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LANDSCAPE APPROACHES AND CONCEPTS IN FILMS; AN INTERPRETATION IN CONTEXT THE OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

Year 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, 331 - 365, 08.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.32001/sinecine.865928

Abstract

Cinema provides a means of understanding people, places, and landscapes, yet the field of landscape architecture has largely ignored the potential of filmic landscapes in its research, education, and professional approach. Despite this neglect, filmic landscapes have much to contribute to the field, including a deeper understanding of the multi-layered and open-ended nature of landscape. By highlighting the potential that filmic landscapes hold for the discipline of landscape architecture, a field which has been separated from its cultural roots because of its overriding adherence to a purely scientific method of inquiry, this study aims to promote a more robust and holistic understanding of landscape. Drawing predominately on film and cultural-geography research, it identifies and examines, through the use of content analysis, a range of ways that film landscapes have been conceptualized in the scholarly literature; it then explores the terminology (e.g., function, control, social construction, interpretation) underlying these conceptualizations. Existing studies on filmic landscapes often conceptualize landscapes according to the functions they perform and the ways they are interpreted, represented, or socially constructed, most commonly in terms of how they mirror the inner psychological processes of a film’s protagonist. Alternatively, some approach landscape as a living entity and agent in its own right. Both approaches reflect the mutual interdependence of landscape and human beings, and both can contribute to the development of perspectives that go beyond the physical-landscape dimension in landscape architecture and help researchers in the field to develop a broader sensitivity and awareness vis-à-vis their subject.

