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Uluslararası İşçi Dövizlerinin Finansal Gelişme Üzerindeki Etkisi: 1974-2019 Dönemi Türkiye Deneyimi

Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 49, 181 - 198, 30.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.09

Abstract

Bu çalışmada 1974-2019 dönemi için Türkiye'de işçi dövizlerinin finansal gelişme üzerindeki etkisi ARDL yöntemi ile ele alınmıştır. Analizde, bağımlı değişken olarak finansal gelişmeyi temsilen özel sektöre sağlanan kredilerin GSYİH içerisindeki payı, bağımsız değişkenler olarak ise işçi dövizlerinin yanı sıra büyümeyi temsilen kişi başına reel GSYİH, mevduat faiz oranı ve enflasyon değişkenleri alınmıştır. Analiz bulgularına göre, uluslararası göçmen dövizleri finansal gelişmeyi pozitif etkilemekte, ancak bu etki düşük düzeydedir. Bunun yanı sıra büyüme finansal gelişmeyi pozitif, enflasyon ise negatif etkilemekte ve faizin etkisi ise istatistiksel olarak anlamsızdır.

References

  • Aggarwal, R. & A. Demirguc-Kunt & M.S. Martinez-Peria (2006), “Do Workers’ Remittances Promote Financial Development?”, Policy Research Working Paper, 3957, World Bank Group, Washington, D.C.
  • Ağır H. & M. Kar & Ş. Nazlıoglu (2011), “Do Remittances Matter for Financial Development in the MENA Region? Panel Cointegration and Causality Analysis”, Empirical Economics Letters, 10(5), 449-456.
  • Ajilore, T. & S. Ikhide (2012), “A Bounds Testing Analysis of Migrants Remittances and Financial Development in Selected Sub-Sahara African Countries”, Review of Finance and Banking, 4(2), 79-96.
  • Akkoyunlu, Ş. (2013), “Remittances and Financial Development: Is There a Direct Link? Evidence from Turkish Data”, Journal of Emerging Markets, 18(1), 1-15.
  • Alper, A.M. (2005), “İşçi Dövizlerini Belirleyen Makro Ekonomik Etkenler: Türkiye Örneği”, Uzmanlık Yeterlilik Tezi, Turkiye Cumhuriyeti Merkez Bankasi İşçi Dövizleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara.
  • Anzoategui, D. & A. Demirgüç-Kunt & M.S. Martínez-Pería (2014), “Remittances and Financial Inclusion: Evidence from El Salvador”, World Development, 54 (2014), 338-349.
  • Artukoğlu, O.S. (2005), “Yurtdışı İşçi Tasarruflarının Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankası, Banka Sistemi ve Türkiye Ekonomisi Üzerine Etkileri”, Ankara, Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankası İşçi Dövizleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Uzmanlık Yeterlilik Tezi, Ankara.
  • Aydas, O.T. & K. Metin-Ozcan & B. Neyapti (2005), “Determinants of Workers’ Remittances: The Case of Turkey”, Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, 41(3), 53-69.
  • Bhattacharya, M. & J. Inekwe & R.S. Paramati (2018), “Remittances and Financial Development: Empirical Evidence from Heterogeneous Panel of Countries”, Applied Economics, 50(38), 4099-4112.
  • Boyd, J.H. & R. Levine & B.D. Smith (2001), “The Impact of Inflation on Financial Sector Performance”, Journal of Monetary Economics, 47(2), 221-248.
  • Brown, P.C. & F.C. Richard & G. Fayad (2013), “Migrants Remittances and Financial Development: Macro and Micro-Level Evidence of a Perverse Relationship”, The World Economy, 36(5), 636-660.
  • Bugamelli, M. & F. Paternò (2009), “Do workers’ Remittances Reduce the Probability of Current Account Reversals?”, World Development, 37(12), 1821-1838.
