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Türk-Amerikan İlişkilerinde Truman Doktrini’nin Mirası: Bir Ekonomi Politik Perspektifi

Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 50, 109 - 130, 31.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.06

Abstract

Bu çalışma, Türk-Amerikan ilişkilerinde yeni bir yöne olan ihtiyacı Truman Doktrininin mirasına güçlü bir vurgu yaparak ekonomi politik perspektifinden incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Çalışma, Türk-Amerikan ilişkilerinin yenilenmiş bir politika paradigmasına ihtiyaç duyduğu varsayımına dayanmakta ve böyle bir paradigma ekonomi politik temeline dayandırılmadığı müddetçe, anlaşmazlıkların büyük olasılıkla devam edeceğini öne sürmektedir. Türk-Amerikan ilişkilerine ekonomi politik araçlarıyla canlılık kazandırmak kolay olmamakla birlikte, bu hedefe giden yolda atılabilecek belirli adımlar vardır.

References

  • Adıvar, H. (1930), Turkey faces West, New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Al-Marashi, I. (2018), The enduring legacy of Operation Desert Storm, <https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2016/01/operation-desert-storm-25-years-iraq-saddam-hussein-kuwait-160117064302534.html>, 27.11.2019.
  • Alzawawy, M.S. (2021) “What Biden May Bring to the Eastern Mediterranean Region”, Insight Turkey, 23(1), 23-34.
  • Aras, B. & R. Karakaya-Polat (2008), “From Conflict to Cooperation: Desecuritization of Turkey's Relations with Syria and Iran”, Security Dialogue, 39(5), 495-515.
  • Arısan-Eralp, N. & S. Aydın-Düzgit & A. Eralp & E.F. Keyman & Ç. Nas (2021) “Turkey-U.S. Relations in the changing transatlantic context”, IPC Policy Brief.
  • Atmaca, A.Ö. (2011) “Yeni Dünyada Eski Oyun: Eleştirel Perspektiften Türk-Amerikan İlişkileri”, Ortadoğu Etütleri, 3(1), 157-191.
  • Atmaca, A.Ö. (2014) “The Geopolitical Origins of Turkish-American Relations: Revisiting the Cold War Years”, All Azimuth, 3(1), 19-34.
  • Babacan, M. (2011), “Whither an axis shift: a perspective from Turkey's foreign trade”, Insight Turkey, 13(1), 129-157.
  • Barkey, H.J. (2011), “Turkey and Iraq: The Making of a Partnership”, Turkish Studies, 12(4), 663-674.
  • Beyoghlow, K.A. (2020), Turkey and the United States on the Brink: Implications for Nato and the US-Turkish Strategic and Military Partnership, Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press.
  • Bi̇lgi̇n, M.S. & S. Morewood (2004), “Turkey's Reliance on Britain: British Political and Diplomatic Support for Turkey against Soviet Demands”, Middle Eastern Studies, 40(2), 24-57.
  • Blackwill, R.D. & J.M. Harris (2016), War by Other Means. Geoeconomics and Statecraft, Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
  • Buhari-Gulmez, D. (2020), “The resilience of the US-Turkey alliance: divergent threat perceptions and worldviews”, Contemporary Politics, 26(4), 475-492.
  • Calabrese, J. (1998) "Turkey and Iran: Limits of a Stable Relationship”, Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 25(1), 75-94.
  • Civan, A. & S. Genc & D. Taser & S. Atakul (2013), “The effect of new Turkish foreign policy on international trade”, Insight Turkey, 15(3), 107-122.
  • Çalış, S. (1997), “Turkey in the International System of Western States”, Pakistan Horizon, 50(3), 75-100.
  • Danforth, N. (2021) “A Cool, Cautious Calm: US-Turkey Relations Six Months into the Biden Administration”, Foreign Policy at Brookings.
  • EPDK (Republic of Turkey, Energy Market Regulatory Authority), (2019), Turkish Natural Gas Market Report.
  • Erhan, Ç. & E. Sıvış (2017) “Determinants of Turkish-American Relations and Prospects for the Future”, Insight Turkey, 19(1), 89-116.
  • Evered, K. (2010), “The Truman Doctrine in Greece and Turkey: America’s Cold War fusion of development and security”, Arab World Geographer, 13, 50-65.
  • Flanagan, S.J. & P.A. Wilson (2021) “Implications for the U.S.-Turkish Partnership and the U.S. Army”, in: RAND Corporation, Turkey’s Nationalist Discourse, Implications for the U.S.-Turkish Strategic Partnership and the U.S. Army. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.
  • Gelb, L. (2010), “GDP Now Matters More Than Force: A U.S. Foreign Policy for the Age of Economic Power”, Foreign Affairs, 89(6), 35-43.
  • Gordon, P. & O. Taspinar (2008), Winning Turkey, Harrisonburg,Virginia: R.R. Donnelley.
