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Will Workers be Unemployed Because of Robots? A Meta-Analysis on Technology and Employment

Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 50, 485 - 501, 31.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.22

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first is to present an overall effect size of technology’s impact on employment. The second is to provide an example of the usability of the meta-analysis method in economics. This study conducted with the meta-analysis method concluded that technology positively affects employment, and the overall effect size is medium (g=0.53). Contrary to the general prejudice that technology can cause unemployment, it has been concluded that technology affects employment positively. Unlike the other empirical studies, a more comprehensive and general result was obtained thanks to meta-analysis.

References

  • Acemoglu, D. & P. Restrepo (2020), “Robots and Jobs: Evidence from U.S. Labor Markets”, Journal of Political Economy, 128(6), 2188-2244.
  • Aguilera, A. & M.G.R. Barrera (2016), “Technological Unemployment: An Approximation to the Latin American Case”, AD-Minister, 29, 59-78.
  • Aldieri, L. et al. (2015), “R&D spillovers and employment: a micro-econometric analysis”, MPRA Paper No. 67269.
  • Aldieri, L. et al. (2019), “Spoils of Innovation? Employment Effects of R&D and Knowledge Spillovers in Finland”, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 1-15.
  • Armstrong, S. (2014), Smarter Than Us: The Rise of Machine Intelligence, Berkeley: Machine Intelligence Research Institute.
  • Arntz, M. et al. (2016), “The Risk of Automation for Jobs in OECD Countries: A Comparative Analysis”, OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 189, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  • Aubert-Tarby, C. et al. (2017), “The Impact of Technological Change on Employment: The Case of Press Digitisation”, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 128, 36-45.
  • Autor, D.H. & D. Dorn (2013), “The Growth of Low-Skill Service Jobs and The Polarization of The Us Labor Market”, American Economic Review, 103, 1553-97.
  • Barbieri, L. et al. (2018), “R&D, Embodied Technological Change, and Employment: Evidence from Italian Microdata”, Industrial and Corporate Change, 28(1), 203-18.
  • Bimber, B. (1990), “Karl Marx and The Three Faces of Technological Determinism”, Social Studies of Science, 20(2), 333-351.
  • Bogliacino, F. & M. Pianta (2010), “Innovation and Employment: A Reinvestigation Using Revised Pavitt Classes”, Research Policy, 39, 799-809.
  • Bogliacino, F. et al. (2011) “R&D and Employment: Some Evidence from European Microdata”, IZA Discussion Paper No. 5908.
  • Bogliacino, F. et al. (2012), “R&D and Employment: An Application of the LSDVC Estimator Using European Microdata”, Economics Letters, 116, 56-59.
  • Bogliacino, F. (2014), “Innovation and employment: A firm level analysis with European R&D Scoreboard data”, Economia, 15(2), 141-54.
  • Brynjolfsson, E. & A. McAfee (2014), The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies, New York: W.W. Norton.
  • Buerger, M. et al. (2012), “Regional Dynamics of Innovation: Investigating the Co-evolution of Patents, Research and Development (R&D), and Employment”, Regional Studies, 46(5), 565-82.
  • Campa, R. (2018), Still Think Robots Can’t Do Your Job. Essays on Automation and Technological Unemployment, Roma: D Editore.
  • Cang, Y. (2017), “A Deep Dive into Technological Unemployment: A State-Level Analysis on the Employment Effect of Technological Innovations”, Senior Thesis, Claremont McKenna College.
  • Card, N.A. (2012), Applied Meta-Analysis for Social Science Research, New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Chang, J.H. & P. Huynh (2016), “ASEAN in transformation. The Future of jobs at risk in automation, International Labour Office (ILO), Bureau for Employers’ Activities”, Working Paper No 9.
  • Cirillo, V. et al. (2018), “Technology and Occupations in Business Cycles”, Sustainability, 10(463), 1-25.