  • Chowdhury, M.B. (2011), “Remittances Flow and Financial Development in Bangladesh”, Economic Modelling, 28(6), 2600-2608.
  • Coon, M. (2014), “Financial Development and the end-use of Migrants’ Remittances”, IZA Journal of Labor and Development, 3(1), 1-7.
  • Cooray, A. (2012), “Migrant Remittances, Financial Sector Development and the Government Ownership of Banks: Evidence from a Group of non-OECD Economies”, Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, 22(4), 936-957.
  • Coulibaly, D. (2015), “Remittances and Financial Development in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A System Approach”, Economic Modelling, 45(2015), 249-258.
  • Ege, İ. & S. Şahin (2014), “Doğrudan Yabancı Sermaye Yatırımı, İşçi Dövizleri ve Bankacılık Sektörü Gelişimi: Türkiye Örneği”, Finans Politik ve Ekonomik Yorumlar, 51(598), 9-17.
  • Ekin, N. (2011), “İşçi Dövizleri ve Sanayileşme”, İstanbul Üniversitesi İktisat Fakültesi Mecmuası, 42, 1-4.
  • Freund, C. & N. Spatafora (2008), “Remittances, Transaction Costs and Informality”, Journal of Development Economics, 86(2), 356-66.
  • Fromentin, V. (2017), “The Long-run and Short-run Impacts of Remittances on Financial Development in Developing Countries”, The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 66(2017), 192-201.
  • Giuliano, P. & M. Ruiz-Arranz (2009), “Remittances, Financial Development and Growth”, Journal of Development Economics, 90(1), 144-152.
  • Gupta, S. & C.A. Pattillo & S. Wagh (2009), “Effect of Remittances on Poverty and Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa”, World Development, 37(1), 104-115.
  • Hoffman, M. & A. Makovsky & M. Werz (2020), The Turkish Diaspora in Europe: Integration, Migration, and Politics, Center for American Progress.
  • Kakhkharov, J. & N. Rohde (2018), “Remittances and Financial Development in Transition Economies”, Empirical Economics, 12(4), 1-33.
  • Karagöz, K. (2009), “Workers’ Remittances and Economic Growth: Evidence from Turkey”, Journal of Yaşar University, 4(13), 1891-1908.
  • Karikari, N.K. & S. Mensah & S.K. Harvey (2016), “Do Remittances Promote Financial Development in Africa?”, Springer Plus, 5(1), 1-21.
  • Kevin, W. (2016), “Remittances and Financial Development: Evidence from Sub‐Saharan Africa”, African Development Review, 28(3), 357-367.
  • Kumar, R.R. (2013), “Remittances and Economic Growth: A Study of Guyana”, Economic Systems, 37(3), 462- 472.
  • Masuduzzaman, M. (2014), “Workers’ Remittance Inflow, Financial Development and Economic Growth: A Study on Bangladesh”, International Journal of Economics and Finance, 6(8), 247-267.
  • Misati, R.N. & A. Kamau & H. Nassir (2019), “Do Migrant Remittances Matter for Financial Development in Kenya?”, Financial Innovation, 5(1), 1-25.
  • Misati, R.N. & E.M. Nyamongo (2011), “Financial Development and Private Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa”, Journal of Economics and Business, 63(2), 139-151.
  • Mundaca, B.G. (2009), “Remittances, Financial Market Development and Economic Growth: the case of Latin America and the Caribbean”, Review of Development Economics, 13(2), 288-303.
  • Narayan, P.K. & S. Narayan (2005), “Estimating Income and Price Elasticities of Imports for Fiji in a Cointegration Framework”, Economic Modelling, 22(3), 423-438.
