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Doğrudan Yabancı Yatırımın Belirleyicisi Olarak Göçün Etkilerine Farklı Bir Bakış: Türkiye ve OECD Ülkeleri Üzerine Panel Çekim Modelinden Bulgular

Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 50, 169 - 196, 31.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.09

Abstract

Bu çalışma, Türkiye ve OECD ülkeleri arasındaki Doğrudan Yabancı Yatırım akışları üzerinde göçün etkisini incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaçla, çalışma 2003-2019 dönemini kapsayan verileri kullanmaktadır. Panel Çekim Modelinde değişen varyansın ve içe dönük DYY’lerde büyük sayıda olmayan sıfır gözlem değerlerinin varlığında etkin sonuçlar sunan PPML tahmin yöntemi uygulamaktadır. Bununla birlikte, dışa doğru DYY’ler, aşırı dağılıma ve aşırı sıfır değerine sahip olan dışa doğru DYY verileri nedeniyle ZINB modeli kullanılarak tahmin edilmektedir. Sonuçlar, Türkiye'den OECD'ye giden göçmenlerin DYY’ler üzerindeki etkisinin, OECD'den Türkiye'ye gelen göçmenlere göre daha etkili olduğunu göstermektedir.

References

  • Akkoyunlu, Ş. (2010), “Can Trade, Aid, Foreign Direct Investments and Remittances Curb Migration from Turkey?”, Migration Letters, 7(2), 144-158.
  • Alfaro, L. & M. Chen, (2010), “Surviving the Global Financial Crisis: Foreign Direct Investment and Establishment Performance”, Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 10/110.
  • Ali, S. & W. Guo (2005), “Determinants of FDI in China”, Journal of Global Business and Technology, 1(2), 21-33.
  • Anderson, J.E. & E. Van Wincoop (2003), “Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle”, American Economic Review, 93(1), 170-192.
  • Anderson, J.E. (1979), “A theoretical Foundation for Gravity Equation”, American Economic Review, 69(1), 106-116.
  • Asiedu, E. (2002), “On the Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment to Developing Countries: Is Africa Different?”, World Development, 30(1), 107-119.
  • Baier, S.L. & J.H. Bergstrand (2007), “Do Free Trade Agreements Actually Increase Members' International Trade?”, Working Paper, No. 2005-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  • Bal, H. & E.E. Akça (2016), “Doğrudan Yabancı Sermaye Yatırımlarının Belirleyicileri: Seçilmiş Doğu Asya ve Pasifik Ülkelerinden Ampirik Bulgular”, Sosyoekonomi, 24(30), 91-112.
  • Barry, F. (2002), “E.U. Accession and FDI flows to CEE countries: Lessons from the Irish Experience”, in: Conference on Foreign Direct Investment in the Real and Financial Sector of Industrial Countries, Bundesbank Eltville am Rhein.
  • Bellino, A. & G. Celi (2016), “The Migration-Trade Nexus in Presence of Vertical and Horizontal Product Differentiation”, Discussion Paper, No. 137: University of Foggia.
  • Bergeijk, P.A.G. & S. Brakman (2010), “The Comeback of the Gravity Model”, in: P.A. Van Bergeijk & S. Brakman (eds.), The Gravity Model in International Trade: Advances and Applications, Cambridge University Press.
  • Bergstrand, J.H. (1989), “The Generalized Gravity Equation, Monopolistic Competition, and the Factor-Proportions Theory in International Trade”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 71(1), 1435-153.
  • Bertoli, S. & J.F.H. Moraga (2017), “Gravity Models in the Migration and Development Nexus”, Revue d'économie du développement, 25(3), 69-91.
  • Bevan, A. & S. Estrin & K. Meyer (2004), “Foreign Investment Location and Institutional Development in Transition Economies”, International Business Review, 13(1), 43-64.
  • Bhattacharya, U. & P. Groznik (2008), “Melting Pot or Salad Bowl: Some Evidence from U.S. Investments Abroad”, Journal of Financial Markets, 11(3), 228-258.
  • Bosker, E.M. & H. Garretsen (2010), “Trade Costs, Market Access and Economic Geography: Why the Empirical Specification of Trade Costs Matters”, in: P.A. Van Bergeijk & S. Brakman (eds.), The Gravity Model in International Trade: Advances and Applications, Cambridge University Press.
  • Brakman, S. et al. (2010), “Economic and Financial Integration and the Rise of Cross-Border M&As”, in: P.A. Van Bergeijk & S. Brakman (eds.), The Gravity Model in International Trade: Advances and Applications, Cambridge University Press.
