Year 2019, Volume 20 , Issue 37, Pages 1075 - 1100 2019-07-31

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA MULTITASKING, WORKING MEMORY AND SUSTAINED ATTENTION
Çoklu Medya Görevi ile Çalışma Belleği ve Sürekli Dikkati İlişkisi

Mine İMREN [1] , Hasan Gürkan TEKMAN [2]


Using more than one device simultaneously is almost inevitable in our daily lives because we face an overload of information and digital devices. As a result, the effects of multitasking on working memory and sustained attention have become a popular research topic in the literature, even if with inconsistent results. The current study aims to examine the effects of media multitasking behavior on sustained attention and working memory with a sample of Turkish young adults. Continuous Performance Task (CPT) and Digit Span tasks were employed for sustained attention and working memory, respectively. The results showed that media multitasking correlated positively with digit span task performance and negatively with the reaction time of false response in the CPT task. That is to say, media multitasking may improve working memory performance but inhibit maintaining attention. The results are discussed in the light of theories of limited capacity, multiple resources, and neural plasticity.

Teknoloji çağında doğan ve büyüyen gençler, dijital cihazları az bir çaba ile adeta uzman düzeyinde kullanabilmektedir. Öyle ki, birden fazla medya cihazının eş zamanlı veya aralarında geçişler yapılarak kullanımı olarak tanımlanan Çoklu medya görevi (ÇMG) davranışı özellikle gençler tarafından sıklıkla gerçekleştirilmektedir. Teknoloji tüketimi günden güne artış gösterirken, teknoloji kullanımının bilişsel düzeydeki sonuçları ile ilgili çalışmalar da artış göstermektedir. Ancak bu çalışma sonuçları özellikle çalışma belleği ve sürekli dikkat yetileri açısından karmaşık sonuçlar ortaya koymaktadır. Mevcut araştırma ise, daha önce çalışılmamış olan Türk gençleri örnekleminde çoklu medya davranışı ile sürekli dikkat ve çalışma belleği performansları arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemeyi amaçlamıştır. Çalışmada çalışma belleği ve sürekli dikkat yetilerini ölçmek için sırasıyla, Sayı menzili ve Sürekli performans testi (SPT) görevleri kullanılmıştır. Sonuçlar, daha yüksek ÇMG bildiriminin daha iyi çalışma belleği performansı ile ve daha kötü sürekli dikkat performansı ile ilişkili olduğunu göstermiştir. Elde edilen bulgular, kapasite ve çoklu kaynak teorileri ile nöroplastisite ışığında tartışılmıştır.
  • Anguera, Joaqun A. et al. (2013). “Video Game Training Enhances Cognitive Control in Older Adults”. Nature, Iss. 501, p. 97-101.
  • Baddeley, Alan D. and Robert Logie (1999). “Working Memory: The Multiple Component Model”. In A. Miyake, & P. Shah (Eds.), Models of Working Memory. New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 28-61.
  • Baddeley, Alan D. and Graham, J. Hitch (1974). “Working Memory”. In Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Academic press. Vol. 8, p. 47-89.
  • Ballesteros, Soledad et al. (2017). “Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from A Randomized Controlled Trial”. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, Vol. 9, Iss. 354, p. 1-15.
  • Baumgartner, Susanne E. et al. (2014). “The Relationship between Media Multitasking and Executive Function in Early Adolescents”. The Journal of Early Adolescence, Vol. 34, Iss. 8, p. 1-25.
  • Bediou, Benoit et al. (2018). “Meta-analysis of Action Video Game Impact on Perceptual, Attentional, and Cognitive Skills”. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 144, Iss. 1, p. 77-110.
  • Blacker, Kara J. and Kim M. Curby (2013). “Enhanced Visual Shortterm Memory in Action Videogame Players”. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, Vol. 75, Iss. 6, p. 1128-1136.
  • Blacker, Kara J. et al. (2017). “N-back Versus Complex Span Working Memory Training”. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, Vol. 1, Iss. 4, p. 434-454.
  • Boot, Walter R. et al. (2008). “The Effects of Video Game Playing on Attention, Memory, and Executive Control”. Acta Psychologica, Vol. 129, Iss. 3, p. 387-398.
  • Borst, Jelmer P. et al. (2010). “The Problem State: A Cognitive Bottleneck in Multitasking”. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, Vol. 36, Iss. 2, p. 363-382.
  • Broadbent, Donald Eric (1958). Perception and Communication. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Cain, Matthew S. et al. (2016). “Media Multitasking in Adolescence”. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Vol. 23, Iss. 6, p. 1932-1941.