References

  • Aitken, S. C. & Zonn, L. (Ed.). (1994). Place, power, situation and spectacle: A geography of film. Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Aminzadeh, B., Motevaliand, M. & Nikooparast, S. (2016). A proposal for landscape design process based on scenario writing phases in cinema and its application in the Darabad. Urban Design International, 21(2), 175–189.
  • Andersen, T. (2011). Get out of the car: A commentary. Penz, F. & Lu, A. (Ed.), Urban cinematics: Understanding urban phenomena through the moving image (s. 53–73). Intellect.
  • Backhaus, G. (2009). Introduction I: The problematic of grounding the significance of symbolic landscapes. Backhaus, G. & Murungi, J. (Ed.), Symbolic landscapes (s. 3–32). Springer.
  • Brown, S. (2014). Reading meaning in designed landscapes. (Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). The University of Guelph.
  • Carleton, S. (2009). Cinema and the Australian North: Tracking and troping regionally distinct landscapes via Baz Luhrmann’s ‘Australia’. Metro, 163, 50–55.
  • Christie, I. (2000). Landscape and ‘location’: Reading filmic space historically. Rethinking History, 4(2), 165–174.
  • Cook, A. (2013). Terror firma: Manufacturing and marketing the horrors of the bush in picnic at hanging rock. J. Rayner & G. Harper (Ed.), Film landscapes: Cinema, environment and visual culture (s. 25–42). Cambridge Scholars.
  • Curti, G. H. (2008). The ghost in the city and a landscape of life: A reading of difference in Shirow and Oshii’s Ghost in the Shell. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 26, 87–106.
  • Çam, A. (2016). Sinemasal Mekânlar ve Sinemasal Mekânlarin Çözümlenmesi. Sinecine, 7(2), 7–37.
  • Dee, C. (2004). ‘The imaginary texture of the real…’ critical visual studies in landscape architecture: Contexts, foundations and approaches. Landscape Research, 29(1), 13–30.
  • Dissanayake, W. (2010). Landscapes of meaning in cinema: Two Indian examples. G. Harper & J. Rayner (Ed.), Cinema and landscape (s. 191–202). Intellect.
  • Dixon, D. P. & Grimes, J. (2004). Capitalism, masculinity and whiteness in the dialectical landscape: The case of Tarzan and the Tycoon. GeoJournal, 59(4), 265–275.
  • Eisenstein, S. (1987). Nonindifferent nature. University of Cambridge.
  • Forrest, D. & Rayner, J. (2013). “Sheffield film studies and Sheffield studies film”: The cinema and landscape project. J. Rayner & G. Harper (Ed.), Film landscapes: Cinema, environment and visual culture (s. 199–215). Cambridge Scholars.
  • Fridh, S. (2006). Filmiska landskap-film som representation, verktyg och handling i landskapsarkitektur (İsveçce) (Filmic landscapes-film as representation, tool and practice in landscape architecture). (Yayımlanmamış Bitirme Tezi). Peyzaj Mimarlığı Programı, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
  • Harper, G. & Rayner, J. (2013). Introduction. J. Rayner & G. Harper (Ed.), Film landscapes: Cinema, environment and visual culture (s. 1–8). Cambridge Scholars.
  • Helfield, G. & Fowler, C. (Ed.). (2006). Representing the rural: Space, place, and identity in films about the land. Wayne State University.
  • Jazairy, E. H. (2009). Cinematic landscapes in Antonioni’s L’Avventura. Journal of Cultural Geography, 26(3), 349–367. DOI: 10.1080/08873630903322262
  • Koeck, R. (2012). Cine-scapes, cinematic spaces in architecture and cities. Routledge.
  • Lefebvre, M. (2011). On landscape in narrative cinema. Revue Canadienne d’Études cinématographiques/Canadian Journal of Film Studies, 20(1), 61–78.
  • Lukinbeal, C. (2005). Cinematic landscapes. Journal of Cultural Geography, 23(1), 3–22. DOI: 10.1080/08873630509478229
  • Lukinbeal, C. & Zimmermann, S. (Ed.). (2008). The geography of cinema: A cinematic world. Franz Steiner Verlag.
  • Mactaggart, A. (2013). Lynchian landscapes and the legacy of the American sublime. J. Rayner & G. Harper (Ed.), Film landscapes: Cinema, environment and visual culture (s.146–162). Cambridge Scholars.
  • McHugh, K. E. (2005). Oh, the places they’ll go! Mobility, place and landscape in the film This is Nowhere. Journal of Cultural Geography, 23(1), 1–90. DOI: 10.1080/08873630509478232
  • Melbye, D. (2006). The contemplative landscape: Allegories of space in cinema. (Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi). Faculty of the Graduate School, University of Southern California.
  • Melbye, D. (2017). Psychological landscape films: Narrative and stylistic approaches. Aniki, 4(1), 108–132. DOI: 10.14591/aniki.v4n1.267
  • Mumcu, S. (2020). Peyzaj Mimarlığında Alternatif Bir Öğrenme Aracı: Film Peyzajları ve Potansiyel Katkıları. Megaron, 15(1), 138–148. DOI: 10.14744/MEGARON.2020.09582
  • Mumcu, S. & Yılmaz, S. (2018). Anime landscapes as a tool for analyzing the human–environment relatonship: Hayao Miyazaki films. Arts, 7(16). DOI: 10.3390/arts7020016
  • Pandian, A. (2011). Landscapes of expression: Affective encounters in South Indian cinema. Cinema Journal, 51(1), 50–74.
  • Penz, F. & Lu, A. (2011). Urban cinematics: Understanding urban phenomena through the moving image. Intellect.
  • Raaphorst, K., Roeleveld, G., Duchart, I., Van der Knaap, W. & Van den Brink, A. (2020). Reading landscape design representations as an interplay of validity, readability and interactivity: a framework for visual content analysis. Visual Communication, 19(2), 163–197. DOI: 10.1177/1470357218779103
  • Saunders, F. P. (2013). Seeing and doing conservation differently: A discussion of landscape aesthetics, wilderness, and biodiversity conservation. The Journal of Environment Development, 22, 3–24.
  • Schwarz, A. (2013). Looking for shell beach: Darkcity’s digital landscape and Australian national cinema. Jonathan Rayner & Graeme Harper (Ed.), Film landscapes: Cinema, environment and visual culture (s. 74–87). Cambridge Scholars.
  • Stedman, R. C. (2003). Is it really just a social construction? The contribution of the physical environment to sense of place. Society &Natural Resources, 16(8), 671–685. DOI: 10.1080/08941920309189
  • Stieve, T. (2013). Landscape of the unknown: mobilizing three understandings of landscape to interpret American and Indian cinematic outer space. GeoJournal, 78, 165–180. DOI: 10.1007/s10708-011-9436-4
  • Swaffield, S. (2005). Landscape as a way of knowing the World. Harvey, S. & Fieldhouse, K. (Ed.), The cultured landscape: Designing the environment in the 21st century (s. 3–24). Routledge.
  • Thwaites, K. & Simkins, I. (2007). Experiential landscape; An approach to people, place and space. Routledge.
  • Tschida, D. A. (2004). The Crocodile Hunter, the Jeff Corwin Experience, and the construction of nature: Examining the narratives and metaphors in television’s environmental communication. (Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi). University of Missouri.
  • Weihsmann, H. (2011). Ciné-City strolls: Imagery, form, language and meaning of the city film. F. Penz & A. Lu (Ed.), Urban cinematics: Understanding urban phenomena through the moving image (s. 23–41). Intellect.

