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Assessment of diet quality and nutrition status of Turkish elite adolescent male soccer players

Year 2022, Volume 33, Issue 1, 19 - 31, 14.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.954537

Abstract

This study aimed to assess the anthropometric characteristics, nutrient intake levels, nutritional status of elite adolescent soccer players, and the dietary quality of athletes. Elite male adolescent soccer players of the youth soccer team of a soccer club in the Turkish Super League were included in this study by categorizing them into three separate groups as U14/U15 (n=32), U16/U17 (n=44), and U19 (n=17). Anthropometric measurements of the athletes and food consumption records for three consecutive days were recorded during the competition season. Although the available energy value of the U14/U15 group was higher than the other groups, the available energy was determined to be at a suboptimal level in all groups. The U14/U15 group had the highest Health Eating Index-2015 score (43.7±5.57), while the score was 42.9±4.79 in the U19 group and 42.1±3.69 in the U16/U17 group (p>0.05), and 93.5% of the players were determined to be in the group with poor diet quality. The carbohydrate intake of adolescent soccer players was 5.3±1.16 g/kg body mass/day in the U14/U15 group, while it was 4.4 ± 0.87 g/kg body mass/day in the U16/U17 group, and 4.4±0.94 g/kg body mass/day in the U19 group. In this study, it was found out that adolescent football players had a poor diet quality, their carbohydrate consumption was inadequate, their fat intake level was high, and the protein intake was high in the U14/15 group whereas it was at the recommended levels in other groups. Providing recurrent nutritional training to adolescent football players and their families would assist athletes in gaining healthy eating habits as well as increasing their performance.

