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Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender-Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis

Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 49, 85 - 111, 30.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.05

Abstract

This paper analyses the socioeconomic determinants of Turkey’s aggregate and gender-specific life expectancies from 1971 to 2017. The stationarity of data is checked with ADF, PP, and DFGLS unit root tests, while structural breaks are determined with the help of Zivot and Andrews (2002) unit root test. Also, ARDL bound test is conducted to identify co-integration. The estimated results show that the overall level of education, purchasing power, and economic development have a significant role in deciding the average life expectancy among the Turkish population at the aggregate, while population growth and environmental degradation are found to be insignificant. Gender-wise, estimation results show that environmental degradation, purchasing power, and level of male education contribute significantly to the life expectancy of males in Turkey, while economic development and the share of the male population are found to have insignificant effects. Moreover, environmental degradation, female education, fertility rates, and the female population significantly affect females' life expectancy, while purchasing power plays a statistically insignificant role. Overall, the results suggest that Turkey's government should implement policies to increase educational attainment, stabilize purchasing power, and maintain sustainable development with controlled fertility rates for higher-level life expectancy.

References

  • Ali, A. & C. Bibi (2017), “Determinants of Social Progress and its Scenarios under the role of Macroeconomic Instability: Empirics from Pakistan”, Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 55(2), 505-540.
  • Ali, A. & K. Ahmad (2014), “The Impact of Socio-Economic Factors on Life Expectancy in Sultanate of Oman: An Empirical Analysis”, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 22(2), 218-224.
  • Ali, A. & M. Audi (2016), “The Impact of Income Inequality, Environmental Degradation and Globalization on Life Expectancy in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis”, International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), 4(4), 182-193.
  • Ali, A. (2015), “The impact of macroeconomic instability on social progress: an empirical analysis of Pakistan”, PhD Dissertation, National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore.
  • Anand, S. & M. Ravallion (1993), “Human development in poor countries: on the role of private incomes and public services”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7(1), 133-150.
  • Audi, M. & A. Ali (2017), “Socio-Economic Development, Demographic Changes and Total Labor Productivity in Pakistan: A Co-Integrational and Decomposition Analysis”, Journal of Academy of Business and Economics, 17(2), 7-24.
  • Audi, M. & A. Ali (2017), “Socio-Economic Status and Life Expectancy in Lebanon: An Empirical Analysis”, Archives of Business Research, 5(11), 159-170.
  • Balan, C. & E. Jaba (2011), “Statistical analysis of the determinants of life expectancy in Romania”, Romanian Journal of Regional Science, 5(2), 25-38.
  • Ball, C.A. & W.N. Torous (1996), “Unit roots and the estimation of interest rate dynamics”, Journal of Empirical Finance, 3(2), 215-238.
  • Bayati, M. & R. Akbarian & Z. Kavosi (2013), “Determinants of life expectancy in eastern mediterranean region: a health production function”, International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 1(1), 57-61.
  • Bergh, A. & T. Nilsson (2010), “Good for living? On the relationship between globalization and life expectancy”, World Development, 38(9), 1191-1203.
  • Brown, R.L. & J. Durbin & J.M. Evans (1975), “Techniques for testing the constancy of regression relationships over time”, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 37(2), 149-163.
  • Cockerham, W.C. & A. Rütten & T. Abel (1997), “Conceptualizing contemporary health lifestyles”, The Sociological Quarterly, 38(2), 321-342.
  • Colantonio, E. & R. Marianacci & N. Mattoscio (2010), “On human capital and economic development: some results for Africa”, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 266-272.
  • Cumper, G.E. (1984), Determinants of health levels in developing countries, Research Studies Press Ltd.