  • Grigoriadis, I. (2010), “Friends No More? The Rise of Anti-American Nationalism in Turkey”, Middle East Journal, 64(1), 51-66.
  • Gunter, M. (2005), “The U.S.-Turkish Alliance in Disarray”, World Affairs, 167(3), 113-123.
  • Isyar, Ö.G. (2005) “An Analysis of Turkish-American Relations from 1945 to 2004: Initiatives and Reactions in Turkish Foreign Policy”, Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, 4(3), 21-52.
  • Kalyon, L. (2010) “Truman Doktrini Üzerine Bir Analiz”, Güvenlik Stratejileri Dergisi, 6(11), 7-26.
  • Kılıç, E. (2017), “The Political Economy of Turkey's Trade Relations: Expensive Enmities and Cheap Amities”, Master’s Thesis, Hacettepe University.
  • Kindleberger, C. (1968), “The Marshall Plan and the Cold War”, International Journal, 23(3), 369-382.
  • Kosebalaban, H. (2011), Turkish Foreign Policy, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Kurç, Ç. (2017) “Between defence autarky and dependency: the dynamics of Turkish defence industrialization”, Defence Studies, 17(3), 260-281.
  • Kutlay, M. (2011), “Economy as the 'practical hand' of 'new Turkish foreign policy': a political economy explanation”, Insight Turkey, 13(1), 67-88.
  • Larrabee, F. & I. Lesser (2003), “Turkey and The United States”, in: Turkish Foreign Policy in an Age of Uncertainty, Santa Monica, CA; Arlington, VA; Pittsburgh, PA: RAND Corporation, 159-186.
  • Larrabee, F. (2010), Troubled Partnership: U.S.-Turkish Relations in an Era of Global Geopolitical Change, Santa Monica, CA; Arlington, VA; Pittsburgh, PA: RAND Corporation.
  • Larrabee, S.F. (2010), “Turkey's New Geopolitics”, Survival, 52(2), 157-180.
  • Lesser, I.O. (2006), “Turkey, the United States and the Delusion of geopolitics”, Survival, 48, 83-96.
  • Livingston, C. (1994), “ 'One Thousand Wings': The United States Air Force Group and the American Mission for Aid to Turkey, 1947-50”, Middle Eastern Studies, 30(4), 778-825.
  • Merrill, D. (2006), “The Truman Doctrine: Containing Communism and Modernity”, Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36(1), 27-37.
  • Müftüler-Bac, M. (2005), “Turkey and the United States: The Impact of the War in Iraq”, International Journal, 61(1), 61-81.
  • Müftüler-Baç, M. (2014), “Changing Turkish foreign policy towards Iraq: New tools of engagement”, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 27(3), 538-552.
  • Nurgün-Koç, N., & B. Koç. (2017) “Effects of Marshall Plan on Turkish Economy”, Sociology Study, 7(2), 83‐121.
  • Okyar, O. (1979), “Development Background of the Turkish Economy, 1923-1973”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 10(3), 325- 344.
  • Oran, B. (2011), Turkish Foreign Policy, 1919-2006, Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.
  • Ozel, S. (2011), “Indispensable even when unreliable: An anatomy of Turkish-American relations”, International Journal, 67(1), 53-64.
  • Öniş, Z. (2011), “Multiple faces of the 'new' Turkish foreign policy: underlying dynamics and a critique”, Insight Turkey, 13(1), 47-65.
  • Pollard, R. (1985), “Economic Security and the Origins of the Cold War: Bretton Woods, the Marshall Plan, and American Rearmament, 1944-50”, Diplomatic History, 9(3), 271-289.
  • RAND Corporation (2021), Turkey’s Nationalist Discourse, Implications for the U.S.-Turkish Strategic Partnership and the U.S. Army, Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.
  • Satterthwaite, J. (1972), “The Truman Doctrine: Turkey”, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 401, 74-84.
  • Sinkaya, B. (2012), “Rationalization of Turkey-Iran Relations: Prospects and Limits”, Insight Turkey, 14(2), 137-156.
  • Stein, A. (2011), “Resetting U.S.-Turkish Relations: Charting a New Way Forward”, Journal of Strategic Security, 4(1), 1-18.
  • Trask, R. (1970), “The "Terrible Turk" and Turkish-American Relations in the Interwar Period”, The Historian, 33(1), 40-53.
  • Ülgen, S. (2021) “Redefining the U.S.-Turkey Relationship”, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Working Paper.
  • Ünlü-Bilgiç, T. (2015), “The Roots of Anti-Americanism in Turkey 1945-1960”, Bilig, 72, 251-280.
  • Yilmaz, Ş. (2006), “Challenging the Stereotypes: Turkish-American Relations in the Inter-War Era”, Middle Eastern Studies, 42(2), 223-237.