References

  • 1. Aucouturier, J., Baker, J. S., and Duché, P. (2008). Fat and Carbohydrate Metabolism during Submaximal Exercise in Children. Sports Medicine, 38(3), 213-238. doi:10.2165/00007256-200838030-00003
  • 2. Boisseau, N., Le Creff, C., Loyens, M., and Poortmans, J. (2002). Protein intake and nitrogen balance in male non-active adolescents and soccer players. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 88(3), 288-293. doi:10.1007/s00421-002-0726-x
  • 3. Briggs, M. A., Cockburn, E., Rumbold, P. L., Rae, G., Stevenson, E. J., and Russell, M. (2015). Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week. Nutrients, 7(10), 8392-8401. doi:10.3390/nu7105400
  • 4. Brinkmans, N. Y. J., Iedema, N., Plasqui, G., Wouters, L., Saris, W. H. M., van Loon, L. J. C., and van Dijk, J.-W. (2019). Energy expenditure and dietary intake in professional football players in the Dutch Premier League: Implications for nutritional counseling. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37(24), 2759-2767. doi:10.1080/02640414.2019.1576256
  • 5. Burke, L. M., Hawley, J. A., Wong, S. H. S., and Jeukendrup, A. E. (2011). Carbohydrates for training and competition. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(sup1), S17-S27. doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.585473
  • 6. Burke, L. M., Lundy, B., Fahrenholtz, I. L., and Melin, A. K. (2018). Pitfalls of Conducting and Interpreting Estimates of Energy Availability in Free-Living Athletes. 28(4), 350. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0142 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0142 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0142 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0142
  • 7. Caccialanza, R., Cameletti, B., and Cavallaro, G. (2007). Nutritional Intake of Young Italian High-Level Soccer Players: Under-Reporting is the Essential Outcome. J Sports Sci Med, 6(4), 538-542.
  • 8. Das, J. K., Salam, R. A., Thornburg, K. L., Prentice, A. M., Campisi, S., Lassi, Z. S., . . . Bhutta, Z. A. (2017). Nutrition in adolescents: physiology, metabolism, and nutritional needs. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1393(1), 21-33. doi:10.1111/nyas.13330
  • 9. Desbrow, B., McCormack, J., Burke, L. M., Cox, G. R., Fallon, K., Hislop, M., . . . Leveritt, M. (2014). Sports Dietitians Australia Position Statement: Sports Nutrition for the Adolescent Athlete. 24(5), 570. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0031 10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0031 10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0031 10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0031
  • 10. Ersoy, N., Kalkan, I., and Ersoy, G. (2019). Assessment of nutrition status of Turkish elite young male soccer players in the pre-competition period. Progress in Nutrition, 21(1), 12-18. doi:10.23751/pn.v21i1.7127
  • 11. García-Rovés, P. M., García-Zapico, P., Patterson, Á. M., and Iglesias-Gutiérrez, E. (2014). Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice. Nutrients, 6(7), 2697-2717.
  • 12. Granja, D. S., Cotovio, R., Pinto, R., Borrego, R., Mendes, L., Carolino, E., . . . Mendes, B. (2017). Evaluation of young elite soccer players food intake on match day and highest training load days. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 12(4), 1238-1247.
  • 13. Hargreaves, M. (1994). Carbohydrate and lipid requirements of soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 12(sup1), S13-S16. doi:10.1080/02640414.1994.12059273
  • 14. Hills, S. P., and Russell, M. (2018). Carbohydrates for soccer: A focus on skilled actions and half-time practices. Nutrients, 10(1), 22.
  • 15. Iglesias-Gutiérrez, E., García, Á., García-Zapico, P., Pérez-Landaluce, J., Patterson, Á. M., and García-Rovés, P. M. (2012). Is there a relationship between the playing position of soccer players and their food and macronutrient intake? Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 37(2), 225-232. doi:10.1139/h11-152
  • 16. Institute of Medicine Subcommittee on, I., Uses of Dietary Reference, I., and Institute of Medicine Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference, I. (2000) DRI Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US)
  • 17. Jenner, S. L., Buckley, G. L., Belski, R., Devlin, B. L., and Forsyth, A. K. (2019). Dietary Intakes of Professional and Semi-Professional Team Sport Athletes Do Not Meet Sport Nutrition Recommendations—A Systematic Literature Review. Nutrients, 11(5), 1160.
  • 18. Jones, N., and Bartlett, H. E. (2020). Comparison of the eating behaviour and dietary consumption in older adults with and without visual impairment. British Journal of Nutrition, 123(6), 712-720.
  • 19. Jürgensen, L. P., Daniel, N. V. S., Padovani, R. D. C., Lourenço, L. C. D. A., and Juzwiak, C. R. (2015). Assessment of the diet quality of team sports athletes. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria and Desempenho Humano, 17, 280-290.
  • 20. Lane, A. R., Hackney, A. C., Smith-Ryan, A., Kucera, K., Registar-Mihalik, J., and Ondrak, K. (2019). Prevalence of Low Energy Availability in Competitively Trained Male Endurance Athletes. Medicina, 55(10), 665.