  • Nyamongo, E.M. et al. (2012), “Remittances, Financial Development and Economic Growth in Africa”, Journal of Economics and Business, 64(3), 240- 260.
  • Ojapinwa, T.V. & O.T. Boshorun (2014), “Do Workers’ Remittances Promote Financial Development in Sub-Sahara Africa Countries”, International Journal of Financial Research, 5(2), 151-159.
  • Oke, B. et al. (2011), “Impact of Workers’ Remittances on Financial Development in Nigeria”, International Business Research, 4(4), 218-225.
  • Olayungbo, D.O. & A. Quadri (2019), “Remittances, Financial Development and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan African Countries: Evidence from a PMG-ARDL Approach”, Financial Innovation, 5(9), 1-25.
  • Pekmezci, A. & K. Karayel (2018), “Finansal Gelişme ile Ekonomik Büyüme İlişkisinin BIST100 Üzerinden ARDL Analizi”, Yönetim ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 16(4), 428-443.
  • Pesaran, M.H. & Y. Shin & R.J. Smith (2001), “Bounds Testing Approaches to The Analysis of Level Relationships”, Journal of Applied Econometrics, 16(3), 289-326.
  • Polat, B. (2018), “The Impact of Workers’ Remittances on Financial Market Development: A Case Study for Developing Countries”, Journal of Business Research Turk, 10(2), 27-36.
  • Prakash, N.N. & R. Gounder (2007), “The Role of Remittance in Financial Development in Fiji”, Fijian Studies: A Journal of Contemporary Fiji, 9(2), 123-136.
  • Qiang, S. & A. Khurshid, & A.C. Calin & K. Khan (2019), “Do Remittances Contribute to the Development of Financial Institutions? New Evidence from the Developing World”, Romanian Journal of Economic Forecasting, 22(2), 78-97.
  • Ratha, D. (2004), “Workers Remittances: An Important and Stable Source of External Development Finance Global Development Finance”, World Bank Working Paper, Washington D.C.
  • Robinson, J.C. (1952), The Generalisation of the General Theory in the Rate of Interest and Other Essays, Macmillan Press, London.
  • Sami, J. (2013), “Remittances, Banking Sector Development and Economic Growth in Fiji”, International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 3(2), 503-511.
  • Shahbaz, M.M. & N. Qureshi & N. Aamir (2007), “Remittances and Financial Sector’s Performance: Under Two Alternative Approaches for Pakistan”, International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 12(1), 133-46.
  • Suğanlı, M. (2003), “Almanya’da Yaşayan ve Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankası’nda Hesabı Bulunan Türklerin Sosyo Ekonomik Yapısı ve İşçi Dövizleri”, TCMB Uzmanlık Tezi, Ankara.
  • Tarı, R. (2011), Ekonometri, Umuttepe Yayınları, Kocaeli.
  • TCMB (2013), Kredi Mektuplu Döviz Tevdiat ve Süper Döviz Hesaplarına İlişkin Basın Duyurusu, <https://www.tcmb.gov.tr/wps/wcm/connect/62b993f8-8594-4a1c-b077-34be685f5d55/DUY2013_72.pdf?MOD=AJPERES>, 23.03.2021.
  • Ugwuegbe, S.U. et al. (2018), “International Migrant Remittances and Financial Sector Development: Evidence from West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ)”, Journal of International Business and Economics, 6(2), 65-72.
  • Yamak, R. & A. Korkmaz (2007), “Türk Cari İşlemleri Açığı Sürdürebilir mi? Ekonometrik Bir Yaklaşım”, Bankacılar Dergisi, (60), 17-32.
  • Zivot, E. & D.W.K. Andrews, (1992), “Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock and the Unit-root Hypothesis”, Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 10(3), 251-70.

