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The Flypaper Effect: “Reality” or “Myth”? Evidence from Turkey

Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 49, 483 - 500, 30.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.24

Abstract

Several empirical observations in the local government economics literature point out that the effect of an increase in intergovernmental transfers on local public expenditures is more than that of increased personal income. This situation is called the “flypaper effect.” This study aims to reveal the relevant literature and to test the flypaper effect for Turkey. In this context, using panel data techniques, the flypaper effect is evidenced at the provincial level in Turkey from 2008-2017. At the same time, our findings indicate that grants have a stimulatory effect in Turkey.

References

  • Acar, Y. (2019), “Does Flypaper Effect Exist? New Evidence from Turkish Municipalities”, Sosyoekonomi, 27(39), 55-68.
  • Allers, M.A. & W. Vermeulen (2016), “Capitalization of Equalizing Grants and the Flypaper Effect”, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 58, 115-129.
  • Arellano, M. (1987), “Practitioners’ Corner: Computing Robust Standard Errors for within-Groups Estimators”, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 49(4), 431-434.
  • Bae, S.S. & R.C. Feiock (2004), “The Flypaper Effect Revisited: Intergovernmental Grants and Local Governance”, International Journal of Public Administration, 27(8-9), 577-596.
  • Bailey, S.J. & S. Connolly (1998), “The Flypaper Effect: Identifying Areas for Further Research”, Public Choice, 95(3-4), 335-361.
  • Bailey, S.J. (1999), Local Government Economics: Principles and Practice, London: Macmillan.
  • Baltagi, B.H. & P.X. Wu (1999), “Unequally Spaced Panel Data Regressions with AR(1) Disturbances”, Econometric Theory, 15(6), 814-823.
  • Baltagi, B.H. (2005), Econometric Analysis of Panel Data, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Becker, E. (1996), “The Illusion of Fiscal Illusion: Unsticking the Flypaper Effect”, Public Choice, 86(1-2), 85-102.
  • Becker, G.S. & C.B. Mulligan (2003), “Deadweight Costs and the Size of Government”, Journal of Law and Economics, 46(2), 293-340.
  • Bhargava, A. & L. Franzini & W. Narendranathan (1982), “Serial Correlation and the Fixed Effects Model”, The Review of Economic Studies, 49(4), 533-549.
  • Borge, L.E. (1995), “Lump-sum Intergovernmental Grants Have Price Effects: A Note”, Public Finance Quarterly, 23(2), 271-274.
  • Bradford, D.F. & W.E. Oates (1971), “The Analysis of Revenue Sharing in a New Approach to Collective Fiscal Decisions”, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 85(3), 416-439.
  • Brennan, G. & J.J. Pincus (1996), “A Minimalist Model of Federal Grants and Flypaper Effects”, Journal of Public Economics, 61(2), 229-246.
  • Brown, M.B. & A.B. Forsythe (1974), “Robust Tests for the Equality of Variances”, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 69(346), 364-367.
  • Cárdenas, O.J. & A. Sharma (2011), “Mexican Municipalities and the Flypaper Effect”, Public Budgeting & Finance, 31(3), 73-93.
  • Courant, P.N. & E.M. Gramlich & D.L. Rubinfeld (1979), “The Stimulative Effects of Intergovernmental Grants: Or Why Money Sticks Where It Hits”, in: P. Mieszkowski & W.H. Oakland (eds.), Fiscal Federalism and Grants-in-aid, Washington: The Urban Institute, 5-21.
  • Dahlby, B. (2011), “The Marginal Cost of Public Funds and the Flypaper Effect”, International Tax and Public Finance, 18(3), 304-321.
  • Deller, S.C. & C.S. Maher (2005), “Categorical Municipal Expenditures with a Focus on the Flypaper Effect”, Public Budgeting & Finance, 25(3), 73-90.
  • Deller, S.C. & C.S. Maher (2006), “A Model of Asymmetries in the Flypaper Effect”, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 36(2), 213-229.
  • Filimon, R. & T. Romer & H. Rosenthal (1982), “Asymmetric Information and Agenda Control: The Bases of Monopoly Power in Public Spending”, Journal of Public Economics, 17(1), 51-70.
  • Fisher, R.C. (1982), “Income and Grant Effects on Local Expenditure: The Flypaper Effect and Other Difficulties”, Journal of Urban Economics, 12(3), 324-345.
  • Froot, K.A. (1989), “Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation with Cross-Sectional Dependence and Heteroskedasticity in Financial Data”, The Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 24(3), 333-355.
  • Gamkhar, S. & A. Shah (2007), “The Impact of Intergovernmental Transfers: A Synthesis of the Conceptual and Empirical Literature”, in: R. Boadway & A. Shah (eds.), Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfers, Washington: The World Bank, 225-258.
  • Gamkhar, S. & W. Oates (1996), “Asymmetries in the Response to Increases and Decreases in Intergovernmental Grants: Some Empirical Findings”, National Tax Journal, 49(4), 501-512.
  • Gramlich, E.M. & H. Galper & S. Goldfeld & M. McGuire (1973), “State and Local Fiscal Behavior and Federal Grant Policy”, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1973(1), 15-65.