Legacy of the Truman Doctrine on Turkish-American Relations: A Political Economy Perspective

Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 50, 109 - 130, 31.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.06

Abstract

This paper aims to scrutinise the need for a new path in Turkish-American relations from a political economy perspective with a strong emphasis on the legacy of the Truman Doctrine. The paper is based on the assumption that Turkish-American relations need a renewed policy paradigm and argues that matters of controversy are likely to prevail unless such a paradigm is found on a political economy basis. Even though the task of reviving Turkish-American relations via tools of political economy is not an easy one, there are several steps to be taken, which can pave the way to this goal.

References

  • Adıvar, H. (1930), Turkey faces West, New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Al-Marashi, I. (2018), The enduring legacy of Operation Desert Storm, <https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2016/01/operation-desert-storm-25-years-iraq-saddam-hussein-kuwait-160117064302534.html>, 27.11.2019.
  • Alzawawy, M.S. (2021) “What Biden May Bring to the Eastern Mediterranean Region”, Insight Turkey, 23(1), 23-34.
  • Aras, B. & R. Karakaya-Polat (2008), “From Conflict to Cooperation: Desecuritization of Turkey's Relations with Syria and Iran”, Security Dialogue, 39(5), 495-515.
  • Arısan-Eralp, N. & S. Aydın-Düzgit & A. Eralp & E.F. Keyman & Ç. Nas (2021) “Turkey-U.S. Relations in the changing transatlantic context”, IPC Policy Brief.
  • Atmaca, A.Ö. (2011) “Yeni Dünyada Eski Oyun: Eleştirel Perspektiften Türk-Amerikan İlişkileri”, Ortadoğu Etütleri, 3(1), 157-191.
  • Atmaca, A.Ö. (2014) “The Geopolitical Origins of Turkish-American Relations: Revisiting the Cold War Years”, All Azimuth, 3(1), 19-34.
  • Babacan, M. (2011), “Whither an axis shift: a perspective from Turkey's foreign trade”, Insight Turkey, 13(1), 129-157.
  • Barkey, H.J. (2011), “Turkey and Iraq: The Making of a Partnership”, Turkish Studies, 12(4), 663-674.
  • Beyoghlow, K.A. (2020), Turkey and the United States on the Brink: Implications for Nato and the US-Turkish Strategic and Military Partnership, Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press.
  • Bi̇lgi̇n, M.S. & S. Morewood (2004), “Turkey's Reliance on Britain: British Political and Diplomatic Support for Turkey against Soviet Demands”, Middle Eastern Studies, 40(2), 24-57.
  • Blackwill, R.D. & J.M. Harris (2016), War by Other Means. Geoeconomics and Statecraft, Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
  • Buhari-Gulmez, D. (2020), “The resilience of the US-Turkey alliance: divergent threat perceptions and worldviews”, Contemporary Politics, 26(4), 475-492.
  • Calabrese, J. (1998) "Turkey and Iran: Limits of a Stable Relationship”, Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 25(1), 75-94.
  • Civan, A. & S. Genc & D. Taser & S. Atakul (2013), “The effect of new Turkish foreign policy on international trade”, Insight Turkey, 15(3), 107-122.
  • Çalış, S. (1997), “Turkey in the International System of Western States”, Pakistan Horizon, 50(3), 75-100.
  • Danforth, N. (2021) “A Cool, Cautious Calm: US-Turkey Relations Six Months into the Biden Administration”, Foreign Policy at Brookings.
  • EPDK (Republic of Turkey, Energy Market Regulatory Authority), (2019), Turkish Natural Gas Market Report.
  • Erhan, Ç. & E. Sıvış (2017) “Determinants of Turkish-American Relations and Prospects for the Future”, Insight Turkey, 19(1), 89-116.
  • Evered, K. (2010), “The Truman Doctrine in Greece and Turkey: America’s Cold War fusion of development and security”, Arab World Geographer, 13, 50-65.
  • Flanagan, S.J. & P.A. Wilson (2021) “Implications for the U.S.-Turkish Partnership and the U.S. Army”, in: RAND Corporation, Turkey’s Nationalist Discourse, Implications for the U.S.-Turkish Strategic Partnership and the U.S. Army. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.
  • Gelb, L. (2010), “GDP Now Matters More Than Force: A U.S. Foreign Policy for the Age of Economic Power”, Foreign Affairs, 89(6), 35-43.
  • Gordon, P. & O. Taspinar (2008), Winning Turkey, Harrisonburg,Virginia: R.R. Donnelley.