  • Dickey, D.A. & W.A. Fuller (1981), “Likelihood ratio statistics for autoregressive time series with a unit root”, Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 49(4), 1057-1072.
  • Easterlin, R.A. (1974), “Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence”, in: Nations and households in economic growth, Academic Press, 89-125.
  • Elliott, G. (1998), “On the robustness of cointegration methods when regressors almost have unit roots”, Econometrica, 66(1), 149-158.
  • Engle, R.F. & C.W.J. Granger (1987), “Co-integration and Error Representation: Estimation and Testing”, Econometrica, 55(2), 251-276.
  • Fayissa, B. & P. Gutema (2005), “Estimating a health production function for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)”, Applied Economics, 37(2), 155-164.
  • Fiala, N. (2008), “Measuring sustainability: Why the ecological footprint is bad economics and bad environmental science”, Ecological Economics, 67(4), 519-525.
  • Franco, A. & C. Alvarez-Dardet & M.T. Ruiz (2004), “Effect of democracy on health: Ecological study”, British Medical Journal, 329(7480), 1421-1423.
  • Gerring, J. & P. Bond & W.T. Barndt & C. Moreno (2005), “Democracy and economic growth: A historical perspective”, World Politics, 57(3), 323-364.
  • Granger, C.W. (1969), “Investigating causal relations by econometric models and cross-spectral methods”, Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 37(3), 424-438.
  • Granger, C.W. (1988), “Some recent development in a concept of causality”, Journal of Econometrics, 39(1), 199-211.
  • Grosse, R.N. & C. Auffrey (1989), “Literacy and health status in developing countries”, Annual Review of Public Health, 10(1), 281-297.
  • Grossman, M. (1972), The demand for health: a theoretical and empirical investigation, NBER Books.
  • Guralnik, J.M. & A.Z. LaCroix & R.D. Abbott & L.F. Berkman & S. Satterfield & D.A. Evans & R.B. Wallace (1993), “Maintaining mobility in late life. I. Demographic characteristics and chronic conditions”, American Journal of Epidemiology, 137(8), 845-857.
  • Halicioglu, F. (2010), “Modelling life expectancy in Turkey”, MPRA Paper No. 30840.
  • Hertz, E. & J.R. Hebert & J. Landon (1994), “Social and environmental factors and life expectancy, infant mortality, and maternal mortality rates: Results of a cross-national comparison”, Social Science and Medicine, 39, 105-114.
  • Hill, M.A. & E. King (1995), “Women’s education and economic well-being”, Feminist Economics, 1(2), 21-46.
  • Johansen, S. & K. Juselius (1990), “Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Co-integration with Applications to the Demand for money”, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 52(2), 169-210.
  • Johansen, S. (1991), “Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Co-integration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive models”, Econometrica, 59(6), 1551-1580.
  • Johansen, S. (1992), “Co-integration in Partial Systems and the Efficiency of Single-Equation Analysis”, Journal of Econometric, 52(3), 389-402.
  • Kakwani, N. (1993), “Poverty and economic growth with application to Cote d’Ivoire”, Review of Income and Wealth, 39(2), 121-139.
  • Lake, D.A. & M.A. Baum (2001), “The invisible hand of democracy: political control and the provision of public services”, Comparative Political Studies, 34(6), 587-621.
  • Leybourne, S. & P. Newbold (2003), “Spurious Rejections by Co-integration Tests induced by Structural Breaks”, Applied Economics, 35(9), 1117-1121.
  • Lin, C.C. & E. Rogot & N.J. Johnson & P.D. Sorlie & E. Arias (2003), “A further study of life expectancy by socioeconomic factors in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study”, Ethnicity & Disease, 13(2), 240-247.
  • Mahfuz, K. (2008), “Determinants of life expectancy in developing countries”, Journal of Developing Areas, 41(2), 185-204.
  • Mahmud, W. & M. Asadullah & A. Savoia (2013), “Bangladesh’s achievements in social development indicators: explaining the puzzle”, Economic and Political Weekly, 48(44), 26-28.
  • Monsef, A. & A.S. Mehrjardi (2015), “Determinants of life expectancy: a panel data approach”, Asian Economic and Financial Review, 5(11), 1251-1257.
  • Murwirapachena, G. & C. Mlambo (2015), “Life Expectancy in Zimbabwe: An Analysis of Five Decades”, The International Business & Economics Research Journal (Online), 14(3), 417-430.
  • Narayan, P.K. (2005), “Testing the unit root hypothesis when the alternative is a trend break stationary process: an application to tourist arrivals in Fiji”, Tourism Economics, 11(3), 351-364.