  • Buch, C.M. et al. (2006), “Where Enterprises Lead, People Follow? Links Between Migration and FDI in Germany”, European Economic Review, 50(8), 2017-2036.
  • Burger, M. & F.G. van Oort & G.M. Linders (2009), “On the Specification of the Gravity Model of Trade: Zeros, Excess Zeros and Zero-Inflated Estimation”, Spatial Economic Analysis, 4(2), 167-90.
  • CEPII (2011), Notes on CEPII’s distances measures: The GeoDist database, <http://www.cepii.fr/PDF_PUB/wp/2011/wp2011-25.pdf>, 31.08.2021.
  • Cheng, K.L. & Y.K. Kwan (2000), “What are The Determinants of The Location of Foreign Direct Investment? The Chinese Experience”, Journal of International Economics, 51(2), 379-400.
  • Clemens, M.A. & J.G. Williamson (2000), “Where Did British Foreign Capital Go? Fundamentals, Failures and the Lucas Paradox: 1870-1913”, NBER Working Paper, No. w8028: NBER.
  • Combes, P. & M. Lafourcade & T. Mayer (2002), “Can Business and Social Networks Explain the Border Effect Puzzle?”, CEPII Working Paper, No. 2: CEPII.
  • Correia, S. & P. Guimaraes & T. Zylkin (2019), “PPMLHDFE: Fast Poisson Estimation with High-Dimensional Fixed Effects”, <https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.01690.pdf>, 31.08.2021.
  • Cuervo-Cazurra, A. (2008), “The Effectiveness of Law Against Bribery Abroad”, Journal of International Business Studies, 39(4), 634-651.
  • Deardorff, A.V. (1998), J. Frankel (ed.), Determinants of Bilateral Trade: Does Gravity Work in a Neoclassical World, The Regionalization of the World Economy University of Chicago Press.
  • Dunlevy, J.A. & W.K. Hutchinson (1999), “The Impact of Immigration on American Import Trade in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries”, Journal of Economic History, 59(4), 1043-1062.
  • Dunlevy, J.A. & W.K. Hutchinson (2001), “The Pro-Trade Effect of Immigration on American Exports During the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries”, IZA Discussion Paper: 375.
  • Eichengreen, B. & D.A. Irwin (1998), “The Role of History in Bilateral Trade Flows”, in: The Regionalization of the World Economy, University of Chicago Press: NBER, 33-62.
  • Faruqee, H. (2004), “Measuring the Trade Effects of EMU”, Working Paper No. 04/154, International Monetary Fund, Washington DC.
  • Fidrmuc, J. (2009), “Gravity Models in Integrated Panels”, Empir Econ, 37, 435-446.
  • Foad, H. (2012), “FDI and Immigration: A Regional Analysis”, Ann Reg Sci, 49, 237-259.
  • Frankel, J. & S. Wei (1993), “Trade Blocs and Currency Blocs”, NBER Working Paper, No. 4335.
  • Gao, T. (2003), “Ethnic Chinese Networks and International Investment: Evidence from Inward FDI in China”, Journal of Asian Economics, 14(4), 611-629.
  • Garas, A. & et al. (2016), “The Relation between Migration and FDI in the OECD from a Complex Network Perspective”, Advances in Complex Systems, 19 No. 06n07 1650009.
  • Girma, S. & Z. Yu (2002), “The Link Between Immigration and Trade: Evidence from the United Kingdom”, Review of World Economics, 138(1), 115-130.
  • Globerman, S. & D.M. Shapiro (1999), “The Impact of Government Policies on Foreign Direct Investment: The Canadian Experience”, Journal of International Business Studies, 30(3), 513-532.
  • Goldberger, A. (1968), “The Interpretation and Estimation of Cobb-Douglas Functions”, Econometrica, 36(3), 464-472.
  • Gómez-Herrera, E. (2013), “Comparing Alternative Methods to Estimate Gravity Models of Bilateral Trade”, Empirical Economics, 44(3), 1087-1111.
  • Gould, D.M. (1994), “Immigrant Links to the Home Country: Empirical Implications for U.S. Bilateral Trade Flows”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 76(2), 302-316.
  • Guimarães, P. (2020), PPMLHDFE: Fast Poisson Estimation with High Dimensional Fixed Effects, <https://www.stata.com/meeting/portugal20/slides/Portugal20_Guimaraes.pdf>, 31.08.2021.
  • Head, K. & J. Ries (1998), “Immigration and Trade Creation: Econometric Evidence from Canada”, Canadian Journal of Economics, 31, 47-62.
  • Helpman, E. & M. Melitz & Y. Rubenstein (2008), “Estimating Trade Flows: Trading Partners and Trading Volumes”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 123, 441-87.