  • 21. Moss, S. L., Randell, R. K., Burgess, D., Ridley, S., ÓCairealláin, C., Allison, R., and Rollo, I. (2020). Assessment of energy availability and associated risk factors in professional female soccer players. European Journal of Sport Science, 1-10. doi:10.1080/17461391.2020.1788647
  • 22. Mountjoy, M., Sundgot-Borgen, J., Burke, L., Ackerman, K. E., Blauwet, C., Constantini, N., . . . Budgett, R. (2018). International Olympic Committee (IOC) Consensus Statement on Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S): 2018 Update. 28(4), 316. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0136 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0136 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0136 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0136
  • 23. Murphy, S., and Jeanes, Y. (2006). Nutritional knowledge and dietary intakes of young professional football players. Nutrition and Food Science, 36(5), 343-348. doi:10.1108/00346650610703199
  • 24. Naughton, R. J., Drust, B., O’Boyle, A., Morgans, R., Abayomi, J., Davies, I. G., . . . Mahon, E. (2016). Daily Distribution of Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat Intake in Elite Youth Academy Soccer Players Over a 7-Day Training Period. 26(5), 473. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0340 10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0340
  • 25. Noronha, D. C., Santos, M., Santos, A. A., Corrente, L. G. A., Fernandes, R. K. N., Barreto, A. C. A., . . . Nascimento, M. V. S. (2020). Nutrition Knowledge is Correlated with a Better Dietary Intake in Adolescent Soccer Players: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Nutr Metab, 2020, 3519781. doi:10.1155/2020/3519781
  • 26. Oliveira, C. C., Ferreira, D., Caetano, C., Granja, D., Pinto, R., Mendes, B., and Sousa, M. (2017). Nutrition and supplementation in soccer. Sports, 5(2), 28.
  • 27. Pekcan, G. (2013). Beslenme durumunun saptanması. Baysal A, Aksoy M, Besler T, Bozkurt N, Keçecioğlu S, Mercanlıgil SM. (Edt.), Diyet El Kitabı (67-141), 7. Baskı, Ankara: Hatiboğlu Yayınları; 2013.
  • 28. Petrie, H. J., Stover, E. A., and Horswill, C. A. (2004). Nutritional concerns for the child and adolescent competitor. Nutrition, 20(7), 620-631. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.002.
  • 29. Robson, P. J., and Livingstone, M. B. E. (2000). An evaluation of food photographs as a tool for quantifying food and nutrient intakes. Public Health Nutrition, 3(2), 183-192. doi: 10.1017/S1368980000000215
  • 30. Rodriguez, N. R., Di Marco, N. M., and Langley, S. (2009). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 41(3), 709-731. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31890eb86
  • 31. Ruiz, F., Irazusta, A., Gil, S., Irazusta, J., Casis, L., and Gil, J. (2005). Nutritional intake in soccer players of different ages. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(3), 235-242. doi:10.1080/02640410410001730160
  • 32. Russell, M., and Pennock, A. (2011). Dietary Analysis of Young Professional Soccer Players for 1 Week During the Competitive Season. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(7), 1816-1823. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e7fbdd
  • 33. Saltin, B. (1973). Metabolic fundamentals in exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 5(3), 137-146.
  • 34. Tsoufi, A., Maraki, M. I., Dimitrakopoulos, L., Famisis, K., and Grammatikopoulou, M. G. (2017). The effect of professional dietary counseling: elite basketball players eat healthier during competition days. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 57(10), 1305-1310. doi:10.23736/s0022-4707.16.06469-0
  • 35. Unnithan, V. B., Rowland, T. W., George, K., Lord, R., and Oxborough, D. (2018). Left ventricular function during exercise in trained pre‐adolescent soccer players. Scandinavian journal of medicine and science in sports, 28(11), 2330-2338.
  • 36. Wojtyła-Buciora, P., Stawińska-Witoszyńska, B., Klimberg, A., Wojtyła, A., Goździewska, M., Wojtyła, K., . . . Marcinkowski, J. T. (2013). Nutrition-related health behaviours and prevalence of overweight and obesity among Polish children and adolescents. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 20(2), 332-340.
  • 37. Wolfson, J. A., Leung, C. W., and Richardson, C. R. (2020). More frequent cooking at home is associated with higher Healthy Eating Index-2015 score. Public Health Nutrition, 23(13), 2384-2394. doi:10.1017/S1368980019003549
  • 38. Zanella, P. B., August, P. M., Alves, F. D., Matté, C., and de Souza, C. G. (2019). Association of Healthy Eating Index and oxidative stress in adolescent volleyball athletes and non-athletes. Nutrition, 60, 230-234. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2018.10.017
  • 39. Zeng, D., Fang, Z.-L., Qin, L., Yu, A.-Q., Ren, Y.-B., Xue, B.-Y., . . . An, N. (2020). Evaluation for the effects of nutritional education on Chinese elite male young soccer players: The application of adjusted dietary balance index (DBI). Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 18(1), 1-6.