  • Cain, Matthew S. and Stephen Mitroff (2011). “Distractor Filtering in Media Multitaskers”. Perception, Vol. 40, Iss. 10, p. 1183-1192.
  • Cardoso-Leite, Pedro et al. (2015). “On The Impact of New Technologies on Multitasking”. Developmental Review, Vol. 35, March, p. 98-112.
  • Cardoso-Leite, Pedro et al. (2016). “Technology Consumption and Cognitive Control: Contrasting Action Video Game Experience with Media Multitasking”. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, Vol. 78, Iss. 1, p. 218-241.
  • Choudhury, Suparna and Kelly A. McKinney (2013), “Digital Media, the Developing Brain and the Interpretive Plasticity of Neuroplasticity”. Transcultural Psychiatry, Vol. 50, Iss. 2, p. 192-215.
  • Clark, Cameron et al. (2017). “Working Memory Training in Healthy Young Adults: Support for the Null from a Randomized Comparison to Active and Passive Control Groups”. PLOS ONE, Vol. 12, Iss. 5, e0177707.
  • Colom, Roberto et al. (2010), “Intelligence, Working Memory, and Multitasking Performance”, Intelligence, Vol. 38, Iss. 6, p. 543-551.
  • Colzato, Lorenzo S. et al. (2013). “Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games is associated with Improvement in Working Memory but not Action Inhibition”. Psychological Research, Vol. 77, Iss. 2, p. 234-239.
  • Cowan, Nelson (1988). “Evolving Conceptions of Memory Storage, Selective Attention, and Their Mutual Constraints within the Human Information-Processing System”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 104, Iss. 2, p. 163-191.
  • Edwards, Kathleen S. and Myoungju Shin (2017). “Media Multitasking and Implicit Learning”. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, Vol. 79, Iss. 5, p. 1535-1549.
  • Fan, Xitao et al. (2006). “An Exploratory Study about Inaccuracy and Invalidity in Adolescent Self-Report Surveys”. Field Methods, Vol. 18, Iss. 3, p. 223-244.
  • Goldstein, E. Bruce (2011). Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience. Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
  • Green, C. Shawn and Daphne Bavelier (2015). “Action Video Game Training for Cognitive Enhancement”. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 4, August, p. 103-108.
  • Gunzelmann, Glenn et al. (2010). “Fatigue in Sustained Attention: Generalizing Mechanisms for Time Awake to Time on Task”. Cognitive Fatigue: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Current Research and Future Applications, Ed. Phillip Ackerman, Washington DC: American Psychological Association, p. 83-96.
  • Harrison, Tyler L. et al. (2013). “Working Memory Training may Increase Working Memory Capacity but Not Fluid Intelligence”. Psychological Science, Vol. 24, Iss. 12, p. 2409-2419.
  • Hsu, Wan-Yu et al. (2015). “Delayed Enhancement of Multitasking Performance: Effects of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on the Prefrontal Cortex”. Cortex, Vol. 69, August, p. 175-185.
  • Hsu, Wan-Yu et al. (2017). “Enhancement of Multitasking Performance and Neural Oscillations by Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation”. PLOS ONE, Vol. 12, Iss. 5, e0178579.
  • Jak, Amy (2012). “The Impact of Physical and Mental Activity on Cognitive Aging”. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, Vol. 10, p. 273-291.
  • Jeong, Se-Hoon and Yoori Hwang (2016). “Media Multitasking Effects on Cognitive vs. Attitudinal Outcomes: A Meta‐Analysis”. Human Communication Research, Vol. 42, Iss. 4, p. 599-618.
  • Kahneman, Daniel (1973). Attention and Effort. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
  • Kantar Millward Brown (2014a). “How Are Screens Used?” https://www.millwardbrown.com/adreaction [Access Date: 07.11. 2018].
  • ___________________ (2014b). “How Do People Multiscreen?” https://www.millwardbrown.com/adreaction [Access Date: 07.11. 2018].
  • Lang, Annie and Jasmin Chrzan (2015). “Media Multitasking: Good, Bad, or Ugly?” Annals of the International Communication Association, Vol. 39, Iss. 1, p. 99-128.
  • Lang, Annie (2006). “Using the Limited Capacity Model of Motivated Mediated Message Processing to Design Effective Cancer Communication Messages”. Journal of Communication, Vol. 56, Iss. 1, p. 57-80.
  • Linares, Rocio et al. (2018). “Training Working Memory Updating in Young Adults”. Psychological Research, Vol. 82, Iss. 3, p. 535-548.