  • Dachs, B. & B. Peters (2014), “Innovation, Employment Growth, and Foreign Ownership of Firms”, Research Policy, 43(1), 214-32.
  • Dağlı, İ. & V. Karaçadır (2021), “İleri Teknoloji İhracatı ve Ekonomik Büyüme İlişkisine Genel Bir Bakış: Bir Meta-Analiz Çalışması”, Kafkas Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 12(23), 160-180.
  • Delgado, P. et al. (2018), “Don't Throw Away Your Printed Books: A Meta-Analysis on The Effects of Reading Media on Reading Comprehension”, Educational Research Review, 25, 23-38.
  • Duval, S. & R. Tweedie (2000), “Trim and Fill: A Simple Funnel‐Plot-Based Method of Testing and Adjusting for Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis”, Biometrics, 56(2), 455-63.
  • Edwards, A.V. (2015), Digital is Destroying Everything: What the Tech Giants Won't Tell You about how Robots, Big Data, and Algorithms are Radically Remaking Your Future, Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Egger, M. et al. (1997), “Bias in Meta-Analysis Detected by a Simple Graphical Test”, Bmj, 315(7109), 629-34.
  • Evangelista, R. & A. Vezzani (2011), “The Impact of Technological and Organizational Innovations on Employment in European Firms”, Industrial and Corporate Change, 21(4), 871-99.
  • Evangelista, R. & M. Savona (2002), “The Impact of Innovation on Employment in Services: Evidence from Italy”, International Review of Applied Economics, 16, 309-18.
  • Evangelista, R. et al. (2014), “The Economic Impact of Digital Technologies in Europe”, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 23(8), 802-24.
  • Falk, M. (2015), “Employment Effects of Technological and Organizational Innovations: Evidence Based on Linked Firm-Level Data for Austria”, Jahrbücher Für Nationalökonomie Und Statistik, 235(3), 268-285.
  • Feldmann, H. (2013), “Technological Unemployment in Industrial Countries”, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 23, 1099-1126.
  • Ford, M. (2015), Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of Mass Unemployment, New York: Basic Books.
  • Fragkos, K.C. et al. (2014), “Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis: Confidence Intervals for Rosenthal’s Fail-Safe Number”, International Scholarly Research Notices, 2014, 825383.
  • Frey C.B. & M.A. Osborne (2017), “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation?”, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 114, 254-80.
  • Greenan, N. & D. Guellec (2000), “Technological Innovation and Employment Reallocation”, Labour, 14(4), 547-90.
  • Grissom, R.J. & J.J. Kim, (2005), Effect Sizes for Research: A Broad Practical Approach, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Haile, G. et al. (2017), “Imported Technology and Manufacturing Employment in Ethiopia”, Eurasian Business Review, 7(1), 1-23.
  • Hall, B.H. et al. (2008), “Employment, Innovation, and Productivity: Evidence from Italian Microdata”, Industrial and Corporate Change, 17(4), 813-39.
  • Harrison, R. et al. (2014), “Does Innovation Stimulate Employment? A Firm-Level Analysis Using Comparable Micro-Data from Four European Countries”, International Journal of Industrial Organization, 35, 29-43.
  • Horbach, J. (2010), “The Impact of Innovation Activities on Employment in the Environmental Sector - Empirical Results for Germany at the Firm Level”, Jahrbücher Für Nationalökonomie Und Statistik, 230(4), 403-19.
  • Huedo-Medina, T.B. et al. (2006), “Assessing Heterogeneity in Meta-Analysis: Q statistic or I2 index?”, Psychological Methods, 11, 193-206.
  • Huo, J. & H. Feng (2010), “The Political Economy of Technological Innovation and Employment”, Comparative Political Studies, 43(3), 329-52.
  • ILO (2016), Technological Changes and Work in the Future: Making Technology Work for All, The Future of Work the Centenary Initiative, International Labour Office, Issue Note Series 1.
