluid replacemet. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(2), 377-390.
  • 28. Shirreffs, S. M., Sawka, M. N. (2011). Fluid and electrolyte needs for training, competition, and recovery. Journal of Sports Science, suppl 29(1), 39-46.
  • 29. Slimani, M., Znazen, H., Hammami, A. ve Bragazzi, N. L. (2017). Comparison of body fat percentage of male soccer players of different competitive levels, playing positions and age groups: a meta-analysis. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitnes, 58, 857-866.
  • 30. Sutton, L., Scott, M., Wallace, J. ve Reilly, T. (2009). Body composition of English Premier League soccer players: influence of playing position, international status, and ethnicity. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(10), 1019-1026.
  • 31. Svantesson, U., Zander, M., Klingberg, M. ve Slinde, F. (2008). Body composition in male elite athletes, comparison of bioelectrical impedans spectroscopy with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine, 7(1):1.
  • 32. Thomas, D. T., Erdman, K. A. ve Burke, L. M. (2016). American College of Sport Medicine position statement Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48(3), 543-68.
  • 33. Tumilty, D. (1993). Physiological characteristics of elite soccer players. Sports Medicine, 16(2), 80-96.
  • 34. Westerterp, K. R., Meijer, G. A., Janssen, E. M., Saris, W. H., Hoor, F. T. (1992). Long-term effect of physical activity on energy balance and body composition. British Journal of Nutrition 68(1), 21-30.
  • 35. Wittich, A., Oliveri, M. B., Rotemberg, E. ve Mautalen, C. (2001). Body composition of professional football (soccer) players determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Journal of Clinical Densitometry, 4(1), 51-55.

Evaluation of Body Composition, Nutrition and Hydration Situations of the Soccer Players in Different Leagues During the Season

Year 2021, Volume 32, Issue 4, 183 - 196, 17.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.817101

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional status, body composition and hydration status of soccer players in different league categories. The research was carried out on 48 athletes playing football professionally in the Junior Sports Club (Super Toto Super League), Hacettepe Sports Club (2nd league) and Etimesgut Sports Club (3rd league). In order to assess participants' nutritional status, 3 day food consumption and physical activity records were taken on training day, match day and non trainin g day. The purpose of determining the hydration levels on the same day was to collect urine in the urine chamber and to determine hydration levels by refractometer. Within the same week, fat mass, body mass, percentage of body fat were measured by Dual Ene rgy X Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The average age of the soccer players participating in the study is 24.5 ± 3.56 years. The average height of the soccer players was 181.5±5.97 cm, body weight was 77.9±7.41 kg and fat percentages were determined as 16.3±2.87 %. Body fat percentages of soccer players were 15.5±2.95%, 16.5±3.26% and 16.9±2.38% for süper, 2nd and 3rd league players, respectively (p>0.05). The average energy intake of all the players who participated in the study was found to be 2727.6±380.78 kcal and the average energy expenditure was 3216.5±192.34 kcal. The rate of total energy taken from carbohydrates was 43.9±4.84%, from protein 16.4±2.84 and from fat 39.5±3.87. The mean urine density of the players in the super league, second league and third league were 1021.1±2.15, 1024.4±3.57, 1024.6±5.21, respectively (p<0.05). As a result; the soccer players participating in this study had inadequate intake of some nutrients and liquid besides they had high body fat according to the other results in the li terature.