  • Loh, Kep-Kee and Ryota Kanai (2016). “How Has The Internet Reshaped Human Cognition?”. The Neuroscientist, Vol. 22, Iss. 5, p. 506-520.
  • Mathôt, Sebastiaan et al. (2012). “OpenSesame: An Open-Source, Graphical Experiment Builder for the Social Sciences”. Behavior Research Methods, Vol. 44, Iss. 2, p. 314-324.
  • McDermott, Ashley et al. (2014). “Memory Abilities in Action Video Game Players”. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 34, May, p. 69-78.
  • Melby-Lervåg, Monica and Charles Hulme (2013). “Is Working Memory Training Effective? A Meta-Analytic Review”. Developmental Psychology, Vol. 49, Iss. 2, p. 270-291.
  • Meyer, David E. and David Kieras (1997). “A Computational Theory of Executive Cognitive Processes and Multiple-Task Performance: Part 1. Basic Mechanisms”. Psychological Review, Vol. 104, Iss. 1, p. 3-65.
  • Minear, Meredith et al. (2013). “Working Memory, Fluid Intelligence, and Impulsiveness in Heavy Media Multitaskers”. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Vol. 20, Iss. 6, p. 1274-1281.
  • Moisala, Mona et al. (2016). “Media Multitasking Is associated with Distractibility and Increased Prefrontal Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults”. NeuroImage, Vol. 134, July, p. 113-121.
  • Navon, David, and Daniel Gopher (1979). “On the Economy of the Human-Processing System”. Psychological Review, Vol. 86, Iss. 3, p. 214-255.
  • Ophir, Eyal et al. (2009). “Cognitive Control in Media Multitaskers”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, Iss. 37, p. 15583-15587.
  • Pashler, Harold (1994). “Dual-Task Interference in Simple Tasks: Data and Theory”. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 116, Iss. 2, p. 220-244.
  • Peker, Ayfer and Süreyya Karagöz (2009). “Vardiya Sistemi İle Çalışan Hemşirelerin Dikkat Düzeyleri”. Toplum ve Hekim, Vol. 29, Iss. 2, p. 140-149.
  • Ralph Brandon C. W. and Daniel Smilek (2017). “Individual Differences in MM and Performance on the N-Back”. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, Vol. 79, Iss. 2, p. 1-11.
  • Ralph, Brandon C. W. et al. (2015). “Media Multitasking and Behavioral Measures of Sustained Attention”. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, Vol. 77, Iss. 2, p. 390-401.
  • Ralph, Brandon C. W. et al. (2014). “Media Multitasking and Failures of Attention in Everyday Life”. Psychological Research, Vol. 78, Iss. 5, p. 661-669.
  • Rosvold, H. Enger et al. (1956). “A Continuous Performance Test of Brain Damage”. Journal of Consulting Psychology, Vol. 20, Iss. 5, p. 343.
  • Sanbonmatsu, David et al. (2013). “Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking”. PLoS ONE, Vol. 8, Iss. 1, e54402.
  • Sarter, Martin et al. (2001). “The Cognitive Neuroscience of Sustained Attention: Where Top-Down Meets Bottom-Up”. Brain Research Review, Vol. 35, Iss. 2, p. 146-160.
  • Savaşır, Işık and Nail Şahin (1995). Wechsler Çocuklar İçin Zekâ Ölçeği (WISC-R) El Kitabı. Ankara: Türk Psikoloji Derneği Yayınları.
  • Sepede, Gianna et al. (2014). “Sustained Attention in Psychosis: Neuroimaging Findings”. World Journal of Radiology, Vol. 6, Iss. 6, p. 261-273.
  • Shipstead, Zach et al. (2012). “Is Working Memory Training Effective?”. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 138, Iss. 4, p. 628.
  • Tekeli, Çağla (2013). Multiple Skleroz (MS) ve Hidrosefali Hastalarının Bilişsel Profillerinin Bellek Dikkat, Yönetici Işlevler Ve Görsel -Mekânsal Algı Açısından Karşılaştırılması. Yüksek Lisans Tezi. İstanbul: İstanbul Üniversitesi.
  • Telford, Charles (1931). “The Refractory Phase of Voluntary and Associative Responses”. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol. 14, Iss. 1, p. 1-36.
  • TÜİK (2018). “Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Usage in Households and by Individuals”. http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/UstMenu.do?metod=kategorist [Access Date: 07.05.2017].
  • Unchapher, Melina et al. (2016). “Media Multitasking and Memory: Differences in Working Memory and Long-Term Memory”. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Vol. 23, Iss. 2, p. 483-490.