The Effect of International Remittances on Financial Development: Turkish Experience in the Period of 1974-2019

Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 49, 181 - 198, 30.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.09

Abstract

In this study, workers’ remittances on financial development in Turkey are analysed using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Bound (ARDL) method from 1974 to 2019. In the analysis, the dependent variable, which is the domestic credit to the private sector by banks (percent of GDP), is used as an indicator for financial development. In addition to international workers’ remittances, other independent variables include GDP per capita, interest rate, and inflation. International remittances are found to affect financial development positively; however, the effect is slight. In addition, growth affects financial development positively, inflation negatively, and the impact of interest is statistically insignificant.

References

  • Aggarwal, R. & A. Demirguc-Kunt & M.S. Martinez-Peria (2006), “Do Workers’ Remittances Promote Financial Development?”, Policy Research Working Paper, 3957, World Bank Group, Washington, D.C.
  • Ağır H. & M. Kar & Ş. Nazlıoglu (2011), “Do Remittances Matter for Financial Development in the MENA Region? Panel Cointegration and Causality Analysis”, Empirical Economics Letters, 10(5), 449-456.
  • Ajilore, T. & S. Ikhide (2012), “A Bounds Testing Analysis of Migrants Remittances and Financial Development in Selected Sub-Sahara African Countries”, Review of Finance and Banking, 4(2), 79-96.
  • Akkoyunlu, Ş. (2013), “Remittances and Financial Development: Is There a Direct Link? Evidence from Turkish Data”, Journal of Emerging Markets, 18(1), 1-15.
  • Alper, A.M. (2005), “İşçi Dövizlerini Belirleyen Makro Ekonomik Etkenler: Türkiye Örneği”, Uzmanlık Yeterlilik Tezi, Turkiye Cumhuriyeti Merkez Bankasi İşçi Dövizleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara.
  • Anzoategui, D. & A. Demirgüç-Kunt & M.S. Martínez-Pería (2014), “Remittances and Financial Inclusion: Evidence from El Salvador”, World Development, 54 (2014), 338-349.
  • Artukoğlu, O.S. (2005), “Yurtdışı İşçi Tasarruflarının Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankası, Banka Sistemi ve Türkiye Ekonomisi Üzerine Etkileri”, Ankara, Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankası İşçi Dövizleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Uzmanlık Yeterlilik Tezi, Ankara.
  • Aydas, O.T. & K. Metin-Ozcan & B. Neyapti (2005), “Determinants of Workers’ Remittances: The Case of Turkey”, Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, 41(3), 53-69.
  • Bhattacharya, M. & J. Inekwe & R.S. Paramati (2018), “Remittances and Financial Development: Empirical Evidence from Heterogeneous Panel of Countries”, Applied Economics, 50(38), 4099-4112.
  • Boyd, J.H. & R. Levine & B.D. Smith (2001), “The Impact of Inflation on Financial Sector Performance”, Journal of Monetary Economics, 47(2), 221-248.
  • Brown, P.C. & F.C. Richard & G. Fayad (2013), “Migrants Remittances and Financial Development: Macro and Micro-Level Evidence of a Perverse Relationship”, The World Economy, 36(5), 636-660.
  • Bugamelli, M. & F. Paternò (2009), “Do workers’ Remittances Reduce the Probability of Current Account Reversals?”, World Development, 37(12), 1821-1838.
  • Chowdhury, M.B. (2011), “Remittances Flow and Financial Development in Bangladesh”, Economic Modelling, 28(6), 2600-2608.
  • Coon, M. (2014), “Financial Development and the end-use of Migrants’ Remittances”, IZA Journal of Labor and Development, 3(1), 1-7.
  • Cooray, A. (2012), “Migrant Remittances, Financial Sector Development and the Government Ownership of Banks: Evidence from a Group of non-OECD Economies”, Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, 22(4), 936-957.
  • Coulibaly, D. (2015), “Remittances and Financial Development in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A System Approach”, Economic Modelling, 45(2015), 249-258.
  • Ege, İ. & S. Şahin (2014), “Doğrudan Yabancı Sermaye Yatırımı, İşçi Dövizleri ve Bankacılık Sektörü Gelişimi: Türkiye Örneği”, Finans Politik ve Ekonomik Yorumlar, 51(598), 9-17.
  • Ekin, N. (2011), “İşçi Dövizleri ve Sanayileşme”, İstanbul Üniversitesi İktisat Fakültesi Mecmuası, 42, 1-4.
  • Freund, C. & N. Spatafora (2008), “Remittances, Transaction Costs and Informality”, Journal of Development Economics, 86(2), 356-66.
  • Fromentin, V. (2017), “The Long-run and Short-run Impacts of Remittances on Financial Development in Developing Countries”, The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 66(2017), 192-201.
  • Giuliano, P. & M. Ruiz-Arranz (2009), “Remittances, Financial Development and Growth”, Journal of Development Economics, 90(1), 144-152.
  • Gupta, S. & C.A. Pattillo & S. Wagh (2009), “Effect of Remittances on Poverty and Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa”, World Development, 37(1), 104-115.
  • Hoffman, M. & A. Makovsky & M. Werz (2020), The Turkish Diaspora in Europe: Integration, Migration, and Politics, Center for American Progress.