References

  • 1. Aragon-Varnas, L., Moncada-Jimenez, J., Hernandez-Elizondo, J., Barrenechea, A., ve Monge-Alvadaro, M. (2009). Evaluation of pre-game hydration status, heat stress, and fluid balance during professional soccer competition in the heat. European Journal of Sport Science, 5(9).
  • 2. Armstrong, L. E., Maresh, C. M , Castellani, J. W., Bergeron, M. F., Kenefick, R. W., LaGasse, K. E., ve Riebe, D. (1994). Urinary indices of hydration status. International Journal of Sports Nutrition. 3(4), 265-279.
  • 3. Arnason, A. S., Sigurdsson, S. B., Gudmundsson, A., Holme, I., Engebretsen, L., ve Bahr, R. (2004). Physical fitness, injuries and team performance in soccer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 36(2), 278-285.
  • 4. Bandyopadhyay, A. (2007). Anthropometry and Body Composition in Soccer and Volleyball Players in West Bengal, India. Physiological Anthropology. 26(4), 501-505.
  • 5. Calbet, J. A., Dorada, C., Diaz-Herrera, P., ve Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L. P. (2001). High femoral bone mineral contentand density in male football (soccer) players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 33(10), 1682-1687.
  • 6. Cheuvront, S. N., ve Sawka, M. N. (2005). Hydration assessment of athletes. Sport Science Exchange, 2(18).
  • 7. Eichner, E. R. (1995). Overtraining: Consequences and prevention. Journal of Sports Sciences. (13), 41-48.
  • 8. Güvenç, A. (2011). Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Body Composition, Aerobic Performance and Lactate, Heart Rate and Perceptual Responses in Young Soccer Players. Journal of Human Kinetics, (29), 79-91.
  • 9. Gordon, R. E., Kassier, S. M., ve Biggs, C. (2015). Hydration status and fluid intake of urban, underprivileged South African male adolescent soccer players during training. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 21(12).
  • 10. Iglesias-Gutiérrez, E., García, A., García-Zapico, P., Pérez-Landaluce, J., Patterson, A. M., ve García-Rovés, P. M. (2012). Is there a relationship between the playing position of soccer players and their food and macronutrient intake? Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism, 37(2), 225-232.
  • 11. Institute of Medicine. 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  • 12. Kirkendall, D. T. (1993). Effects of nutrition on performance in soccer. Medicine and Sciences in Sports and Exercise. 25(12), 1370-1374.
  • 13. Kreider, R. B., Wilborn, C. D., Taylor, L., Campbell, B., Almada, A. L., Collins, R., . . . ve Antonio, J.. (2010). ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7(7).
  • 14. Kurdak, S. S., Shirreffs, S. M., Maughan, R. J., Ozgünen, K. T., Zeren, Ç., Korkmaz, S., . . . Dvorak, J. (2010). Hydration and sweating responses to hot-weather football competition. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Science Sports, 3(20), 133-139.
  • 15. Leblanc, J. C., Gall, F. L., Grandjean, V., ve Verger, P. (2002). Nutritional intake of French soccer players at the Clairefontaine Training Center. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 12(3), 268-280.
  • 16. Matkovic, B., Misigoj-Durakovic, M., Matkovic, B., Jankovic, S., Ruzic, L., Leko, G., ve Kondric, M. (2003). Morphological Differences of Elite Croatian Soccer Players According to the Team Position. Collegium Antropologicum, 27(1), 167–174.
  • 17. Maughan, R.J. (1997). Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(1), 45-47.
  • 18. Mott, J. W., Wang, J., Thornton, J. C , Allison, D. B., Heymsfield, S. B., ve Pierson Jr, R. N. (1999). Relation between body fat and age in 4 ethnic groups. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, (69), 1007-1013.
  • 19. Nana, A., Slater, G. J., Hopkins, W. G., ve Burke, L. M. (2012). Effects of Daily Activities on Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measurements of Body Composition in Active People. Medicine Science Sports Exercise. 44(1), 180-189.
  • 20. Noda, Y., Iide, K., Masuda, R., Kishida, R., Nagata, A., Hirakawa, F., . . . Imamura, H. (2009). Nutrient intake and blood iron status of male collegiate soccer players. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 3(18), 344-350.