  • Unsworth, Nash et al. (2015). “Is Playing Video Games Related to Cognitive Abilities?”. Psychological Science, Vol. 26, Iss. 6, p. 759-774.
  • Van der Schuur, Winneke et al. (2015). “The Consequences of Media Multitasking for Youth: A Review”. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 53, December, p. 204-215.
  • Voorveld, Hilde A. and Margot Van der Goot (2013). “Media Multitasking Across Age Groups: A Diary Study”. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 57, Iss. 3, p. 392-408.
  • Welford, Alan Traviss (1952). “The “Psychological Refractory Period” and the Timing of High-Speed Performance: A Review and a Theory”. British Journal of Psychology, Vol. 43, Iss. 1, p. 2-19.
  • Wiradhany, Wisnu, and Mark Nieuwenstein (2017). “Cognitive Control in Media Multitaskers: Two Replication Studies and a Meta-Analysis”. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, Vol. 79, Iss. 8, p. 1-22.
  • Yap, Jit Y. and Stephen Wee H. Lim (2013). “Media Multitasking Predicts Unitary Versus Splitting Visual Focal Attention”. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 25, Iss. 7, p. 889-902.
  • Zaimoğlu, Sennur (1997). Gelişimsel Süreçte Üst Düzey Bilişsel İşlevler: Olayla İlintili Potansiyeller ve Nöropsikolojik Test Performansı. Tıpta Uzmanlık Tezi. İstanbul: Marmara Üniversitesi.
Primary Language en
Subjects Psychology
Published Date Temmuz
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0003-0660-5396
Author: Mine İMREN
Institution: AHİ EVRAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-0859-6836
Author: Hasan Gürkan TEKMAN
Institution: ULUDAĞ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : July 31, 2019

Bibtex @research article { sosbilder487649, journal = {Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi}, issn = {1302-2423}, eissn = {2564-6834}, address = {Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Bölümü 16059 Nilüfer-Görükle-Bursa}, publisher = {Bursa Uludağ University}, year = {2019}, volume = {20}, pages = {1075 - 1100}, doi = {10.21550/sosbilder.487649}, title = {THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA MULTITASKING, WORKING MEMORY AND SUSTAINED ATTENTION}, key = {cite}, author = {İMREN, Mine and TEKMAN, Hasan Gürkan} }
APA İMREN, M , TEKMAN, H . (2019). THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA MULTITASKING, WORKING MEMORY AND SUSTAINED ATTENTION. Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 20 (37) , 1075-1100 . DOI: 10.21550/sosbilder.487649
MLA İMREN, M , TEKMAN, H . "THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA MULTITASKING, WORKING MEMORY AND SUSTAINED ATTENTION". Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 20 (2019 ): 1075-1100 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/sosbilder/issue/46266/487649>
Chicago İMREN, M , TEKMAN, H . "THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA MULTITASKING, WORKING MEMORY AND SUSTAINED ATTENTION". Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 20 (2019 ): 1075-1100
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA MULTITASKING, WORKING MEMORY AND SUSTAINED ATTENTION AU - Mine İMREN , Hasan Gürkan TEKMAN Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.21550/sosbilder.487649 DO - 10.21550/sosbilder.487649 T2 - Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1075 EP - 1100 VL - 20 IS - 37 SN - 1302-2423-2564-6834 M3 - doi: 10.21550/sosbilder.487649 UR - https://doi.org/10.21550/sosbilder.487649 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA MULTITASKING, WORKING MEMORY AND SUSTAINED ATTENTION %A Mine İMREN , Hasan Gürkan TEKMAN %T THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA MULTITASKING, WORKING MEMORY AND SUSTAINED ATTENTION %D 2019 %J Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi %P 1302-2423-2564-6834 %V 20 %N 37 %R doi: 10.21550/sosbilder.487649 %U 10.21550/sosbilder.487649
ISNAD İMREN, Mine , TEKMAN, Hasan Gürkan . "THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA MULTITASKING, WORKING MEMORY AND SUSTAINED ATTENTION". Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 20 / 37 (July 2019): 1075-1100 . https://doi.org/10.21550/sosbilder.487649
AMA İMREN M , TEKMAN H . THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA MULTITASKING, WORKING MEMORY AND SUSTAINED ATTENTION. Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 2019; 20(37): 1075-1100.
Vancouver İMREN M , TEKMAN H . THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA MULTITASKING, WORKING MEMORY AND SUSTAINED ATTENTION. Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 2019; 20(37): 1100-1075.