  • Helpman, E. (1984), “A Simple Theory of International Trade with Multinational Corporations”, Journal of Political Economy, 92(3), 451-71.
  • INSCR (2018), Polity5: Regime Authority Characteristics and Transitions Datasets, <http://www.systemicpeace.org/inscrdata.html>, 31.08.2021.
  • IOM (2021a), Immigration & emigration statistics, <https://www.migrationdataportal.org/>, 15.07.2021.
  • IOM (2021b), Iom in Turkey, <https://www.iom.int/countries/turkey>, 15.07.2021.
  • Jagdambea, S. & E. Kannan (2020), “Effects of ASEAN-India Free Trade Agreement on Agricultural Trade: The Gravity Model Approach”, World Development Perspectives, 19.
  • Javorcik, B. & C. Ozden & M. Spatareanu & C. Neagu (2011), “Migrant Networks and Foreign Direct Investment”, Journal of Development Economics, 94(2), 231-241.
  • Kugler, M. & H. Rapoport, (2007), “International Labor and Capital Flows: Complements or Substitutes?”, Economics Letters, 94(2), 155-162.
  • Leibrecht, M. & A. Riedl (2014), “Modeling FDI Based on A Spatially Augmented Gravity Model: Evidence for Central and Eastern European Countries”, The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, 23(8), 1206-1237.
  • Ligthart, J.E. & D. Singer (2009), Do Immigrants Promote Outward Foreign Direct Investment? Evidence from the Netherlands, Unpublished: Tilburg University.
  • Malan, F.A. (2015), “Complementarity between FDI and Migration: Using the Fall of the Berlin Wall as a Natural Experiment”, IFAC-PapersOnLine, 48(24), 201-206.
  • Manning, W.G. & J. Mullahy (2001), “Estimating Log Models: To Transform or Not to Transform?”, Journal of Health Economics, (20), 461-494.
  • Markusen, J.L. (1995), “The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(2), 169-189.
  • Murat, M. & B. Pistoresi & A. Rinaldi (2011), “Transnational Social Capital and FDI: Evidence from Italian Associations Worldwide”, Journal of Economic Development, 36(4), 1-15.
  • OECD (2021), <https://stats.oecd.org/>, 01.0812021.
  • Ozaydın, A. & A. Ilgazi (2019), “Syrian Refugees in Terms of Direct Foreign Capital Investment”, Gaziantep University Journal of Gaziantep University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 1(1), 130-160.
  • Rauch, J. E. & V. Tridade (2002), “Ethnic Chinese Networks in International Trade”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 84(1), 116-130.
  • Ravenstein, E.G. (1885) “The Laws of Migration”, Journal of the Statistical Society of London, 48(2), 167-235.
  • Republic of Turkey Ministry of Development (2014), The Tenth Development Plan (2014-2018), <https://sbb.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/The_Tenth_Development_Plan_2014-2018.pdf>, 18.08.2021.
  • Silva, J.S. & S. Tenreyro (2006), “The Log of Gravity”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 88(4), 641-658.
  • Silva, J.S. & S. Tenreyro (2011), “Further Simulation Evidence on the Performance of the Poisson-PML Estimator”, Economics Letters, 112 (2), 220-222.
  • Tinbergen, J. (1962), Shaping the World Economy, New York: The Twentieth Century Fund.
  • Tong, S.Y. (2005), “Ethnic Networks in FDI and the Impact of Institutional Development”, Review of Development Economics, 9(4), 563-580.
  • UNCTAD (2021), Foreign Direct Investment: Inward and Outward Flows and Stock- Annual, <https://unctadstat.unctad.org/wds/TableViewer/tableView.aspx>, 31.08.2021.
  • Wahid, A.N.M. & R. Sawkut & R. Seetanah (2009), “Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI): Lessons from the African Economies”, Journal of Applied Business and Economics, <http://www.na-businesspress.com/JABE/WahidWeb.pdf>, 31.08.2021.
  • Westerlund, J. & F. Wilhelmsson (2011), “Estimating the Gravity Model Without Gravity Using Panel Data”, Applied Economics, 43(6), 641-649.
  • World Bank (2020), Ease of Doing Business Rankings, <https://www.doingbusiness.org/en/reports/global-reports/doing-business-2020>, 31.08.2021.
  • Zwinkels, R.C.J. & S. Beugelsdijk (2010), “Gravity Equations: Workhorse or Trojan Horse in Explaining Trade and FDI Patterns Across Time and Space?”, International Business Review, 19, 102-115.