FİLMLERDEKİ PEYZAJ YAKLAŞIMLARI VE KAVRAMLARI; PEYZAJ MİMARLIĞI BAĞLAMINDA BİR YORUMLAMA

Year 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, 331 - 365, 08.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.32001/sinecine.865928

Abstract

Sanatın bir dalı olarak sinema; insan, yer ve peyzajı anlamak üzere bir araç sağlar. Ancak peyzaj mimarlığında film peyzajlarının potansiyelini görmezden gelen bir araştırma, eğitim ve meslek yaklaşımı yaygındır. Bu çalışmada film peyzajlarına ilişkin yaklaşımların tartışılmasının, peyzajın çok katmanlı ve açık uçlu yapısının daha derinlemesine ve iyi anlaşılmasına katkıda bulunacağı varsayılmıştır. Böylece bu çalışma bilimsel yöntem anlayışının benimsenmesiyle kültürel köklerinden kopmuş olan peyzaj mimarlığı disiplininin tekrar daha güçlü bir peyzaj anlayışına kavuşmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlar. Bu nedenle çalışmada film peyzajlarına ilişkin kavramlaştırmalar tespit edilmiş ve irdelenmiştir. Film peyzajları üzerinden tartışmalar yürüten çeşitli araştırmalar saptanmış; içerik analizi ile peyzaja ilişkin kavramsal yaklaşımlar ve filmler üzerinden yaptıkları açıklamalar incelenmiştir. Daha sonra kavramlaştırmanın temelinde yer alan durumlar (işlev, denetim, sosyal inşa, yorumlanma vb. gibi) tanımlanmış ve peyzaj kavramları listelenmiştir. Yapılan araştırma, film peyzajlarının daha çok film ve kültürel coğrafya araştırmaları bağlamında ele alınmış olduğunu ve peyzaj mimarlığı araştırmalarında film peyzajlarına odaklanmanın yaygınlaşması gerekliliğini ortaya koymuştur. Film peyzajlarına ilişkin araştırmalarda peyzajlar genellikle üstlendikleri işlevlere, yorumlanma, temsil edilme ya da sosyal inşa şekillerine göre kavramlaştırılmışlardır. Peyzajın en sık karşılaşılan kavramlaştırma şeklinin kahramanların içsel psikolojik süreçlerine ayna tutması üzerine olduğu görülür. Bu ise peyzaj ve insan kavramlarının karşılıklı birbirlerine bağlılığını yansıtır. Ayrıca filmlerde peyzajı canlı bir varlık, oyuncu, filmin bir çalışanı olarak gören yaklaşımlar, peyzaj mimarlığında fiziksel peyzaj boyutundan öteye geçen, duyarlılık ve farkındalık geliştiren bakış açılarının gelişmesine katkıda bulunabilir.