  • Narayan, P.K. (2005), “The saving and investment nexus for China: evidence from cointegration tests”, Applied Economics, 37(17), 1979-1990.
  • Navarro, V. & C. Muntaner & C. Borrell & J. Benach & A. Quiroga & M. Rodriguez-Sanz et al. (2006), “Politics and health outcomes”, Lancet, 368(9540), 1033-1037.
  • Nelson, C.R. & C.R. Plosser (1982), “Trends and random walks in macroeconomic time series: some evidence and implications”, Journal of monetary economics, 10(2), 139-162.
  • Oney, M.M. (2012), “An Analysis of the Relationship between Health Expenditure and Health Outcomes”, PhD Dissertation, Youngstown State University.
  • Pattichis, C.A. (1999), “Price and income elasticities of disaggregated import demand: results from UECMs and an application”, Applied Economics, 31(9), 1061-1071.
  • Perron, P. (1989), “The Great Crash, the Oil Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis”, Econometrica, 57(6), 1361-1401.
  • Perron, P. (1997), “Further Evidence of Breaking Trend Functions in Macroeconomic Variables”, Journal of Econometrics, 80(2), 355-385.
  • Pesaran, M.H. & B. Pesaran (1997), Working with Microfit 4.0: Interactive Econometric Analysis, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Pesaran, M.H. & Y. Shin & R.P. Smith (1999), “Pooled mean group estimation of dynamic heterogeneous panels”, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 94(446), 621-634.
  • Pesaran, M.H. & Y.Shin & R.J. Smith (2001), “Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships”, Journal of Applied Economics, 16, 289-326.
  • Phillips, P.C. & P. Perron (1988), “Testing for a unit root in time series regression”, Biometrika, 75(2), 335-346.
  • Poikolainen, K. & J. Eskola (1988), “Health services resources and their relation to mortality from causes amenable to health care intervention: a cross-national study”, International Journal of Epidemiology, 17(1), 86-89.
  • Preston, S.H. (1976), Mortality patterns in national populations, New York: Academic Press.
  • Preston, S.H. (1980), “Causes and consequences of mortality declines in less developed countries during the twentieth century”, in: Population and economic change in developing countries, University of Chicago Press, 289-360.
  • Razak, F. & D.J. Corsi & A.S. Slutsky & A. Kurpad & L. Berkman & A. Laupacis & S.V. Subramanian (2015), “Prevalence of body mass index lower than 16 among women in low-and middle-income countries”, Jama, 314(20), 2164-2171.
  • Rogot, E. & P.D. Sorlie & N.J. Johnson (1992), “Life expectancy by employment status, income, and education in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study”, Public Health Reports, 107(4), 457-461.
  • Sen, A. (1983), “Development: Which way now?”,The Economic Journal, 93(372), 745-762.
  • Sen, A. (1999), “Commodities and capabilities”, OUP Catalogue.
  • Shahbaz, M. & N. Loganathan & N. Mujahid & A. Ali & A. Nawaz (2016), “Determinants of life expectancy and its prospects under the role of economic misery: A case of Pakistan”, Social Indicators Research, 126(3), 1299-1316.
  • Shaw, J.W. & W.C. Horrace & R.J. Vogel (2005), “The determinants of life expectancy: an analysis of the OECD health data”, Southern Economic Journal, 71(4), 768-783.
  • Shen, C. & J.B. Williamson (1997), “Child mortality, women’s status, economic dependency, and state strength: a cross-national study of less developed countries”, Social Forces, 76(2), 667-700.
  • Singariya, M. (2013), “Principal Component Analysis of socioeconomic factors and their association with life expectancy in India”, Journal of Economics, 113, 163-72.
  • Todaro, M.P. (2003), Economic Development in the Third World: An introduction to problems and policies in a global perspective, Pearson Education.
  • Williamson, J.B. & U. Boehmer (1997), “Female life expectancy, gender stratification, health status, and level of economic development: A cross-national study of less developed countries”, Social Science & Medicine, 45(2), 305-317.
  • Wolfe, B. (1986), “Health status and medical expenditures: Is there a link?”, Social Science and Medicine, 22, 993-999.
  • World Health Organization (2005), “WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women”, Summary report of initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women’s responses.
  • Yavari, K. & M. Mehrnoosh (2006), “Determinants of life expectancy: A cross-country analysis”, Iranian Economic Review, 11(15), 131-142.
  • Zivot, E. & D.W.K. Andrews (2002), “Further evidence on the great crash, the oil-price shock, and the unit-root hypothesis”, Journal of business & economic statistics, 20(1), 25-44.