Another Perspective of The Effects of Migration as A Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence-Based on Panel Gravity Model from Turkey and OECD Countries

Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 50, 169 - 196, 31.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.09

Abstract

This paper aims to investigate the impact of immigration on FDI between Turkey and OECD countries. The paper uses data spanning the period 2003-2019. There is employed PPML estimation method which presented efficient output in the presence of heteroskedasticity and non-large zero values of inward FDI in Panel Gravity Model. However, outward FDI is estimated using the ZINB model for outward FDI data has overdispersion and excess zero flows. The results show that immigrant flows to OECD from Turkey on the FDI flows are relatively more effective than the immigrant flows to Turkey from OECD.

References

  • Akkoyunlu, Ş. (2010), “Can Trade, Aid, Foreign Direct Investments and Remittances Curb Migration from Turkey?”, Migration Letters, 7(2), 144-158.
  • Alfaro, L. & M. Chen, (2010), “Surviving the Global Financial Crisis: Foreign Direct Investment and Establishment Performance”, Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 10/110.
  • Ali, S. & W. Guo (2005), “Determinants of FDI in China”, Journal of Global Business and Technology, 1(2), 21-33.
  • Anderson, J.E. & E. Van Wincoop (2003), “Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle”, American Economic Review, 93(1), 170-192.
  • Anderson, J.E. (1979), “A theoretical Foundation for Gravity Equation”, American Economic Review, 69(1), 106-116.
  • Asiedu, E. (2002), “On the Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment to Developing Countries: Is Africa Different?”, World Development, 30(1), 107-119.
  • Baier, S.L. & J.H. Bergstrand (2007), “Do Free Trade Agreements Actually Increase Members' International Trade?”, Working Paper, No. 2005-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  • Bal, H. & E.E. Akça (2016), “Doğrudan Yabancı Sermaye Yatırımlarının Belirleyicileri: Seçilmiş Doğu Asya ve Pasifik Ülkelerinden Ampirik Bulgular”, Sosyoekonomi, 24(30), 91-112.
  • Barry, F. (2002), “E.U. Accession and FDI flows to CEE countries: Lessons from the Irish Experience”, in: Conference on Foreign Direct Investment in the Real and Financial Sector of Industrial Countries, Bundesbank Eltville am Rhein.
  • Bellino, A. & G. Celi (2016), “The Migration-Trade Nexus in Presence of Vertical and Horizontal Product Differentiation”, Discussion Paper, No. 137: University of Foggia.
  • Bergeijk, P.A.G. & S. Brakman (2010), “The Comeback of the Gravity Model”, in: P.A. Van Bergeijk & S. Brakman (eds.), The Gravity Model in International Trade: Advances and Applications, Cambridge University Press.
  • Bergstrand, J.H. (1989), “The Generalized Gravity Equation, Monopolistic Competition, and the Factor-Proportions Theory in International Trade”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 71(1), 1435-153.
  • Bertoli, S. & J.F.H. Moraga (2017), “Gravity Models in the Migration and Development Nexus”, Revue d'économie du développement, 25(3), 69-91.
  • Bevan, A. & S. Estrin & K. Meyer (2004), “Foreign Investment Location and Institutional Development in Transition Economies”, International Business Review, 13(1), 43-64.
  • Bhattacharya, U. & P. Groznik (2008), “Melting Pot or Salad Bowl: Some Evidence from U.S. Investments Abroad”, Journal of Financial Markets, 11(3), 228-258.
  • Bosker, E.M. & H. Garretsen (2010), “Trade Costs, Market Access and Economic Geography: Why the Empirical Specification of Trade Costs Matters”, in: P.A. Van Bergeijk & S. Brakman (eds.), The Gravity Model in International Trade: Advances and Applications, Cambridge University Press.
  • Brakman, S. et al. (2010), “Economic and Financial Integration and the Rise of Cross-Border M&As”, in: P.A. Van Bergeijk & S. Brakman (eds.), The Gravity Model in International Trade: Advances and Applications, Cambridge University Press.
  • Buch, C.M. et al. (2006), “Where Enterprises Lead, People Follow? Links Between Migration and FDI in Germany”, European Economic Review, 50(8), 2017-2036.