  • Hamilton, B.W. (1983), “The Flypaper Effect and Other Anomalies”, Journal of Public Economics, 22(3), 347-361.
  • Hamilton, J.H. (1986), “The Flypaper Effect and the Deadweight Loss from Taxation”, Journal of Urban Economics, 19(2), 148-155.
  • Hausman, J.A. (1978), “Specification Tests in Econometrics”, Econometrica, 46(6), 1251-1271.
  • Heyndels, B. (2001), “Asymmetries in the Flypaper Effect: Empirical Evidence for the Flemish Municipalities”, Applied Economics, 33(10), 1329-1334.
  • Hines, J.R. & R.H. Thaler (1995), “The Flypaper Effect”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(4), 217-226.
  • Inman, R.P. (2008), “The Flypaper Effect”, NBER Working Paper Series, No: 14579. <http://www.nber.org/papers/w14579>, 01.11.2019.
  • Kakamu, K. & H. Yunoue & T. Kuramoto (2014), “Spatial Patterns of Flypaper Effects for Local Expenditure by Policy Objective in Japan: A Bayesian Approach”, Economic Modeling, 37, 500-506.
  • Lalvani, M. (2002), “The Flypaper Effect: Evidence from India”, Public Budgeting & Finance, 22(3), 67-88.
  • Levene, H. (1960), “Robust Test for Equality of Variances”, in: I. Olkin et al. (eds.), Contributions to Probability and Statistics: Essays in Honor of Harold Hotteling, California: Stanford University Press, 278-292.
  • Megdal, S.B. (1987), “The Flypaper Effect Revisited: An Econometric Explanation”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 69(2), 347-351.
  • Melo, L. (2002), “The Flypaper Effect under Different Institutional Contexts: The Colombian Case”, Public Choice, 111(3-4), 317-345.
  • Niskanen, W.A. (1968), “The Peculiar Economics of Bureaucracy”, The American Economic Review, 58(2), 293-305.
  • Oates, W.E. (1979), “Lump-sum Intergovernmental Grants Have Price Effects”, in: P. Mieszkowski & W.H. Oakland (eds.), Fiscal Federalism and Grants-in-aid, Washington: The Urban Institute, 23-30.
  • Oates, W.E. (1999), “An Essay on Fiscal Federalism”, Journal of Economic Literature, 37(3), 1120-1149.
  • Pesaran, M.H. (2004), “General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels”, CESifo Working Paper, No. 1229, Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo), Munich.
  • Pevcin, P. (2011), “Expenditure Effects of Intergovernmental Transfers - The Case of Slovenia”, Central European Public Administration Review, 9(4), 31-46.
  • Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Treasury and Finance, General Directorate of Accounting (2019), Local Administrations Financial Statistics, <https://en.hmb.gov.tr/local-government>, 11.11.2019.
  • Roemer, J.E. & J. Silvestre (2002), “The ‘Flypaper Effect’ is not an Anomaly”, Journal of Public Economic Theory, 4(1), 1-17.
  • Rogers, W.H. (1993), “Regression Standard Errors in Clustered Samples”, Stata Technical Bulletin, 3(13), 19-23.
  • Schneider, M. & B.M. Ji (1987), “The Flypaper Effect and Competition in the Local Market for Public Goods”, Public Choice, 54(1), 27-39.
  • Shah, A. (2007), “A Practitioner’s Guide to Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfers”, in: R. Boadway & A. Shah (eds.), Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfers, Washington: The World Bank, 1-53.
  • Siregar, B. & R. Badrudin (2017), “Degree of Fiscal Decentralization and Flypaper Effect: Evidence from Indonesia”, Advanced Science Letters, 23(9), 9013-9019.
  • Sour, L. (2013), “The Flypaper Effect in Mexican Local Governments”, Estudios Económicos, 28(1), 165-186.
  • Stine, W.F. (1994), “Is Local Government Revenue Response to Federal Aid Symmetrical? Evidence from Pennsylvania County Governments in an Era of Retrenchment”, National Tax Journal, 47(4), 799-816.
  • Tovmo, P. & T. Falch (2002), “The Flypaper Effect and Political Strength”, Economics of Governance, 3(2), 153-170.
  • Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) (2019a), Consumer Price Index, <http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreIstatistikTablo.do?istab_id=650>, 11.11.2019.
  • Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) (2019b), Population of Provinces by Years, <http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreIstatistikTablo.do?istab_id=1590>, 11.11.2019.
  • Turnbull, G.K. (1992), “Fiscal Illusion, Uncertainty, and the Flypaper Effect”, Journal of Public Economics, 48(2), 207-223.
  • Widarjono, A. (2006), “Does Intergovernmental Transfers Cause Flypaper Effect on Local Spending?”, Economic Journal of Emerging Markets, 11(2), 115-123.
  • Worthington, A.C. & B.E. Dollery (1999), “Fiscal Illusion and the Australian Local Government Grants Process: How Sticky is the Flypaper Effect?”, Public Choice, 99(1-2), 1-13.
  • Yacoub, Y. & N. Lestari (2019), “Flypaper Effect in Indonesia: The Case of Kalimantan”, Journal of Finance and Banking Review, 4(4), 116-121.
  • Zampelli, E.M. (1986), “Resource Fungibility, the Flypaper Effect, and the Expenditure Impact of Grants-in-aid”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 68(1), 33-40.