  • ILO (2018), The Impact of Technology on the Quality and Quantity of Jobs, The Future of Work, International Labour Office, Issue Brief Series No 6. 241.
  • ILO (2020), World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends 2020, Geneva: International Labour Office.
  • ILO (2021), World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends 2021, Geneva: International Labour Office.
  • Jin, ZC. et al. (2014), “A Modified Regression Method to Test Publication Bias in Meta-Analyses with Binary Outcomes”, BMC Med Res Methodol, 14, 132.
  • Kelly, K. (2016), The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces that will Shape Our Future, New York, New York: Viking.
  • Kim, Y.S.G. et al. (2021), “Writing Instruction Improves Students’ Writing Skills Differentially Depending on Focal Instruction and Children: A Meta-Analysis for Primary Grade Students”, Educational Research Review, 34, 100408.
  • Krousie, C. (2018), “Technological Unemployment in the United States: A State-Level Analysis”, Major Themes in Economics, 20(6), 87-101.
  • Kurzweil, R. (2000), The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence, Penguin.
  • Kwon, S.J. et al. (2015), “Innovation Activities and the Creation of New Employment: An Empirical Assessment of South Korea’s Manufacturing Industry”, Social Science Information, 54(3), 354-68.
  • Lachenmaier, S. & H. Rottmann (2011), “Effects of Innovation on Employment: A Dynamic Panel Analysis”, International Journal of Industrial Organization, 29, 210-20.
  • Lakens, D. (2013), “Calculating and Reporting Effect Sizes to Facilitate Cumulative Science: A Practical Primer for T-Tests and ANOVAs”, Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 863.
  • Leonhard, G. (2016), Technology vs. Humanity: The Coming Clash between Man and Machine, FutureScapes.
  • Leontief, W. (1979), “Is Technological Unemployment Inevitable?”, Challenge, 22(4), 48-50.
  • Lipsey, M.W. & D.B. Wilson (2001), Practical Meta-Analysis, Applied Social Research Methods Series, Vol. 49, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.
  • Matuzeviciute, K. et al. (2017), “Do Technological Innovations Affect Unemployment? Some Empirical Evidence from European Countries”, Economies, 5(48), 1-19.
  • Meriküll, J. (2008), “The Impact of Innovation on Employment: Firm- and Industry-level Evidence from Estonia”, Eesti Pank Bank of Estonia, Working Paper Series, 1/2008.
  • Meschi, E. et al. (2011), “Trade, Technology and Skills: Evidence from Turkish Microdata”, Labour Economics, 18, 60-70.
  • Morrison Paul, C.J. & D.S. Siegel (2001), “The Impacts of Technology, Trade and Outsourcing on Employment and Labor Composition”, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 103(2), 241-64.
  • Ni, B. & A. Obashi (2021), “Robotics Technology and Firm-Level Employment Adjustment in Japan”, Japan and the World Economy, 57, 101054.
  • Paul, S. & K. Lal (2020), “Technology Intensity and Employment in the Indian Economy”, Arthaniti: Journal of Economic Theory and Practice, 0976747919895326.
  • Pellegrino, G. et al. (2018), “R&D, Embodied Technological Change and Employment: Evidence from Spain”, GLO Discussion Paper, No. 214.
  • Peters, B. (2005), “Employment Effects of Different Innovation Activities: Microeconometric Evidence”, ZEW Centre for European Economic Research, Discussion Paper 04-073.
  • Pini, P. (1995), “Economic Growth, Technological Change and Employment: Empirical Evidence for a Cumulative Growth Model with External Causation for Nine OECD Countries: 1960-1990”, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 6, 185-213.
  • Piva, M. & M. Vivarelli (2018), “Is Innovation Destroying Jobs? Firm-Level Evidence from the E.U.”, Sustainability, 10(1279), 1-16.
  • Ricardo, D. (1817), The Principles of Political Economy & Taxation, Kitchener, Canada: Batoche Books.