Türkiye’de Cinsiyete Göre Yaşam Süresinin Sosyoekonomik Belirleyicileri: Bir Zaman Serisi Analizi

Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 49, 85 - 111, 30.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.05

Abstract

Bu çalışmada 1971-2017 döneminde Türkiye’de toplam ve cinsiyete göre yaşam süresini etkileyen sosyoekonomik faktörleri incelemektedir. Değişkenlerin durağanlığının test edilmesi amacıyla ADF, PP ve DFGLS birim kök testleri, yapısal kırılmanın var olup olmadığının test edilebilmesi için ise Zivot and Andrews (2002) birim kök testi kullanılmıştır. Eşbütünleşmenin varlığını kontrol etmek için ise ARDL sınır testi kullanılmıştır. Bulgulara göre eğitim düzeyi, satın alma gücü ve ekonomik gelişme ortalama yaşam süresi üzerinde anlamlı bir etkiye sahiptir. Ancak nüfus artışının ve çevresel bozulmanın ise anlamlı bir etkiye sahip olmadığı tespit edilmiştir. Erkekleri içeren modelde çevresel bozulma, satın alma gücü ve eğitim düzeyi anlamlı etkiye sahipken, ekonomik gelişme ve erkek nüfus oranı anlamlı etkiye sahip değildir. Kadınları içeren model ise çevresel bozulma, kadın eğitim düzeyi, doğurganlık oranı ve kadın nüfus oranı anlamlı etkiye sahiptir. Ancak satın alma gücü anlamlı bir etkiye sahip bulunmamıştır. Sonuç olarak Türkiye’de yaşam süresinin artırılması için eğitim düzeyinin artırılması, istikrarlı bir satın alma gücünün oluşturulması ve doğurganlık oranının kontrol altında tutulduğu süründürülebilir bir gelişmenin sağlanması gerekmektedir.