  • Grigoriadis, I. (2010), “Friends No More? The Rise of Anti-American Nationalism in Turkey”, Middle East Journal, 64(1), 51-66.
  • Gunter, M. (2005), “The U.S.-Turkish Alliance in Disarray”, World Affairs, 167(3), 113-123.
  • Isyar, Ö.G. (2005) “An Analysis of Turkish-American Relations from 1945 to 2004: Initiatives and Reactions in Turkish Foreign Policy”, Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, 4(3), 21-52.
  • Kalyon, L. (2010) “Truman Doktrini Üzerine Bir Analiz”, Güvenlik Stratejileri Dergisi, 6(11), 7-26.
  • Kılıç, E. (2017), “The Political Economy of Turkey's Trade Relations: Expensive Enmities and Cheap Amities”, Master’s Thesis, Hacettepe University.
  • Kindleberger, C. (1968), “The Marshall Plan and the Cold War”, International Journal, 23(3), 369-382.
  • Kosebalaban, H. (2011), Turkish Foreign Policy, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Kurç, Ç. (2017) “Between defence autarky and dependency: the dynamics of Turkish defence industrialization”, Defence Studies, 17(3), 260-281.
  • Kutlay, M. (2011), “Economy as the 'practical hand' of 'new Turkish foreign policy': a political economy explanation”, Insight Turkey, 13(1), 67-88.
  • Larrabee, F. & I. Lesser (2003), “Turkey and The United States”, in: Turkish Foreign Policy in an Age of Uncertainty, Santa Monica, CA; Arlington, VA; Pittsburgh, PA: RAND Corporation, 159-186.
  • Larrabee, F. (2010), Troubled Partnership: U.S.-Turkish Relations in an Era of Global Geopolitical Change, Santa Monica, CA; Arlington, VA; Pittsburgh, PA: RAND Corporation.
  • Larrabee, S.F. (2010), “Turkey's New Geopolitics”, Survival, 52(2), 157-180.
  • Lesser, I.O. (2006), “Turkey, the United States and the Delusion of geopolitics”, Survival, 48, 83-96.
  • Livingston, C. (1994), “ 'One Thousand Wings': The United States Air Force Group and the American Mission for Aid to Turkey, 1947-50”, Middle Eastern Studies, 30(4), 778-825.
  • Merrill, D. (2006), “The Truman Doctrine: Containing Communism and Modernity”, Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36(1), 27-37.
  • Müftüler-Bac, M. (2005), “Turkey and the United States: The Impact of the War in Iraq”, International Journal, 61(1), 61-81.
  • Müftüler-Baç, M. (2014), “Changing Turkish foreign policy towards Iraq: New tools of engagement”, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 27(3), 538-552.
  • Nurgün-Koç, N., & B. Koç. (2017) “Effects of Marshall Plan on Turkish Economy”, Sociology Study, 7(2), 83‐121.
  • Okyar, O. (1979), “Development Background of the Turkish Economy, 1923-1973”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 10(3), 325- 344.
  • Oran, B. (2011), Turkish Foreign Policy, 1919-2006, Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.
  • Ozel, S. (2011), “Indispensable even when unreliable: An anatomy of Turkish-American relations”, International Journal, 67(1), 53-64.
  • Öniş, Z. (2011), “Multiple faces of the 'new' Turkish foreign policy: underlying dynamics and a critique”, Insight Turkey, 13(1), 47-65.
  • Pollard, R. (1985), “Economic Security and the Origins of the Cold War: Bretton Woods, the Marshall Plan, and American Rearmament, 1944-50”, Diplomatic History, 9(3), 271-289.
  • RAND Corporation (2021), Turkey’s Nationalist Discourse, Implications for the U.S.-Turkish Strategic Partnership and the U.S. Army, Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.
  • Satterthwaite, J. (1972), “The Truman Doctrine: Turkey”, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 401, 74-84.
  • Sinkaya, B. (2012), “Rationalization of Turkey-Iran Relations: Prospects and Limits”, Insight Turkey, 14(2), 137-156.
  • Stein, A. (2011), “Resetting U.S.-Turkish Relations: Charting a New Way Forward”, Journal of Strategic Security, 4(1), 1-18.
  • Trask, R. (1970), “The "Terrible Turk" and Turkish-American Relations in the Interwar Period”, The Historian, 33(1), 40-53.
  • Ülgen, S. (2021) “Redefining the U.S.-Turkey Relationship”, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Working Paper.
  • Ünlü-Bilgiç, T. (2015), “The Roots of Anti-Americanism in Turkey 1945-1960”, Bilig, 72, 251-280.
  • Yilmaz, Ş. (2006), “Challenging the Stereotypes: Turkish-American Relations in the Inter-War Era”, Middle Eastern Studies, 42(2), 223-237.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Emrullah Can KILIÇ
Cumhurbaşkanlığı
0000-0002-0820-736X
Türkiye