References

  • Aitken, S. C. & Zonn, L. (Ed.). (1994). Place, power, situation and spectacle: A geography of film. Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Aminzadeh, B., Motevaliand, M. & Nikooparast, S. (2016). A proposal for landscape design process based on scenario writing phases in cinema and its application in the Darabad. Urban Design International, 21(2), 175–189.
  • Andersen, T. (2011). Get out of the car: A commentary. Penz, F. & Lu, A. (Ed.), Urban cinematics: Understanding urban phenomena through the moving image (s. 53–73). Intellect.
  • Backhaus, G. (2009). Introduction I: The problematic of grounding the significance of symbolic landscapes. Backhaus, G. & Murungi, J. (Ed.), Symbolic landscapes (s. 3–32). Springer.
  • Brown, S. (2014). Reading meaning in designed landscapes. (Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). The University of Guelph.
  • Carleton, S. (2009). Cinema and the Australian North: Tracking and troping regionally distinct landscapes via Baz Luhrmann’s ‘Australia’. Metro, 163, 50–55.
  • Christie, I. (2000). Landscape and ‘location’: Reading filmic space historically. Rethinking History, 4(2), 165–174.
  • Cook, A. (2013). Terror firma: Manufacturing and marketing the horrors of the bush in picnic at hanging rock. J. Rayner & G. Harper (Ed.), Film landscapes: Cinema, environment and visual culture (s. 25–42). Cambridge Scholars.
  • Curti, G. H. (2008). The ghost in the city and a landscape of life: A reading of difference in Shirow and Oshii’s Ghost in the Shell. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 26, 87–106.
  • Çam, A. (2016). Sinemasal Mekânlar ve Sinemasal Mekânlarin Çözümlenmesi. Sinecine, 7(2), 7–37.
  • Dee, C. (2004). ‘The imaginary texture of the real…’ critical visual studies in landscape architecture: Contexts, foundations and approaches. Landscape Research, 29(1), 13–30.
  • Dissanayake, W. (2010). Landscapes of meaning in cinema: Two Indian examples. G. Harper & J. Rayner (Ed.), Cinema and landscape (s. 191–202). Intellect.
  • Dixon, D. P. & Grimes, J. (2004). Capitalism, masculinity and whiteness in the dialectical landscape: The case of Tarzan and the Tycoon. GeoJournal, 59(4), 265–275.
  • Eisenstein, S. (1987). Nonindifferent nature. University of Cambridge.
  • Forrest, D. & Rayner, J. (2013). “Sheffield film studies and Sheffield studies film”: The cinema and landscape project. J. Rayner & G. Harper (Ed.), Film landscapes: Cinema, environment and visual culture (s. 199–215). Cambridge Scholars.
  • Fridh, S. (2006). Filmiska landskap-film som representation, verktyg och handling i landskapsarkitektur (İsveçce) (Filmic landscapes-film as representation, tool and practice in landscape architecture). (Yayımlanmamış Bitirme Tezi). Peyzaj Mimarlığı Programı, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
  • Harper, G. & Rayner, J. (2013). Introduction. J. Rayner & G. Harper (Ed.), Film landscapes: Cinema, environment and visual culture (s. 1–8). Cambridge Scholars.
  • Helfield, G. & Fowler, C. (Ed.). (2006). Representing the rural: Space, place, and identity in films about the land. Wayne State University.
  • Jazairy, E. H. (2009). Cinematic landscapes in Antonioni’s L’Avventura. Journal of Cultural Geography, 26(3), 349–367. DOI: 10.1080/08873630903322262
  • Koeck, R. (2012). Cine-scapes, cinematic spaces in architecture and cities. Routledge.
  • Lefebvre, M. (2011). On landscape in narrative cinema. Revue Canadienne d’Études cinématographiques/Canadian Journal of Film Studies, 20(1), 61–78.
  • Lukinbeal, C. (2005). Cinematic landscapes. Journal of Cultural Geography, 23(1), 3–22. DOI: 10.1080/08873630509478229
  • Lukinbeal, C. & Zimmermann, S. (Ed.). (2008). The geography of cinema: A cinematic world. Franz Steiner Verlag.