  • Rosenthal, R. (1979), “The File Drawer Problem and Tolerance for Null Results”, Psychological Bulletin, 86, 638-41.
  • Schumpeter, J.A. (1939), Business Cycles: A Theoretical, Historical, and Statistical Analysis of the Capitalist Process, (ed. Rendigs Fels), New York and London: McGraw-Hill.
  • Schumpeter, J.A. (1943), Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, New York: Harper Collins.
  • Schwab, K. (2016), The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Currency.
  • Simonetti, R. et al. (2000), “Modelling the Employment Impact of Innovation”, in: The Employment Impact of Innovation: Evidence and Policy (ed. Pianta & Vivarelli), Routledge, 26-46.
  • Sinclair, P.J.N. (1981), “When will Technical Progress Destroy Jobs?”, Oxford Economics Paper, 31, 1-18.
  • Smith, A. (1776), An Inquiry into The Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations, (Edited with an Introduction, Notes, Marginal Summary and an Enlarged Index by Edwin Cannan), London: Methuen. 1904.
  • Smolny, W. (1998), “Innovations, Prices and Employment”, Journal of Industrial Economics, 46(3), 359-380.
  • Tancioni, M. & R. Simonetti (2002), “A Macroeconometric Model for The Analysis of The Impact of Technological Change and Trade on Employment”, Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, 13, 185-221.
  • Torrecillas, C. et al. (2017), “The Dual Role of R&D Expenditures in European Union’s Member States: Short- and Long-Term Prospects”, Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 30(4), 433-54.
  • Triguero, Á. et al. (2017), “Environmental Innovation and Employment: Drivers and Synergies”, Sustainability, 9(2057), 1-12.
  • Van Reenen, J. (1997), “Employment and Technological Innovation: Evidence from U.K. Manufacturing Firms”, Journal of Labor Economics, 15(2), 255-84.
  • Van Roy, V. et al. (2018), “Technology and Employment: Mass Unemployment or Job Creation? Empirical Evidence from European Patenting Firms”, Research Policy, 47, 1762-76.
  • Vivarelli, M. (1995), The Economics of Technology and Employment: Theory and Empirical Evidence, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • WEF (2017), The Future of Jobs and Skills in the Middle East and North Africa, World Economic Forum, May 2017.
  • Yaman, H. (2020), “Araştırma Geliştirme (Ar-Ge) Faaliyetleri ile Ekonomik Büyüme İlişkisinin Meta Analiz Yöntemiyle Değerlendirmesi”, Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 8(4), 1247-1254.

Çalışanlar Robotlar Yüzünden İşsiz mi Kalacak? Teknoloji ve İstihdam Üzerine Bir Meta-Analiz Çalışması

Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 50, 485 - 501, 31.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.22

Abstract

Bu çalışmanın amacı iki yönlüdür. Birincisi, teknolojinin istihdama etkilerine dair genel bir etki büyüklüğü sunmaktır. İkincisi, meta-analiz yönteminin iktisat biliminde kullanılabilirliğine dair bir örnek sunmaktır. Meta-analiz yöntemiyle yapılan bu çalışmada teknolojinin istihdam üzerinde pozitif bir etkisi olduğu ve genel etki büyüklüğünün orta düzeyde (g=0,53) olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Teknolojinin işsizliğe neden olabileceğine dair genel önyargının aksine teknolojinin istihdamı olumlu yönde etkilediği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Bu çalışmada diğer ampirik çalışmalardan farklı olarak meta-analiz sayesinde daha kapsamlı ve genel bir sonuç elde edilmiştir.

References

  • Acemoglu, D. & P. Restrepo (2020), “Robots and Jobs: Evidence from U.S. Labor Markets”, Journal of Political Economy, 128(6), 2188-2244.
  • Aguilera, A. & M.G.R. Barrera (2016), “Technological Unemployment: An Approximation to the Latin American Case”, AD-Minister, 29, 59-78.