Elit Adölesan Erkek Türk Futbolcularda Beslenme Durumunun ve Diyet Kalitesinin Değerlendirilmesi

Year 2022, Volume 33, Issue 1, 19 - 31, 14.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.954537

Abstract

Bu çalışmada elit erkek adölesan futbolcuların beslenme durumlarının, besin ögesi alımlarının, antropometrik ölçümlerinin ve diyet kalitelerinin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Türkiye Süper Liginde oynayan bir futbol takımında yer alan oyuncular U14/U15 (n=32), U16/U17 (n=44) ve U19 (n=17) şeklinde üç gruba ayrılarak çalışmaya dahil edilmişlerdir. Antropometrik ölçümler ve ardışık üç günlük besin tüketim kayıtları müsabaka sezon devam ederken alınmıştır. U14/U15 grubundaki oyuncuların kullanılabilir enerji düzeyi diğer gruplardan daha yüksek olmasına rağmen tüm gruplarda azalmış kullanılabilir enerji düzeyinin olduğu belirlenmiştir. En yüksek Sağlıklı Yeme İndeksi-2015 skoru U14/U15 grubunda (43.7±5.57) bulunurken, U19 grubunda 42.9±4.79 ve U16/U17 grubunda 42.1±3.69 olarak saptanmıştır (p>0.05). Tüm oyuncular değerlendirildiğinde sporcuların %93.5’i kötü diyet kalitesine sahiptir. U14/U15 grubunda yer alan sporcuların karbonhidrat alımı 5.3±1.16 g/kg beden ağırlığı/gün, U16/U17 grubunda 4.4±0.87 g/kg beden ağırlığı/gün ve U19 grubunda 4.4±0.94 g/kg beden ağırlığı/gün olarak belirlenmiştir. Bu çalışmada adölesan futbolcuların kötü bir diyet kalitesine sahip oldukları, karbonhidrat tüketimlerinin yetersiz, yağ alım düzeylerinin yüksek ve protein alımlarının U14/15 grubunda yüksek iken diğer gruplarda önerilen düzeylerde olduğu saptanmıştır. Adölesan futbolculara ve ailelerine tekrarlayan beslenme eğitimi verilmesi, sporcuların sağlıklı beslenme alışkanlıkları kazanmalarına ve performanslarını artırmalarına yardımcı olabilir.