References

  • Ali, A. & C. Bibi (2017), “Determinants of Social Progress and its Scenarios under the role of Macroeconomic Instability: Empirics from Pakistan”, Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 55(2), 505-540.
  • Ali, A. & K. Ahmad (2014), “The Impact of Socio-Economic Factors on Life Expectancy in Sultanate of Oman: An Empirical Analysis”, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 22(2), 218-224.
  • Ali, A. & M. Audi (2016), “The Impact of Income Inequality, Environmental Degradation and Globalization on Life Expectancy in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis”, International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), 4(4), 182-193.
  • Ali, A. (2015), “The impact of macroeconomic instability on social progress: an empirical analysis of Pakistan”, PhD Dissertation, National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore.
  • Anand, S. & M. Ravallion (1993), “Human development in poor countries: on the role of private incomes and public services”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7(1), 133-150.
  • Audi, M. & A. Ali (2017), “Socio-Economic Development, Demographic Changes and Total Labor Productivity in Pakistan: A Co-Integrational and Decomposition Analysis”, Journal of Academy of Business and Economics, 17(2), 7-24.
  • Audi, M. & A. Ali (2017), “Socio-Economic Status and Life Expectancy in Lebanon: An Empirical Analysis”, Archives of Business Research, 5(11), 159-170.
  • Balan, C. & E. Jaba (2011), “Statistical analysis of the determinants of life expectancy in Romania”, Romanian Journal of Regional Science, 5(2), 25-38.
  • Ball, C.A. & W.N. Torous (1996), “Unit roots and the estimation of interest rate dynamics”, Journal of Empirical Finance, 3(2), 215-238.
  • Bayati, M. & R. Akbarian & Z. Kavosi (2013), “Determinants of life expectancy in eastern mediterranean region: a health production function”, International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 1(1), 57-61.
  • Bergh, A. & T. Nilsson (2010), “Good for living? On the relationship between globalization and life expectancy”, World Development, 38(9), 1191-1203.
  • Brown, R.L. & J. Durbin & J.M. Evans (1975), “Techniques for testing the constancy of regression relationships over time”, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 37(2), 149-163.
  • Cockerham, W.C. & A. Rütten & T. Abel (1997), “Conceptualizing contemporary health lifestyles”, The Sociological Quarterly, 38(2), 321-342.
  • Colantonio, E. & R. Marianacci & N. Mattoscio (2010), “On human capital and economic development: some results for Africa”, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 266-272.
  • Cumper, G.E. (1984), Determinants of health levels in developing countries, Research Studies Press Ltd.
  • Dickey, D.A. & W.A. Fuller (1981), “Likelihood ratio statistics for autoregressive time series with a unit root”, Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 49(4), 1057-1072.
  • Easterlin, R.A. (1974), “Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence”, in: Nations and households in economic growth, Academic Press, 89-125.
  • Elliott, G. (1998), “On the robustness of cointegration methods when regressors almost have unit roots”, Econometrica, 66(1), 149-158.
  • Engle, R.F. & C.W.J. Granger (1987), “Co-integration and Error Representation: Estimation and Testing”, Econometrica, 55(2), 251-276.
  • Fayissa, B. & P. Gutema (2005), “Estimating a health production function for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)”, Applied Economics, 37(2), 155-164.
  • Fiala, N. (2008), “Measuring sustainability: Why the ecological footprint is bad economics and bad environmental science”, Ecological Economics, 67(4), 519-525.
  • Franco, A. & C. Alvarez-Dardet & M.T. Ruiz (2004), “Effect of democracy on health: Ecological study”, British Medical Journal, 329(7480), 1421-1423.
  • Gerring, J. & P. Bond & W.T. Barndt & C. Moreno (2005), “Democracy and economic growth: A historical perspective”, World Politics, 57(3), 323-364.
  • Granger, C.W. (1969), “Investigating causal relations by econometric models and cross-spectral methods”, Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 37(3), 424-438.
  • Granger, C.W. (1988), “Some recent development in a concept of causality”, Journal of Econometrics, 39(1), 199-211.
  • Grosse, R.N. & C. Auffrey (1989), “Literacy and health status in developing countries”, Annual Review of Public Health, 10(1), 281-297.
  • Grossman, M. (1972), The demand for health: a theoretical and empirical investigation, NBER Books.
  • Guralnik, J.M. & A.Z. LaCroix & R.D. Abbott & L.F. Berkman & S. Satterfield & D.A. Evans & R.B. Wallace (1993), “Maintaining mobility in late life. I. Demographic characteristics and chronic conditions”, American Journal of Epidemiology, 137(8), 845-857.
  • Halicioglu, F. (2010), “Modelling life expectancy in Turkey”, MPRA Paper No. 30840.
  • Hertz, E. & J.R. Hebert & J. Landon (1994), “Social and environmental factors and life expectancy, infant mortality, and maternal mortality rates: Results of a cross-national comparison”, Social Science and Medicine, 39, 105-114.
  • Hill, M.A. & E. King (1995), “Women’s education and economic well-being”, Feminist Economics, 1(2), 21-46.
  • Johansen, S. & K. Juselius (1990), “Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Co-integration with Applications to the Demand for money”, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 52(2), 169-210.
  • Johansen, S. (1991), “Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Co-integration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive models”, Econometrica, 59(6), 1551-1580.
  • Johansen, S. (1992), “Co-integration in Partial Systems and the Efficiency of Single-Equation Analysis”, Journal of Econometric, 52(3), 389-402.
  • Kakwani, N. (1993), “Poverty and economic growth with application to Cote d’Ivoire”, Review of Income and Wealth, 39(2), 121-139.