  • Aldieri, L. et al. (2015), “R&D spillovers and employment: a micro-econometric analysis”, MPRA Paper No. 67269.
  • Aldieri, L. et al. (2019), “Spoils of Innovation? Employment Effects of R&D and Knowledge Spillovers in Finland”, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 1-15.
  • Armstrong, S. (2014), Smarter Than Us: The Rise of Machine Intelligence, Berkeley: Machine Intelligence Research Institute.
  • Arntz, M. et al. (2016), “The Risk of Automation for Jobs in OECD Countries: A Comparative Analysis”, OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 189, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  • Aubert-Tarby, C. et al. (2017), “The Impact of Technological Change on Employment: The Case of Press Digitisation”, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 128, 36-45.
  • Autor, D.H. & D. Dorn (2013), “The Growth of Low-Skill Service Jobs and The Polarization of The Us Labor Market”, American Economic Review, 103, 1553-97.
  • Barbieri, L. et al. (2018), “R&D, Embodied Technological Change, and Employment: Evidence from Italian Microdata”, Industrial and Corporate Change, 28(1), 203-18.
  • Bimber, B. (1990), “Karl Marx and The Three Faces of Technological Determinism”, Social Studies of Science, 20(2), 333-351.
  • Bogliacino, F. & M. Pianta (2010), “Innovation and Employment: A Reinvestigation Using Revised Pavitt Classes”, Research Policy, 39, 799-809.
  • Bogliacino, F. et al. (2011) “R&D and Employment: Some Evidence from European Microdata”, IZA Discussion Paper No. 5908.
  • Bogliacino, F. et al. (2012), “R&D and Employment: An Application of the LSDVC Estimator Using European Microdata”, Economics Letters, 116, 56-59.
  • Bogliacino, F. (2014), “Innovation and employment: A firm level analysis with European R&D Scoreboard data”, Economia, 15(2), 141-54.
  • Brynjolfsson, E. & A. McAfee (2014), The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies, New York: W.W. Norton.
  • Buerger, M. et al. (2012), “Regional Dynamics of Innovation: Investigating the Co-evolution of Patents, Research and Development (R&D), and Employment”, Regional Studies, 46(5), 565-82.
  • Campa, R. (2018), Still Think Robots Can’t Do Your Job. Essays on Automation and Technological Unemployment, Roma: D Editore.
  • Cang, Y. (2017), “A Deep Dive into Technological Unemployment: A State-Level Analysis on the Employment Effect of Technological Innovations”, Senior Thesis, Claremont McKenna College.
  • Card, N.A. (2012), Applied Meta-Analysis for Social Science Research, New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Chang, J.H. & P. Huynh (2016), “ASEAN in transformation. The Future of jobs at risk in automation, International Labour Office (ILO), Bureau for Employers’ Activities”, Working Paper No 9.
  • Cirillo, V. et al. (2018), “Technology and Occupations in Business Cycles”, Sustainability, 10(463), 1-25.
  • Dachs, B. & B. Peters (2014), “Innovation, Employment Growth, and Foreign Ownership of Firms”, Research Policy, 43(1), 214-32.
  • Dağlı, İ. & V. Karaçadır (2021), “İleri Teknoloji İhracatı ve Ekonomik Büyüme İlişkisine Genel Bir Bakış: Bir Meta-Analiz Çalışması”, Kafkas Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 12(23), 160-180.
  • Delgado, P. et al. (2018), “Don't Throw Away Your Printed Books: A Meta-Analysis on The Effects of Reading Media on Reading Comprehension”, Educational Research Review, 25, 23-38.
  • Duval, S. & R. Tweedie (2000), “Trim and Fill: A Simple Funnel‐Plot-Based Method of Testing and Adjusting for Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis”, Biometrics, 56(2), 455-63.