References

  • 1. Aucouturier, J., Baker, J. S., and Duché, P. (2008). Fat and Carbohydrate Metabolism during Submaximal Exercise in Children. Sports Medicine, 38(3), 213-238. doi:10.2165/00007256-200838030-00003
  • 2. Boisseau, N., Le Creff, C., Loyens, M., and Poortmans, J. (2002). Protein intake and nitrogen balance in male non-active adolescents and soccer players. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 88(3), 288-293. doi:10.1007/s00421-002-0726-x
  • 3. Briggs, M. A., Cockburn, E., Rumbold, P. L., Rae, G., Stevenson, E. J., and Russell, M. (2015). Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week. Nutrients, 7(10), 8392-8401. doi:10.3390/nu7105400
  • 4. Brinkmans, N. Y. J., Iedema, N., Plasqui, G., Wouters, L., Saris, W. H. M., van Loon, L. J. C., and van Dijk, J.-W. (2019). Energy expenditure and dietary intake in professional football players in the Dutch Premier League: Implications for nutritional counseling. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37(24), 2759-2767. doi:10.1080/02640414.2019.1576256
  • 5. Burke, L. M., Hawley, J. A., Wong, S. H. S., and Jeukendrup, A. E. (2011). Carbohydrates for training and competition. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(sup1), S17-S27. doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.585473
  • 6. Burke, L. M., Lundy, B., Fahrenholtz, I. L., and Melin, A. K. (2018). Pitfalls of Conducting and Interpreting Estimates of Energy Availability in Free-Living Athletes. 28(4), 350. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0142 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0142 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0142 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0142
  • 7. Caccialanza, R., Cameletti, B., and Cavallaro, G. (2007). Nutritional Intake of Young Italian High-Level Soccer Players: Under-Reporting is the Essential Outcome. J Sports Sci Med, 6(4), 538-542.
  • 8. Das, J. K., Salam, R. A., Thornburg, K. L., Prentice, A. M., Campisi, S., Lassi, Z. S., . . . Bhutta, Z. A. (2017). Nutrition in adolescents: physiology, metabolism, and nutritional needs. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1393(1), 21-33. doi:10.1111/nyas.13330
  • 9. Desbrow, B., McCormack, J., Burke, L. M., Cox, G. R., Fallon, K., Hislop, M., . . . Leveritt, M. (2014). Sports Dietitians Australia Position Statement: Sports Nutrition for the Adolescent Athlete. 24(5), 570. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0031 10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0031 10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0031 10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0031
  • 10. Ersoy, N., Kalkan, I., and Ersoy, G. (2019). Assessment of nutrition status of Turkish elite young male soccer players in the pre-competition period. Progress in Nutrition, 21(1), 12-18. doi:10.23751/pn.v21i1.7127
  • 11. García-Rovés, P. M., García-Zapico, P., Patterson, Á. M., and Iglesias-Gutiérrez, E. (2014). Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice. Nutrients, 6(7), 2697-2717.
  • 12. Granja, D. S., Cotovio, R., Pinto, R., Borrego, R., Mendes, L., Carolino, E., . . . Mendes, B. (2017). Evaluation of young elite soccer players food intake on match day and highest training load days. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 12(4), 1238-1247.
  • 13. Hargreaves, M. (1994). Carbohydrate and lipid requirements of soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 12(sup1), S13-S16. doi:10.1080/02640414.1994.12059273
  • 14. Hills, S. P., and Russell, M. (2018). Carbohydrates for soccer: A focus on skilled actions and half-time practices. Nutrients, 10(1), 22.
  • 15. Iglesias-Gutiérrez, E., García, Á., García-Zapico, P., Pérez-Landaluce, J., Patterson, Á. M., and García-Rovés, P. M. (2012). Is there a relationship between the playing position of soccer players and their food and macronutrient intake? Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 37(2), 225-232. doi:10.1139/h11-152
  • 16. Institute of Medicine Subcommittee on, I., Uses of Dietary Reference, I., and Institute of Medicine Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference, I. (2000) DRI Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US)
  • 17. Jenner, S. L., Buckley, G. L., Belski, R., Devlin, B. L., and Forsyth, A. K. (2019). Dietary Intakes of Professional and Semi-Professional Team Sport Athletes Do Not Meet Sport Nutrition Recommendations—A Systematic Literature Review. Nutrients, 11(5), 1160.
  • 18. Jones, N., and Bartlett, H. E. (2020). Comparison of the eating behaviour and dietary consumption in older adults with and without visual impairment. British Journal of Nutrition, 123(6), 712-720.
  • 19. Jürgensen, L. P., Daniel, N. V. S., Padovani, R. D. C., Lourenço, L. C. D. A., and Juzwiak, C. R. (2015). Assessment of the diet quality of team sports athletes. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria and Desempenho Humano, 17, 280-290.
  • 20. Lane, A. R., Hackney, A. C., Smith-Ryan, A., Kucera, K., Registar-Mihalik, J., and Ondrak, K. (2019). Prevalence of Low Energy Availability in Competitively Trained Male Endurance Athletes. Medicina, 55(10), 665.
  • 21. Moss, S. L., Randell, R. K., Burgess, D., Ridley, S., ÓCairealláin, C., Allison, R., and Rollo, I. (2020). Assessment of energy availability and associated risk factors in professional female soccer players. European Journal of Sport Science, 1-10. doi:10.1080/17461391.2020.1788647