  • Kakhkharov, J. & N. Rohde (2018), “Remittances and Financial Development in Transition Economies”, Empirical Economics, 12(4), 1-33.
  • Karagöz, K. (2009), “Workers’ Remittances and Economic Growth: Evidence from Turkey”, Journal of Yaşar University, 4(13), 1891-1908.
  • Karikari, N.K. & S. Mensah & S.K. Harvey (2016), “Do Remittances Promote Financial Development in Africa?”, Springer Plus, 5(1), 1-21.
  • Kevin, W. (2016), “Remittances and Financial Development: Evidence from Sub‐Saharan Africa”, African Development Review, 28(3), 357-367.
  • Kumar, R.R. (2013), “Remittances and Economic Growth: A Study of Guyana”, Economic Systems, 37(3), 462- 472.
  • Masuduzzaman, M. (2014), “Workers’ Remittance Inflow, Financial Development and Economic Growth: A Study on Bangladesh”, International Journal of Economics and Finance, 6(8), 247-267.
  • Misati, R.N. & A. Kamau & H. Nassir (2019), “Do Migrant Remittances Matter for Financial Development in Kenya?”, Financial Innovation, 5(1), 1-25.
  • Misati, R.N. & E.M. Nyamongo (2011), “Financial Development and Private Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa”, Journal of Economics and Business, 63(2), 139-151.
  • Mundaca, B.G. (2009), “Remittances, Financial Market Development and Economic Growth: the case of Latin America and the Caribbean”, Review of Development Economics, 13(2), 288-303.
  • Narayan, P.K. & S. Narayan (2005), “Estimating Income and Price Elasticities of Imports for Fiji in a Cointegration Framework”, Economic Modelling, 22(3), 423-438.
  • Nyamongo, E.M. et al. (2012), “Remittances, Financial Development and Economic Growth in Africa”, Journal of Economics and Business, 64(3), 240- 260.
  • Ojapinwa, T.V. & O.T. Boshorun (2014), “Do Workers’ Remittances Promote Financial Development in Sub-Sahara Africa Countries”, International Journal of Financial Research, 5(2), 151-159.
  • Oke, B. et al. (2011), “Impact of Workers’ Remittances on Financial Development in Nigeria”, International Business Research, 4(4), 218-225.
  • Olayungbo, D.O. & A. Quadri (2019), “Remittances, Financial Development and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan African Countries: Evidence from a PMG-ARDL Approach”, Financial Innovation, 5(9), 1-25.
  • Pekmezci, A. & K. Karayel (2018), “Finansal Gelişme ile Ekonomik Büyüme İlişkisinin BIST100 Üzerinden ARDL Analizi”, Yönetim ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 16(4), 428-443.
  • Pesaran, M.H. & Y. Shin & R.J. Smith (2001), “Bounds Testing Approaches to The Analysis of Level Relationships”, Journal of Applied Econometrics, 16(3), 289-326.
  • Polat, B. (2018), “The Impact of Workers’ Remittances on Financial Market Development: A Case Study for Developing Countries”, Journal of Business Research Turk, 10(2), 27-36.
  • Prakash, N.N. & R. Gounder (2007), “The Role of Remittance in Financial Development in Fiji”, Fijian Studies: A Journal of Contemporary Fiji, 9(2), 123-136.
  • Qiang, S. & A. Khurshid, & A.C. Calin & K. Khan (2019), “Do Remittances Contribute to the Development of Financial Institutions? New Evidence from the Developing World”, Romanian Journal of Economic Forecasting, 22(2), 78-97.
  • Ratha, D. (2004), “Workers Remittances: An Important and Stable Source of External Development Finance Global Development Finance”, World Bank Working Paper, Washington D.C.
  • Robinson, J.C. (1952), The Generalisation of the General Theory in the Rate of Interest and Other Essays, Macmillan Press, London.
  • Sami, J. (2013), “Remittances, Banking Sector Development and Economic Growth in Fiji”, International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 3(2), 503-511.
  • Shahbaz, M.M. & N. Qureshi & N. Aamir (2007), “Remittances and Financial Sector’s Performance: Under Two Alternative Approaches for Pakistan”, International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 12(1), 133-46.
  • Suğanlı, M. (2003), “Almanya’da Yaşayan ve Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankası’nda Hesabı Bulunan Türklerin Sosyo Ekonomik Yapısı ve İşçi Dövizleri”, TCMB Uzmanlık Tezi, Ankara.
  • Tarı, R. (2011), Ekonometri, Umuttepe Yayınları, Kocaeli.
  • TCMB (2013), Kredi Mektuplu Döviz Tevdiat ve Süper Döviz Hesaplarına İlişkin Basın Duyurusu, <https://www.tcmb.gov.tr/wps/wcm/connect/62b993f8-8594-4a1c-b077-34be685f5d55/DUY2013_72.pdf?MOD=AJPERES>, 23.03.2021.
  • Ugwuegbe, S.U. et al. (2018), “International Migrant Remittances and Financial Sector Development: Evidence from West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ)”, Journal of International Business and Economics, 6(2), 65-72.
  • Yamak, R. & A. Korkmaz (2007), “Türk Cari İşlemleri Açığı Sürdürebilir mi? Ekonometrik Bir Yaklaşım”, Bankacılar Dergisi, (60), 17-32.
  • Zivot, E. & D.W.K. Andrews, (1992), “Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock and the Unit-root Hypothesis”, Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 10(3), 251-70.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Ayfer ÖZYILMAZ (Primary Author)
GÜMÜŞHANE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, GÜMÜŞHANE İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-9201-2508
Türkiye