Sinek Kâğıdı Etkisi: “Gerçeklik” mi, “Efsane” mi? Türkiye Örneği

Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 49, 483 - 500, 30.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.24

Abstract

Yerel yönetimler iktisadı literatüründeki birçok ampirik gözlem, yönetimler arası transferlerdeki artışın yerel kamu harcamaları üzerindeki etkisinin, kişisel gelirdeki artışın etkisinden daha fazla olduğuna işaret etmektedir. Bu duruma “sinek kâğıdı etkisi” denilmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, ilgili literatürü ortaya koymak ve Türkiye için sinek kâğıdı etkisini test etmektir. Bu bağlamda, Türkiye’de 2008-2017 dönemi için il düzeyinde panel veri teknikleri kullanılarak sinek kâğıdı etkisinin varlığına dair kanıtlar bulunmuştur. Aynı zamanda bulgularımız, hibelerin Türkiye’de uyarıcı bir etkiye sahip olduğunu göstermektedir.

References

  • Acar, Y. (2019), “Does Flypaper Effect Exist? New Evidence from Turkish Municipalities”, Sosyoekonomi, 27(39), 55-68.
  • Allers, M.A. & W. Vermeulen (2016), “Capitalization of Equalizing Grants and the Flypaper Effect”, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 58, 115-129.
  • Arellano, M. (1987), “Practitioners’ Corner: Computing Robust Standard Errors for within-Groups Estimators”, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 49(4), 431-434.
  • Bae, S.S. & R.C. Feiock (2004), “The Flypaper Effect Revisited: Intergovernmental Grants and Local Governance”, International Journal of Public Administration, 27(8-9), 577-596.
  • Bailey, S.J. & S. Connolly (1998), “The Flypaper Effect: Identifying Areas for Further Research”, Public Choice, 95(3-4), 335-361.
  • Bailey, S.J. (1999), Local Government Economics: Principles and Practice, London: Macmillan.
  • Baltagi, B.H. & P.X. Wu (1999), “Unequally Spaced Panel Data Regressions with AR(1) Disturbances”, Econometric Theory, 15(6), 814-823.
  • Baltagi, B.H. (2005), Econometric Analysis of Panel Data, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Becker, E. (1996), “The Illusion of Fiscal Illusion: Unsticking the Flypaper Effect”, Public Choice, 86(1-2), 85-102.
  • Becker, G.S. & C.B. Mulligan (2003), “Deadweight Costs and the Size of Government”, Journal of Law and Economics, 46(2), 293-340.
  • Bhargava, A. & L. Franzini & W. Narendranathan (1982), “Serial Correlation and the Fixed Effects Model”, The Review of Economic Studies, 49(4), 533-549.
  • Borge, L.E. (1995), “Lump-sum Intergovernmental Grants Have Price Effects: A Note”, Public Finance Quarterly, 23(2), 271-274.
  • Bradford, D.F. & W.E. Oates (1971), “The Analysis of Revenue Sharing in a New Approach to Collective Fiscal Decisions”, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 85(3), 416-439.
  • Brennan, G. & J.J. Pincus (1996), “A Minimalist Model of Federal Grants and Flypaper Effects”, Journal of Public Economics, 61(2), 229-246.
  • Brown, M.B. & A.B. Forsythe (1974), “Robust Tests for the Equality of Variances”, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 69(346), 364-367.
  • Cárdenas, O.J. & A. Sharma (2011), “Mexican Municipalities and the Flypaper Effect”, Public Budgeting & Finance, 31(3), 73-93.
  • Courant, P.N. & E.M. Gramlich & D.L. Rubinfeld (1979), “The Stimulative Effects of Intergovernmental Grants: Or Why Money Sticks Where It Hits”, in: P. Mieszkowski & W.H. Oakland (eds.), Fiscal Federalism and Grants-in-aid, Washington: The Urban Institute, 5-21.