  • Edwards, A.V. (2015), Digital is Destroying Everything: What the Tech Giants Won't Tell You about how Robots, Big Data, and Algorithms are Radically Remaking Your Future, Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Egger, M. et al. (1997), “Bias in Meta-Analysis Detected by a Simple Graphical Test”, Bmj, 315(7109), 629-34.
  • Evangelista, R. & A. Vezzani (2011), “The Impact of Technological and Organizational Innovations on Employment in European Firms”, Industrial and Corporate Change, 21(4), 871-99.
  • Evangelista, R. & M. Savona (2002), “The Impact of Innovation on Employment in Services: Evidence from Italy”, International Review of Applied Economics, 16, 309-18.
  • Evangelista, R. et al. (2014), “The Economic Impact of Digital Technologies in Europe”, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 23(8), 802-24.
  • Falk, M. (2015), “Employment Effects of Technological and Organizational Innovations: Evidence Based on Linked Firm-Level Data for Austria”, Jahrbücher Für Nationalökonomie Und Statistik, 235(3), 268-285.
  • Feldmann, H. (2013), “Technological Unemployment in Industrial Countries”, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 23, 1099-1126.
  • Ford, M. (2015), Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of Mass Unemployment, New York: Basic Books.
  • Fragkos, K.C. et al. (2014), “Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis: Confidence Intervals for Rosenthal’s Fail-Safe Number”, International Scholarly Research Notices, 2014, 825383.
  • Frey C.B. & M.A. Osborne (2017), “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation?”, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 114, 254-80.
  • Greenan, N. & D. Guellec (2000), “Technological Innovation and Employment Reallocation”, Labour, 14(4), 547-90.
  • Grissom, R.J. & J.J. Kim, (2005), Effect Sizes for Research: A Broad Practical Approach, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Haile, G. et al. (2017), “Imported Technology and Manufacturing Employment in Ethiopia”, Eurasian Business Review, 7(1), 1-23.
  • Hall, B.H. et al. (2008), “Employment, Innovation, and Productivity: Evidence from Italian Microdata”, Industrial and Corporate Change, 17(4), 813-39.
  • Harrison, R. et al. (2014), “Does Innovation Stimulate Employment? A Firm-Level Analysis Using Comparable Micro-Data from Four European Countries”, International Journal of Industrial Organization, 35, 29-43.
  • Horbach, J. (2010), “The Impact of Innovation Activities on Employment in the Environmental Sector - Empirical Results for Germany at the Firm Level”, Jahrbücher Für Nationalökonomie Und Statistik, 230(4), 403-19.
  • Huedo-Medina, T.B. et al. (2006), “Assessing Heterogeneity in Meta-Analysis: Q statistic or I2 index?”, Psychological Methods, 11, 193-206.
  • Huo, J. & H. Feng (2010), “The Political Economy of Technological Innovation and Employment”, Comparative Political Studies, 43(3), 329-52.
  • ILO (2016), Technological Changes and Work in the Future: Making Technology Work for All, The Future of Work the Centenary Initiative, International Labour Office, Issue Note Series 1.
  • ILO (2018), The Impact of Technology on the Quality and Quantity of Jobs, The Future of Work, International Labour Office, Issue Brief Series No 6. 241.
  • ILO (2020), World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends 2020, Geneva: International Labour Office.
  • ILO (2021), World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends 2021, Geneva: International Labour Office.
  • Jin, ZC. et al. (2014), “A Modified Regression Method to Test Publication Bias in Meta-Analyses with Binary Outcomes”, BMC Med Res Methodol, 14, 132.
  • Kelly, K. (2016), The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces that will Shape Our Future, New York, New York: Viking.
  • Kim, Y.S.G. et al. (2021), “Writing Instruction Improves Students’ Writing Skills Differentially Depending on Focal Instruction and Children: A Meta-Analysis for Primary Grade Students”, Educational Research Review, 34, 100408.
  • Krousie, C. (2018), “Technological Unemployment in the United States: A State-Level Analysis”, Major Themes in Economics, 20(6), 87-101.