  • 21. Ogle, G. D., Allen, J. R., Humphries, I.R., Lu, P. W., Briody, J. N., Morley, K., … , Cowell, C. (1995). Body-composition assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in subjects aged 4–26 y. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61(4), 746-753.
  • 22. Petrie, H. J., Stover, E. A., ve Horswill, C. A. (2004). Nutritional Concerns for the Child and Adolescent Competitor. Nutrition, 20(7-8), 620-631.
  • 23. Reinke, S., Karhausen, T., Doehner, W., Taylor, W., Hottenrott, K., Duda, G. N., . . . Anker, S. D. (2009). The Influence of Recovery and Training Phases on Body Composition, Peripheral Vascular Function and Immune System of Professional Soccer Players. PLoS ONE, 4(3), e4910.
  • 24. Renon, C., ve Collado, P. (2013). Nutritional Study of a Third Division Soccer Team. 28(2), 319-324.
  • 25. Rico-Sanz, J., Frontera, W. R., Mole, P. A., Rivera, M. A., Rivera-Brown, A., ve Meredith, C. N. (1998). Dietary and performance assessment of elite soccer players during a period of intense training. Internationa Journal of Sport Nutrition, 8(3), 230-240.
  • 26. Ruiz, F., Irazusta, A., Gil, S., Irazusta, J., Casis, L. ve Gil, J. (2005). Nutritional intake in soccer players of different ages. Journal of Sports Science, 23(3), 235-242.
  • 27. Sawka, M. N., Burke, L. M., Eichner, E. R., Maughan, R. J., Montain, S. J. ve Stachenfeld, N. S. (2007). American College of Sport Medicine position stand Exercise and fluid replacemet. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(2), 377-390.
  • 28. Shirreffs, S. M., Sawka, M. N. (2011). Fluid and electrolyte needs for training, competition, and recovery. Journal of Sports Science, suppl 29(1), 39-46.
  • 29. Slimani, M., Znazen, H., Hammami, A. ve Bragazzi, N. L. (2017). Comparison of body fat percentage of male soccer players of different competitive levels, playing positions and age groups: a meta-analysis. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitnes, 58, 857-866.
  • 30. Sutton, L., Scott, M., Wallace, J. ve Reilly, T. (2009). Body composition of English Premier League soccer players: influence of playing position, international status, and ethnicity. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(10), 1019-1026.
  • 31. Svantesson, U., Zander, M., Klingberg, M. ve Slinde, F. (2008). Body composition in male elite athletes, comparison of bioelectrical impedans spectroscopy with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine, 7(1):1.
  • 32. Thomas, D. T., Erdman, K. A. ve Burke, L. M. (2016). American College of Sport Medicine position statement Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48(3), 543-68.
  • 33. Tumilty, D. (1993). Physiological characteristics of elite soccer players. Sports Medicine, 16(2), 80-96.
  • 34. Westerterp, K. R., Meijer, G. A., Janssen, E. M., Saris, W. H., Hoor, F. T. (1992). Long-term effect of physical activity on energy balance and body composition. British Journal of Nutrition 68(1), 21-30.
  • 35. Wittich, A., Oliveri, M. B., Rotemberg, E. ve Mautalen, C. (2001). Body composition of professional football (soccer) players determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Journal of Clinical Densitometry, 4(1), 51-55.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Beril KÖSE> (Primary Author)
BAŞKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, BESLENME VE DİYETETİK BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-5173-2389
Türkiye


Gül KIZILTAN>
BAŞKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, BESLENME VE DİYETETİK BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-5012-5838
Türkiye


Hüsrev TURNAGÖL>
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, REKREASYON BÖLÜMÜ, EGZERSİZDE BESLENME VE METABOLİZMA ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0001-6547-8839
Türkiye

Publication Date December 17, 2021
Application Date December 16, 2020
Acceptance Date November 25, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 32, Issue 4

Cite

APA Köse, B. , Kızıltan, G. & Turnagöl, H. (2021). Farklı Liglerdeki Futbolcuların Vücut Kompozisyonu, Beslenme ve Hidrasyon Durumlarının Sezon İçi Dönemde Değerlendirilmesi . Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 32 (4) , 183-196 . DOI: 10.17644/sbd.817101