  • Lake, D.A. & M.A. Baum (2001), “The invisible hand of democracy: political control and the provision of public services”, Comparative Political Studies, 34(6), 587-621.
  • Leybourne, S. & P. Newbold (2003), “Spurious Rejections by Co-integration Tests induced by Structural Breaks”, Applied Economics, 35(9), 1117-1121.
  • Lin, C.C. & E. Rogot & N.J. Johnson & P.D. Sorlie & E. Arias (2003), “A further study of life expectancy by socioeconomic factors in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study”, Ethnicity & Disease, 13(2), 240-247.
  • Mahfuz, K. (2008), “Determinants of life expectancy in developing countries”, Journal of Developing Areas, 41(2), 185-204.
  • Mahmud, W. & M. Asadullah & A. Savoia (2013), “Bangladesh’s achievements in social development indicators: explaining the puzzle”, Economic and Political Weekly, 48(44), 26-28.
  • Monsef, A. & A.S. Mehrjardi (2015), “Determinants of life expectancy: a panel data approach”, Asian Economic and Financial Review, 5(11), 1251-1257.
  • Murwirapachena, G. & C. Mlambo (2015), “Life Expectancy in Zimbabwe: An Analysis of Five Decades”, The International Business & Economics Research Journal (Online), 14(3), 417-430.
  • Narayan, P.K. (2005), “Testing the unit root hypothesis when the alternative is a trend break stationary process: an application to tourist arrivals in Fiji”, Tourism Economics, 11(3), 351-364.
  • Narayan, P.K. (2005), “The saving and investment nexus for China: evidence from cointegration tests”, Applied Economics, 37(17), 1979-1990.
  • Navarro, V. & C. Muntaner & C. Borrell & J. Benach & A. Quiroga & M. Rodriguez-Sanz et al. (2006), “Politics and health outcomes”, Lancet, 368(9540), 1033-1037.
  • Nelson, C.R. & C.R. Plosser (1982), “Trends and random walks in macroeconomic time series: some evidence and implications”, Journal of monetary economics, 10(2), 139-162.
  • Oney, M.M. (2012), “An Analysis of the Relationship between Health Expenditure and Health Outcomes”, PhD Dissertation, Youngstown State University.
  • Pattichis, C.A. (1999), “Price and income elasticities of disaggregated import demand: results from UECMs and an application”, Applied Economics, 31(9), 1061-1071.
  • Perron, P. (1989), “The Great Crash, the Oil Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis”, Econometrica, 57(6), 1361-1401.
  • Perron, P. (1997), “Further Evidence of Breaking Trend Functions in Macroeconomic Variables”, Journal of Econometrics, 80(2), 355-385.
  • Pesaran, M.H. & B. Pesaran (1997), Working with Microfit 4.0: Interactive Econometric Analysis, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Pesaran, M.H. & Y. Shin & R.P. Smith (1999), “Pooled mean group estimation of dynamic heterogeneous panels”, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 94(446), 621-634.
  • Pesaran, M.H. & Y.Shin & R.J. Smith (2001), “Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships”, Journal of Applied Economics, 16, 289-326.
  • Phillips, P.C. & P. Perron (1988), “Testing for a unit root in time series regression”, Biometrika, 75(2), 335-346.
  • Poikolainen, K. & J. Eskola (1988), “Health services resources and their relation to mortality from causes amenable to health care intervention: a cross-national study”, International Journal of Epidemiology, 17(1), 86-89.
  • Preston, S.H. (1976), Mortality patterns in national populations, New York: Academic Press.
  • Preston, S.H. (1980), “Causes and consequences of mortality declines in less developed countries during the twentieth century”, in: Population and economic change in developing countries, University of Chicago Press, 289-360.
  • Razak, F. & D.J. Corsi & A.S. Slutsky & A. Kurpad & L. Berkman & A. Laupacis & S.V. Subramanian (2015), “Prevalence of body mass index lower than 16 among women in low-and middle-income countries”, Jama, 314(20), 2164-2171.
  • Rogot, E. & P.D. Sorlie & N.J. Johnson (1992), “Life expectancy by employment status, income, and education in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study”, Public Health Reports, 107(4), 457-461.
  • Sen, A. (1983), “Development: Which way now?”,The Economic Journal, 93(372), 745-762.
  • Sen, A. (1999), “Commodities and capabilities”, OUP Catalogue.
  • Shahbaz, M. & N. Loganathan & N. Mujahid & A. Ali & A. Nawaz (2016), “Determinants of life expectancy and its prospects under the role of economic misery: A case of Pakistan”, Social Indicators Research, 126(3), 1299-1316.
  • Shaw, J.W. & W.C. Horrace & R.J. Vogel (2005), “The determinants of life expectancy: an analysis of the OECD health data”, Southern Economic Journal, 71(4), 768-783.
  • Shen, C. & J.B. Williamson (1997), “Child mortality, women’s status, economic dependency, and state strength: a cross-national study of less developed countries”, Social Forces, 76(2), 667-700.
  • Singariya, M. (2013), “Principal Component Analysis of socioeconomic factors and their association with life expectancy in India”, Journal of Economics, 113, 163-72.
  • Todaro, M.P. (2003), Economic Development in the Third World: An introduction to problems and policies in a global perspective, Pearson Education.
  • Williamson, J.B. & U. Boehmer (1997), “Female life expectancy, gender stratification, health status, and level of economic development: A cross-national study of less developed countries”, Social Science & Medicine, 45(2), 305-317.
  • Wolfe, B. (1986), “Health status and medical expenditures: Is there a link?”, Social Science and Medicine, 22, 993-999.
  • World Health Organization (2005), “WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women”, Summary report of initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women’s responses.
  • Yavari, K. & M. Mehrnoosh (2006), “Determinants of life expectancy: A cross-country analysis”, Iranian Economic Review, 11(15), 131-142.
  • Zivot, E. & D.W.K. Andrews (2002), “Further evidence on the great crash, the oil-price shock, and the unit-root hypothesis”, Journal of business & economic statistics, 20(1), 25-44.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