  • Mactaggart, A. (2013). Lynchian landscapes and the legacy of the American sublime. J. Rayner & G. Harper (Ed.), Film landscapes: Cinema, environment and visual culture (s.146–162). Cambridge Scholars.
  • McHugh, K. E. (2005). Oh, the places they’ll go! Mobility, place and landscape in the film This is Nowhere. Journal of Cultural Geography, 23(1), 1–90. DOI: 10.1080/08873630509478232
  • Melbye, D. (2006). The contemplative landscape: Allegories of space in cinema. (Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi). Faculty of the Graduate School, University of Southern California.
  • Melbye, D. (2017). Psychological landscape films: Narrative and stylistic approaches. Aniki, 4(1), 108–132. DOI: 10.14591/aniki.v4n1.267
  • Mumcu, S. (2020). Peyzaj Mimarlığında Alternatif Bir Öğrenme Aracı: Film Peyzajları ve Potansiyel Katkıları. Megaron, 15(1), 138–148. DOI: 10.14744/MEGARON.2020.09582
  • Mumcu, S. & Yılmaz, S. (2018). Anime landscapes as a tool for analyzing the human–environment relatonship: Hayao Miyazaki films. Arts, 7(16). DOI: 10.3390/arts7020016
  • Pandian, A. (2011). Landscapes of expression: Affective encounters in South Indian cinema. Cinema Journal, 51(1), 50–74.
  • Penz, F. & Lu, A. (2011). Urban cinematics: Understanding urban phenomena through the moving image. Intellect.
  • Raaphorst, K., Roeleveld, G., Duchart, I., Van der Knaap, W. & Van den Brink, A. (2020). Reading landscape design representations as an interplay of validity, readability and interactivity: a framework for visual content analysis. Visual Communication, 19(2), 163–197. DOI: 10.1177/1470357218779103
  • Saunders, F. P. (2013). Seeing and doing conservation differently: A discussion of landscape aesthetics, wilderness, and biodiversity conservation. The Journal of Environment Development, 22, 3–24.
  • Schwarz, A. (2013). Looking for shell beach: Darkcity’s digital landscape and Australian national cinema. Jonathan Rayner & Graeme Harper (Ed.), Film landscapes: Cinema, environment and visual culture (s. 74–87). Cambridge Scholars.
  • Stedman, R. C. (2003). Is it really just a social construction? The contribution of the physical environment to sense of place. Society &Natural Resources, 16(8), 671–685. DOI: 10.1080/08941920309189
  • Stieve, T. (2013). Landscape of the unknown: mobilizing three understandings of landscape to interpret American and Indian cinematic outer space. GeoJournal, 78, 165–180. DOI: 10.1007/s10708-011-9436-4
  • Swaffield, S. (2005). Landscape as a way of knowing the World. Harvey, S. & Fieldhouse, K. (Ed.), The cultured landscape: Designing the environment in the 21st century (s. 3–24). Routledge.
  • Thwaites, K. & Simkins, I. (2007). Experiential landscape; An approach to people, place and space. Routledge.
  • Tschida, D. A. (2004). The Crocodile Hunter, the Jeff Corwin Experience, and the construction of nature: Examining the narratives and metaphors in television’s environmental communication. (Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi). University of Missouri.
  • Weihsmann, H. (2011). Ciné-City strolls: Imagery, form, language and meaning of the city film. F. Penz & A. Lu (Ed.), Urban cinematics: Understanding urban phenomena through the moving image (s. 23–41). Intellect.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Communication
Journal Section Features
Authors

Sema MUMCU> (Primary Author)
KARADENİZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5198-9117
Türkiye

Supporting Institution yok
Project Number yok
Publication Date October 8, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2

Cite

APA Mumcu, S. (2021). FİLMLERDEKİ PEYZAJ YAKLAŞIMLARI VE KAVRAMLARI; PEYZAJ MİMARLIĞI BAĞLAMINDA BİR YORUMLAMA . sinecine: Sinema Araştırmaları Dergisi , 12 (2) , 331-365 . DOI: 10.32001/sinecine.865928

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