  • Burger, M. & F.G. van Oort & G.M. Linders (2009), “On the Specification of the Gravity Model of Trade: Zeros, Excess Zeros and Zero-Inflated Estimation”, Spatial Economic Analysis, 4(2), 167-90.
  • CEPII (2011), Notes on CEPII’s distances measures: The GeoDist database, <http://www.cepii.fr/PDF_PUB/wp/2011/wp2011-25.pdf>, 31.08.2021.
  • Cheng, K.L. & Y.K. Kwan (2000), “What are The Determinants of The Location of Foreign Direct Investment? The Chinese Experience”, Journal of International Economics, 51(2), 379-400.
  • Clemens, M.A. & J.G. Williamson (2000), “Where Did British Foreign Capital Go? Fundamentals, Failures and the Lucas Paradox: 1870-1913”, NBER Working Paper, No. w8028: NBER.
  • Combes, P. & M. Lafourcade & T. Mayer (2002), “Can Business and Social Networks Explain the Border Effect Puzzle?”, CEPII Working Paper, No. 2: CEPII.
  • Correia, S. & P. Guimaraes & T. Zylkin (2019), “PPMLHDFE: Fast Poisson Estimation with High-Dimensional Fixed Effects”, <https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.01690.pdf>, 31.08.2021.
  • Cuervo-Cazurra, A. (2008), “The Effectiveness of Law Against Bribery Abroad”, Journal of International Business Studies, 39(4), 634-651.
  • Deardorff, A.V. (1998), J. Frankel (ed.), Determinants of Bilateral Trade: Does Gravity Work in a Neoclassical World, The Regionalization of the World Economy University of Chicago Press.
  • Dunlevy, J.A. & W.K. Hutchinson (1999), “The Impact of Immigration on American Import Trade in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries”, Journal of Economic History, 59(4), 1043-1062.
  • Dunlevy, J.A. & W.K. Hutchinson (2001), “The Pro-Trade Effect of Immigration on American Exports During the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries”, IZA Discussion Paper: 375.
  • Eichengreen, B. & D.A. Irwin (1998), “The Role of History in Bilateral Trade Flows”, in: The Regionalization of the World Economy, University of Chicago Press: NBER, 33-62.
  • Faruqee, H. (2004), “Measuring the Trade Effects of EMU”, Working Paper No. 04/154, International Monetary Fund, Washington DC.
  • Fidrmuc, J. (2009), “Gravity Models in Integrated Panels”, Empir Econ, 37, 435-446.
  • Foad, H. (2012), “FDI and Immigration: A Regional Analysis”, Ann Reg Sci, 49, 237-259.
  • Frankel, J. & S. Wei (1993), “Trade Blocs and Currency Blocs”, NBER Working Paper, No. 4335.
  • Gao, T. (2003), “Ethnic Chinese Networks and International Investment: Evidence from Inward FDI in China”, Journal of Asian Economics, 14(4), 611-629.
  • Garas, A. & et al. (2016), “The Relation between Migration and FDI in the OECD from a Complex Network Perspective”, Advances in Complex Systems, 19 No. 06n07 1650009.
  • Girma, S. & Z. Yu (2002), “The Link Between Immigration and Trade: Evidence from the United Kingdom”, Review of World Economics, 138(1), 115-130.
  • Globerman, S. & D.M. Shapiro (1999), “The Impact of Government Policies on Foreign Direct Investment: The Canadian Experience”, Journal of International Business Studies, 30(3), 513-532.
  • Goldberger, A. (1968), “The Interpretation and Estimation of Cobb-Douglas Functions”, Econometrica, 36(3), 464-472.
  • Gómez-Herrera, E. (2013), “Comparing Alternative Methods to Estimate Gravity Models of Bilateral Trade”, Empirical Economics, 44(3), 1087-1111.
  • Gould, D.M. (1994), “Immigrant Links to the Home Country: Empirical Implications for U.S. Bilateral Trade Flows”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 76(2), 302-316.
  • Guimarães, P. (2020), PPMLHDFE: Fast Poisson Estimation with High Dimensional Fixed Effects, <https://www.stata.com/meeting/portugal20/slides/Portugal20_Guimaraes.pdf>, 31.08.2021.
  • Head, K. & J. Ries (1998), “Immigration and Trade Creation: Econometric Evidence from Canada”, Canadian Journal of Economics, 31, 47-62.
  • Helpman, E. & M. Melitz & Y. Rubenstein (2008), “Estimating Trade Flows: Trading Partners and Trading Volumes”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 123, 441-87.
  • Helpman, E. (1984), “A Simple Theory of International Trade with Multinational Corporations”, Journal of Political Economy, 92(3), 451-71.