  • Dahlby, B. (2011), “The Marginal Cost of Public Funds and the Flypaper Effect”, International Tax and Public Finance, 18(3), 304-321.
  • Deller, S.C. & C.S. Maher (2005), “Categorical Municipal Expenditures with a Focus on the Flypaper Effect”, Public Budgeting & Finance, 25(3), 73-90.
  • Deller, S.C. & C.S. Maher (2006), “A Model of Asymmetries in the Flypaper Effect”, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 36(2), 213-229.
  • Filimon, R. & T. Romer & H. Rosenthal (1982), “Asymmetric Information and Agenda Control: The Bases of Monopoly Power in Public Spending”, Journal of Public Economics, 17(1), 51-70.
  • Fisher, R.C. (1982), “Income and Grant Effects on Local Expenditure: The Flypaper Effect and Other Difficulties”, Journal of Urban Economics, 12(3), 324-345.
  • Froot, K.A. (1989), “Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation with Cross-Sectional Dependence and Heteroskedasticity in Financial Data”, The Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 24(3), 333-355.
  • Gamkhar, S. & A. Shah (2007), “The Impact of Intergovernmental Transfers: A Synthesis of the Conceptual and Empirical Literature”, in: R. Boadway & A. Shah (eds.), Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfers, Washington: The World Bank, 225-258.
  • Gamkhar, S. & W. Oates (1996), “Asymmetries in the Response to Increases and Decreases in Intergovernmental Grants: Some Empirical Findings”, National Tax Journal, 49(4), 501-512.
  • Gramlich, E.M. & H. Galper & S. Goldfeld & M. McGuire (1973), “State and Local Fiscal Behavior and Federal Grant Policy”, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1973(1), 15-65.
  • Hamilton, B.W. (1983), “The Flypaper Effect and Other Anomalies”, Journal of Public Economics, 22(3), 347-361.
  • Hamilton, J.H. (1986), “The Flypaper Effect and the Deadweight Loss from Taxation”, Journal of Urban Economics, 19(2), 148-155.
  • Hausman, J.A. (1978), “Specification Tests in Econometrics”, Econometrica, 46(6), 1251-1271.
  • Heyndels, B. (2001), “Asymmetries in the Flypaper Effect: Empirical Evidence for the Flemish Municipalities”, Applied Economics, 33(10), 1329-1334.
  • Hines, J.R. & R.H. Thaler (1995), “The Flypaper Effect”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(4), 217-226.
  • Inman, R.P. (2008), “The Flypaper Effect”, NBER Working Paper Series, No: 14579. <http://www.nber.org/papers/w14579>, 01.11.2019.
  • Kakamu, K. & H. Yunoue & T. Kuramoto (2014), “Spatial Patterns of Flypaper Effects for Local Expenditure by Policy Objective in Japan: A Bayesian Approach”, Economic Modeling, 37, 500-506.
  • Lalvani, M. (2002), “The Flypaper Effect: Evidence from India”, Public Budgeting & Finance, 22(3), 67-88.
  • Levene, H. (1960), “Robust Test for Equality of Variances”, in: I. Olkin et al. (eds.), Contributions to Probability and Statistics: Essays in Honor of Harold Hotteling, California: Stanford University Press, 278-292.
  • Megdal, S.B. (1987), “The Flypaper Effect Revisited: An Econometric Explanation”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 69(2), 347-351.
  • Melo, L. (2002), “The Flypaper Effect under Different Institutional Contexts: The Colombian Case”, Public Choice, 111(3-4), 317-345.
  • Niskanen, W.A. (1968), “The Peculiar Economics of Bureaucracy”, The American Economic Review, 58(2), 293-305.