  • 22. Mountjoy, M., Sundgot-Borgen, J., Burke, L., Ackerman, K. E., Blauwet, C., Constantini, N., . . . Budgett, R. (2018). International Olympic Committee (IOC) Consensus Statement on Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S): 2018 Update. 28(4), 316. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0136 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0136 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0136 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0136
  • 23. Murphy, S., and Jeanes, Y. (2006). Nutritional knowledge and dietary intakes of young professional football players. Nutrition and Food Science, 36(5), 343-348. doi:10.1108/00346650610703199
  • 24. Naughton, R. J., Drust, B., O’Boyle, A., Morgans, R., Abayomi, J., Davies, I. G., . . . Mahon, E. (2016). Daily Distribution of Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat Intake in Elite Youth Academy Soccer Players Over a 7-Day Training Period. 26(5), 473. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0340 10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0340
  • 25. Noronha, D. C., Santos, M., Santos, A. A., Corrente, L. G. A., Fernandes, R. K. N., Barreto, A. C. A., . . . Nascimento, M. V. S. (2020). Nutrition Knowledge is Correlated with a Better Dietary Intake in Adolescent Soccer Players: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Nutr Metab, 2020, 3519781. doi:10.1155/2020/3519781
  • 26. Oliveira, C. C., Ferreira, D., Caetano, C., Granja, D., Pinto, R., Mendes, B., and Sousa, M. (2017). Nutrition and supplementation in soccer. Sports, 5(2), 28.
  • 27. Pekcan, G. (2013). Beslenme durumunun saptanması. Baysal A, Aksoy M, Besler T, Bozkurt N, Keçecioğlu S, Mercanlıgil SM. (Edt.), Diyet El Kitabı (67-141), 7. Baskı, Ankara: Hatiboğlu Yayınları; 2013.
  • 28. Petrie, H. J., Stover, E. A., and Horswill, C. A. (2004). Nutritional concerns for the child and adolescent competitor. Nutrition, 20(7), 620-631. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.002.
  • 29. Robson, P. J., and Livingstone, M. B. E. (2000). An evaluation of food photographs as a tool for quantifying food and nutrient intakes. Public Health Nutrition, 3(2), 183-192. doi: 10.1017/S1368980000000215
  • 30. Rodriguez, N. R., Di Marco, N. M., and Langley, S. (2009). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 41(3), 709-731. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31890eb86
  • 31. Ruiz, F., Irazusta, A., Gil, S., Irazusta, J., Casis, L., and Gil, J. (2005). Nutritional intake in soccer players of different ages. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(3), 235-242. doi:10.1080/02640410410001730160
  • 32. Russell, M., and Pennock, A. (2011). Dietary Analysis of Young Professional Soccer Players for 1 Week During the Competitive Season. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(7), 1816-1823. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e7fbdd
  • 33. Saltin, B. (1973). Metabolic fundamentals in exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 5(3), 137-146.
  • 34. Tsoufi, A., Maraki, M. I., Dimitrakopoulos, L., Famisis, K., and Grammatikopoulou, M. G. (2017). The effect of professional dietary counseling: elite basketball players eat healthier during competition days. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 57(10), 1305-1310. doi:10.23736/s0022-4707.16.06469-0
  • 35. Unnithan, V. B., Rowland, T. W., George, K., Lord, R., and Oxborough, D. (2018). Left ventricular function during exercise in trained pre‐adolescent soccer players. Scandinavian journal of medicine and science in sports, 28(11), 2330-2338.
  • 36. Wojtyła-Buciora, P., Stawińska-Witoszyńska, B., Klimberg, A., Wojtyła, A., Goździewska, M., Wojtyła, K., . . . Marcinkowski, J. T. (2013). Nutrition-related health behaviours and prevalence of overweight and obesity among Polish children and adolescents. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 20(2), 332-340.
  • 37. Wolfson, J. A., Leung, C. W., and Richardson, C. R. (2020). More frequent cooking at home is associated with higher Healthy Eating Index-2015 score. Public Health Nutrition, 23(13), 2384-2394. doi:10.1017/S1368980019003549
  • 38. Zanella, P. B., August, P. M., Alves, F. D., Matté, C., and de Souza, C. G. (2019). Association of Healthy Eating Index and oxidative stress in adolescent volleyball athletes and non-athletes. Nutrition, 60, 230-234. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2018.10.017
  • 39. Zeng, D., Fang, Z.-L., Qin, L., Yu, A.-Q., Ren, Y.-B., Xue, B.-Y., . . . An, N. (2020). Evaluation for the effects of nutritional education on Chinese elite male young soccer players: The application of adjusted dietary balance index (DBI). Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 18(1), 1-6.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services, Sport Sciences
Published Date Bahar
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Murat URHAN> (Primary Author)
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5812-5493
Türkiye


Hasan YILDIZ This is me
Sağlık Bakanlığı Urla Devlet Hastanesi
0000-0003-3917-3673
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Yok
Thanks Çalışmaya katkılarından dolayı Göztepe Futbol Kulübü'ne teşekkür ederiz.
Publication Date April 14, 2022
Application Date June 21, 2021
Acceptance Date December 24, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 33, Issue 1

Cite

APA Urhan, M. & Yıldız, H. (2022). Assessment of diet quality and nutrition status of Turkish elite adolescent male soccer players . Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 33 (1) , 19-31 . DOI: 10.17644/sbd.954537