İtır İMER (Primary Author)
Hacettepe University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences
0000-0002-7779-1440
Türkiye

Publication Date October 31, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 50

Cite

Bibtex @research article { sosyoekonomi656589, journal = {Sosyoekonomi}, issn = {1305-5577}, address = {}, publisher = {Sosyoekonomi Society}, year = {2021}, volume = {29}, pages = {109 - 130}, doi = {10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.06}, title = {Legacy of the Truman Doctrine on Turkish-American Relations: A Political Economy Perspective}, key = {cite}, author = {Kılıç, Emrullah Can and İmer, İtır} }
APA Kılıç, E. C. & İmer, İ. (2021). Legacy of the Truman Doctrine on Turkish-American Relations: A Political Economy Perspective . Sosyoekonomi , 29 (50) , 109-130 . DOI: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.06
MLA Kılıç, E. C. , İmer, İ. "Legacy of the Truman Doctrine on Turkish-American Relations: A Political Economy Perspective" . Sosyoekonomi 29 (2021 ): 109-130 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/sosyoekonomi/issue/65592/656589>
Chicago Kılıç, E. C. , İmer, İ. "Legacy of the Truman Doctrine on Turkish-American Relations: A Political Economy Perspective". Sosyoekonomi 29 (2021 ): 109-130
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Legacy of the Truman Doctrine on Turkish-American Relations: A Political Economy Perspective AU - Emrullah Can Kılıç , İtır İmer Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.06 DO - 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.06 T2 - Sosyoekonomi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 109 EP - 130 VL - 29 IS - 50 SN - 1305-5577- M3 - doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.06 UR - https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.06 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Sosyoekonomi Legacy of the Truman Doctrine on Turkish-American Relations: A Political Economy Perspective %A Emrullah Can Kılıç , İtır İmer %T Legacy of the Truman Doctrine on Turkish-American Relations: A Political Economy Perspective %D 2021 %J Sosyoekonomi %P 1305-5577- %V 29 %N 50 %R doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.06 %U 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.06
ISNAD Kılıç, Emrullah Can , İmer, İtır . "Legacy of the Truman Doctrine on Turkish-American Relations: A Political Economy Perspective". Sosyoekonomi 29 / 50 (October 2021): 109-130 . https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.06
AMA Kılıç E. C. , İmer İ. Legacy of the Truman Doctrine on Turkish-American Relations: A Political Economy Perspective. Sosyoekonomi. 2021; 29(50): 109-130.
Vancouver Kılıç E. C. , İmer İ. Legacy of the Truman Doctrine on Turkish-American Relations: A Political Economy Perspective. Sosyoekonomi. 2021; 29(50): 109-130.
IEEE E. C. Kılıç and İ. İmer , "Legacy of the Truman Doctrine on Turkish-American Relations: A Political Economy Perspective", Sosyoekonomi, vol. 29, no. 50, pp. 109-130, Oct. 2021, doi:10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.06