  • Oates, W.E. (1979), “Lump-sum Intergovernmental Grants Have Price Effects”, in: P. Mieszkowski & W.H. Oakland (eds.), Fiscal Federalism and Grants-in-aid, Washington: The Urban Institute, 23-30.
  • Oates, W.E. (1999), “An Essay on Fiscal Federalism”, Journal of Economic Literature, 37(3), 1120-1149.
  • Pesaran, M.H. (2004), “General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels”, CESifo Working Paper, No. 1229, Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo), Munich.
  • Pevcin, P. (2011), “Expenditure Effects of Intergovernmental Transfers - The Case of Slovenia”, Central European Public Administration Review, 9(4), 31-46.
  • Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Treasury and Finance, General Directorate of Accounting (2019), Local Administrations Financial Statistics, <https://en.hmb.gov.tr/local-government>, 11.11.2019.
  • Roemer, J.E. & J. Silvestre (2002), “The ‘Flypaper Effect’ is not an Anomaly”, Journal of Public Economic Theory, 4(1), 1-17.
  • Rogers, W.H. (1993), “Regression Standard Errors in Clustered Samples”, Stata Technical Bulletin, 3(13), 19-23.
  • Schneider, M. & B.M. Ji (1987), “The Flypaper Effect and Competition in the Local Market for Public Goods”, Public Choice, 54(1), 27-39.
  • Shah, A. (2007), “A Practitioner’s Guide to Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfers”, in: R. Boadway & A. Shah (eds.), Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfers, Washington: The World Bank, 1-53.
  • Siregar, B. & R. Badrudin (2017), “Degree of Fiscal Decentralization and Flypaper Effect: Evidence from Indonesia”, Advanced Science Letters, 23(9), 9013-9019.
  • Sour, L. (2013), “The Flypaper Effect in Mexican Local Governments”, Estudios Económicos, 28(1), 165-186.
  • Stine, W.F. (1994), “Is Local Government Revenue Response to Federal Aid Symmetrical? Evidence from Pennsylvania County Governments in an Era of Retrenchment”, National Tax Journal, 47(4), 799-816.
  • Tovmo, P. & T. Falch (2002), “The Flypaper Effect and Political Strength”, Economics of Governance, 3(2), 153-170.
  • Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) (2019a), Consumer Price Index, <http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreIstatistikTablo.do?istab_id=650>, 11.11.2019.
  • Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) (2019b), Population of Provinces by Years, <http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreIstatistikTablo.do?istab_id=1590>, 11.11.2019.
  • Turnbull, G.K. (1992), “Fiscal Illusion, Uncertainty, and the Flypaper Effect”, Journal of Public Economics, 48(2), 207-223.
  • Widarjono, A. (2006), “Does Intergovernmental Transfers Cause Flypaper Effect on Local Spending?”, Economic Journal of Emerging Markets, 11(2), 115-123.
  • Worthington, A.C. & B.E. Dollery (1999), “Fiscal Illusion and the Australian Local Government Grants Process: How Sticky is the Flypaper Effect?”, Public Choice, 99(1-2), 1-13.
  • Yacoub, Y. & N. Lestari (2019), “Flypaper Effect in Indonesia: The Case of Kalimantan”, Journal of Finance and Banking Review, 4(4), 116-121.
  • Zampelli, E.M. (1986), “Resource Fungibility, the Flypaper Effect, and the Expenditure Impact of Grants-in-aid”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 68(1), 33-40.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Economics
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Cihan YÜKSEL (Primary Author)
MERSİN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-1959-1245
Türkiye