  • INSCR (2018), Polity5: Regime Authority Characteristics and Transitions Datasets, <http://www.systemicpeace.org/inscrdata.html>, 31.08.2021.
  • IOM (2021a), Immigration & emigration statistics, <https://www.migrationdataportal.org/>, 15.07.2021.
  • IOM (2021b), Iom in Turkey, <https://www.iom.int/countries/turkey>, 15.07.2021.
  • Jagdambea, S. & E. Kannan (2020), “Effects of ASEAN-India Free Trade Agreement on Agricultural Trade: The Gravity Model Approach”, World Development Perspectives, 19.
  • Javorcik, B. & C. Ozden & M. Spatareanu & C. Neagu (2011), “Migrant Networks and Foreign Direct Investment”, Journal of Development Economics, 94(2), 231-241.
  • Kugler, M. & H. Rapoport, (2007), “International Labor and Capital Flows: Complements or Substitutes?”, Economics Letters, 94(2), 155-162.
  • Leibrecht, M. & A. Riedl (2014), “Modeling FDI Based on A Spatially Augmented Gravity Model: Evidence for Central and Eastern European Countries”, The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, 23(8), 1206-1237.
  • Ligthart, J.E. & D. Singer (2009), Do Immigrants Promote Outward Foreign Direct Investment? Evidence from the Netherlands, Unpublished: Tilburg University.
  • Malan, F.A. (2015), “Complementarity between FDI and Migration: Using the Fall of the Berlin Wall as a Natural Experiment”, IFAC-PapersOnLine, 48(24), 201-206.
  • Manning, W.G. & J. Mullahy (2001), “Estimating Log Models: To Transform or Not to Transform?”, Journal of Health Economics, (20), 461-494.
  • Markusen, J.L. (1995), “The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(2), 169-189.
  • Murat, M. & B. Pistoresi & A. Rinaldi (2011), “Transnational Social Capital and FDI: Evidence from Italian Associations Worldwide”, Journal of Economic Development, 36(4), 1-15.
  • OECD (2021), <https://stats.oecd.org/>, 01.0812021.
  • Ozaydın, A. & A. Ilgazi (2019), “Syrian Refugees in Terms of Direct Foreign Capital Investment”, Gaziantep University Journal of Gaziantep University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 1(1), 130-160.
  • Rauch, J. E. & V. Tridade (2002), “Ethnic Chinese Networks in International Trade”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 84(1), 116-130.
  • Ravenstein, E.G. (1885) “The Laws of Migration”, Journal of the Statistical Society of London, 48(2), 167-235.
  • Republic of Turkey Ministry of Development (2014), The Tenth Development Plan (2014-2018), <https://sbb.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/The_Tenth_Development_Plan_2014-2018.pdf>, 18.08.2021.
  • Silva, J.S. & S. Tenreyro (2006), “The Log of Gravity”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 88(4), 641-658.
  • Silva, J.S. & S. Tenreyro (2011), “Further Simulation Evidence on the Performance of the Poisson-PML Estimator”, Economics Letters, 112 (2), 220-222.
  • Tinbergen, J. (1962), Shaping the World Economy, New York: The Twentieth Century Fund.
  • Tong, S.Y. (2005), “Ethnic Networks in FDI and the Impact of Institutional Development”, Review of Development Economics, 9(4), 563-580.
  • UNCTAD (2021), Foreign Direct Investment: Inward and Outward Flows and Stock- Annual, <https://unctadstat.unctad.org/wds/TableViewer/tableView.aspx>, 31.08.2021.
  • Wahid, A.N.M. & R. Sawkut & R. Seetanah (2009), “Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI): Lessons from the African Economies”, Journal of Applied Business and Economics, <http://www.na-businesspress.com/JABE/WahidWeb.pdf>, 31.08.2021.
  • Westerlund, J. & F. Wilhelmsson (2011), “Estimating the Gravity Model Without Gravity Using Panel Data”, Applied Economics, 43(6), 641-649.
  • World Bank (2020), Ease of Doing Business Rankings, <https://www.doingbusiness.org/en/reports/global-reports/doing-business-2020>, 31.08.2021.
  • Zwinkels, R.C.J. & S. Beugelsdijk (2010), “Gravity Equations: Workhorse or Trojan Horse in Explaining Trade and FDI Patterns Across Time and Space?”, International Business Review, 19, 102-115.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Economics
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Hande AKSÖZ YILMAZ (Primary Author)
KIRŞEHİR AHİ EVRAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1115-7535
Türkiye