Metin TOPRAK
ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-9217-6318
Türkiye


Yüksel BAYRAKTAR
ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-3499-4571
Türkiye

Publication Date July 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 49

Cite

Bibtex @research article { sosyoekonomi737050, journal = {Sosyoekonomi}, issn = {1305-5577}, address = {}, publisher = {Sosyoekonomi Society}, year = {2021}, volume = {29}, pages = {181 - 198}, doi = {10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.09}, title = {The Effect of International Remittances on Financial Development: Turkish Experience in the Period of 1974-2019}, key = {cite}, author = {Özyılmaz, Ayfer and Toprak, Metin and Bayraktar, Yüksel} }
APA Özyılmaz, A. , Toprak, M. & Bayraktar, Y. (2021). The Effect of International Remittances on Financial Development: Turkish Experience in the Period of 1974-2019 . Sosyoekonomi , 29 (49) , 181-198 . DOI: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.09
MLA Özyılmaz, A. , Toprak, M. , Bayraktar, Y. "The Effect of International Remittances on Financial Development: Turkish Experience in the Period of 1974-2019" . Sosyoekonomi 29 (2021 ): 181-198 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/sosyoekonomi/issue/64335/737050>
Chicago Özyılmaz, A. , Toprak, M. , Bayraktar, Y. "The Effect of International Remittances on Financial Development: Turkish Experience in the Period of 1974-2019". Sosyoekonomi 29 (2021 ): 181-198
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Effect of International Remittances on Financial Development: Turkish Experience in the Period of 1974-2019 AU - Ayfer Özyılmaz , Metin Toprak , Yüksel Bayraktar Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.09 DO - 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.09 T2 - Sosyoekonomi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 181 EP - 198 VL - 29 IS - 49 SN - 1305-5577- M3 - doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.09 UR - https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.09 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Sosyoekonomi The Effect of International Remittances on Financial Development: Turkish Experience in the Period of 1974-2019 %A Ayfer Özyılmaz , Metin Toprak , Yüksel Bayraktar %T The Effect of International Remittances on Financial Development: Turkish Experience in the Period of 1974-2019 %D 2021 %J Sosyoekonomi %P 1305-5577- %V 29 %N 49 %R doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.09 %U 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.09
ISNAD Özyılmaz, Ayfer , Toprak, Metin , Bayraktar, Yüksel . "The Effect of International Remittances on Financial Development: Turkish Experience in the Period of 1974-2019". Sosyoekonomi 29 / 49 (July 2021): 181-198 . https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.09
AMA Özyılmaz A. , Toprak M. , Bayraktar Y. The Effect of International Remittances on Financial Development: Turkish Experience in the Period of 1974-2019. Sosyoekonomi. 2021; 29(49): 181-198.
Vancouver Özyılmaz A. , Toprak M. , Bayraktar Y. The Effect of International Remittances on Financial Development: Turkish Experience in the Period of 1974-2019. Sosyoekonomi. 2021; 29(49): 181-198.
IEEE A. Özyılmaz , M. Toprak and Y. Bayraktar , "The Effect of International Remittances on Financial Development: Turkish Experience in the Period of 1974-2019", Sosyoekonomi, vol. 29, no. 49, pp. 181-198, Jul. 2021, doi:10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.09