Publication Date July 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 49

Cite

Bibtex @research article { sosyoekonomi871185, journal = {Sosyoekonomi}, issn = {1305-5577}, address = {}, publisher = {Sosyoekonomi Society}, year = {2021}, volume = {29}, pages = {483 - 500}, doi = {10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.24}, title = {The Flypaper Effect: “Reality” or “Myth”? Evidence from Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Yüksel, Cihan} }
APA Yüksel, C. (2021). The Flypaper Effect: “Reality” or “Myth”? Evidence from Turkey . Sosyoekonomi , 29 (49) , 483-500 . DOI: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.24
MLA Yüksel, C. "The Flypaper Effect: “Reality” or “Myth”? Evidence from Turkey" . Sosyoekonomi 29 (2021 ): 483-500 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/sosyoekonomi/issue/64335/871185>
Chicago Yüksel, C. "The Flypaper Effect: “Reality” or “Myth”? Evidence from Turkey". Sosyoekonomi 29 (2021 ): 483-500
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Flypaper Effect: “Reality” or “Myth”? Evidence from Turkey AU - Cihan Yüksel Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.24 DO - 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.24 T2 - Sosyoekonomi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 483 EP - 500 VL - 29 IS - 49 SN - 1305-5577- M3 - doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.24 UR - https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.24 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Sosyoekonomi The Flypaper Effect: “Reality” or “Myth”? Evidence from Turkey %A Cihan Yüksel %T The Flypaper Effect: “Reality” or “Myth”? Evidence from Turkey %D 2021 %J Sosyoekonomi %P 1305-5577- %V 29 %N 49 %R doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.24 %U 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.24
ISNAD Yüksel, Cihan . "The Flypaper Effect: “Reality” or “Myth”? Evidence from Turkey". Sosyoekonomi 29 / 49 (July 2021): 483-500 . https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.24
AMA Yüksel C. The Flypaper Effect: “Reality” or “Myth”? Evidence from Turkey. Sosyoekonomi. 2021; 29(49): 483-500.
Vancouver Yüksel C. The Flypaper Effect: “Reality” or “Myth”? Evidence from Turkey. Sosyoekonomi. 2021; 29(49): 483-500.
IEEE C. Yüksel , "The Flypaper Effect: “Reality” or “Myth”? Evidence from Turkey", Sosyoekonomi, vol. 29, no. 49, pp. 483-500, Jul. 2021, doi:10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.03.24