Publication Date October 31, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 50

Cite

Bibtex @research article { sosyoekonomi839123, journal = {Sosyoekonomi}, issn = {1305-5577}, address = {}, publisher = {Sosyoekonomi Society}, year = {2021}, volume = {29}, pages = {169 - 196}, doi = {10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.09}, title = {Another Perspective of The Effects of Migration as A Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence-Based on Panel Gravity Model from Turkey and OECD Countries}, key = {cite}, author = {Aksöz Yılmaz, Hande} }
APA Aksöz Yılmaz, H. (2021). Another Perspective of The Effects of Migration as A Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence-Based on Panel Gravity Model from Turkey and OECD Countries . Sosyoekonomi , 29 (50) , 169-196 . DOI: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.09
MLA Aksöz Yılmaz, H. "Another Perspective of The Effects of Migration as A Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence-Based on Panel Gravity Model from Turkey and OECD Countries" . Sosyoekonomi 29 (2021 ): 169-196 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/sosyoekonomi/issue/65592/839123>
Chicago Aksöz Yılmaz, H. "Another Perspective of The Effects of Migration as A Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence-Based on Panel Gravity Model from Turkey and OECD Countries". Sosyoekonomi 29 (2021 ): 169-196
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Another Perspective of The Effects of Migration as A Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence-Based on Panel Gravity Model from Turkey and OECD Countries AU - Hande Aksöz Yılmaz Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.09 DO - 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.09 T2 - Sosyoekonomi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 169 EP - 196 VL - 29 IS - 50 SN - 1305-5577- M3 - doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.09 UR - https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.09 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Sosyoekonomi Another Perspective of The Effects of Migration as A Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence-Based on Panel Gravity Model from Turkey and OECD Countries %A Hande Aksöz Yılmaz %T Another Perspective of The Effects of Migration as A Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence-Based on Panel Gravity Model from Turkey and OECD Countries %D 2021 %J Sosyoekonomi %P 1305-5577- %V 29 %N 50 %R doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.09 %U 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.09
ISNAD Aksöz Yılmaz, Hande . "Another Perspective of The Effects of Migration as A Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence-Based on Panel Gravity Model from Turkey and OECD Countries". Sosyoekonomi 29 / 50 (October 2021): 169-196 . https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.09
AMA Aksöz Yılmaz H. Another Perspective of The Effects of Migration as A Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence-Based on Panel Gravity Model from Turkey and OECD Countries. Sosyoekonomi. 2021; 29(50): 169-196.
Vancouver Aksöz Yılmaz H. Another Perspective of The Effects of Migration as A Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence-Based on Panel Gravity Model from Turkey and OECD Countries. Sosyoekonomi. 2021; 29(50): 169-196.
IEEE H. Aksöz Yılmaz , "Another Perspective of The Effects of Migration as A Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence-Based on Panel Gravity Model from Turkey and OECD Countries", Sosyoekonomi, vol. 29, no. 50, pp. 169-196, Oct. 2021, doi:10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.09