İsmail ŞENTÜRK (Primary Author)
İKTİSAT BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-7330-6690
Türkiye


Amjad ALİ This is me
UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE
0000-0002-7487-6844
Pakistan

Publication Date July 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 49

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Bibtex @research article { sosyoekonomi612358, journal = {Sosyoekonomi}, issn = {1305-5577}, address = {}, publisher = {Sosyoekonomi Society}, year = {2021}, volume = {29}, pages = {85 - 111}, doi = {10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.05}, title = {Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender-Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis}, key = {cite}, author = {Şentürk, İsmail and Ali, Amjad} }
APA Şentürk, İ. & Ali, A. (2021). Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender-Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis . Sosyoekonomi , 29 (49) , 85-111 . DOI: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.05
MLA Şentürk, İ. , Ali, A. "Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender-Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis" . Sosyoekonomi 29 (2021 ): 85-111 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/sosyoekonomi/issue/64335/612358>
Chicago Şentürk, İ. , Ali, A. "Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender-Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis". Sosyoekonomi 29 (2021 ): 85-111
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender-Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis AU - İsmail Şentürk , Amjad Ali Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.05 DO - 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.05 T2 - Sosyoekonomi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 85 EP - 111 VL - 29 IS - 49 SN - 1305-5577- M3 - doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.05 UR - https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.05 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Sosyoekonomi Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender-Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis %A İsmail Şentürk , Amjad Ali %T Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender-Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis %D 2021 %J Sosyoekonomi %P 1305-5577- %V 29 %N 49 %R doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.05 %U 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.05
ISNAD Şentürk, İsmail , Ali, Amjad . "Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender-Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis". Sosyoekonomi 29 / 49 (July 2021): 85-111 . https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.05
AMA Şentürk İ. , Ali A. Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender-Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis. Sosyoekonomi. 2021; 29(49): 85-111.
Vancouver Şentürk İ. , Ali A. Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender-Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis. Sosyoekonomi. 2021; 29(49): 85-111.
IEEE İ. Şentürk and A. Ali , "Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender-Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis", Sosyoekonomi, vol. 29, no. 49, pp. 85-111, Jul. 2021, doi:10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.05