  • Kurzweil, R. (2000), The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence, Penguin.
  • Kwon, S.J. et al. (2015), “Innovation Activities and the Creation of New Employment: An Empirical Assessment of South Korea’s Manufacturing Industry”, Social Science Information, 54(3), 354-68.
  • Lachenmaier, S. & H. Rottmann (2011), “Effects of Innovation on Employment: A Dynamic Panel Analysis”, International Journal of Industrial Organization, 29, 210-20.
  • Lakens, D. (2013), “Calculating and Reporting Effect Sizes to Facilitate Cumulative Science: A Practical Primer for T-Tests and ANOVAs”, Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 863.
  • Leonhard, G. (2016), Technology vs. Humanity: The Coming Clash between Man and Machine, FutureScapes.
  • Leontief, W. (1979), “Is Technological Unemployment Inevitable?”, Challenge, 22(4), 48-50.
  • Lipsey, M.W. & D.B. Wilson (2001), Practical Meta-Analysis, Applied Social Research Methods Series, Vol. 49, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.
  • Matuzeviciute, K. et al. (2017), “Do Technological Innovations Affect Unemployment? Some Empirical Evidence from European Countries”, Economies, 5(48), 1-19.
  • Meriküll, J. (2008), “The Impact of Innovation on Employment: Firm- and Industry-level Evidence from Estonia”, Eesti Pank Bank of Estonia, Working Paper Series, 1/2008.
  • Meschi, E. et al. (2011), “Trade, Technology and Skills: Evidence from Turkish Microdata”, Labour Economics, 18, 60-70.
  • Morrison Paul, C.J. & D.S. Siegel (2001), “The Impacts of Technology, Trade and Outsourcing on Employment and Labor Composition”, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 103(2), 241-64.
  • Ni, B. & A. Obashi (2021), “Robotics Technology and Firm-Level Employment Adjustment in Japan”, Japan and the World Economy, 57, 101054.
  • Paul, S. & K. Lal (2020), “Technology Intensity and Employment in the Indian Economy”, Arthaniti: Journal of Economic Theory and Practice, 0976747919895326.
  • Pellegrino, G. et al. (2018), “R&D, Embodied Technological Change and Employment: Evidence from Spain”, GLO Discussion Paper, No. 214.
  • Peters, B. (2005), “Employment Effects of Different Innovation Activities: Microeconometric Evidence”, ZEW Centre for European Economic Research, Discussion Paper 04-073.
  • Pini, P. (1995), “Economic Growth, Technological Change and Employment: Empirical Evidence for a Cumulative Growth Model with External Causation for Nine OECD Countries: 1960-1990”, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 6, 185-213.
  • Piva, M. & M. Vivarelli (2018), “Is Innovation Destroying Jobs? Firm-Level Evidence from the E.U.”, Sustainability, 10(1279), 1-16.
  • Ricardo, D. (1817), The Principles of Political Economy & Taxation, Kitchener, Canada: Batoche Books.
  • Rosenthal, R. (1979), “The File Drawer Problem and Tolerance for Null Results”, Psychological Bulletin, 86, 638-41.
  • Schumpeter, J.A. (1939), Business Cycles: A Theoretical, Historical, and Statistical Analysis of the Capitalist Process, (ed. Rendigs Fels), New York and London: McGraw-Hill.
  • Schumpeter, J.A. (1943), Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, New York: Harper Collins.
  • Schwab, K. (2016), The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Currency.
  • Simonetti, R. et al. (2000), “Modelling the Employment Impact of Innovation”, in: The Employment Impact of Innovation: Evidence and Policy (ed. Pianta & Vivarelli), Routledge, 26-46.
  • Sinclair, P.J.N. (1981), “When will Technical Progress Destroy Jobs?”, Oxford Economics Paper, 31, 1-18.
  • Smith, A. (1776), An Inquiry into The Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations, (Edited with an Introduction, Notes, Marginal Summary and an Enlarged Index by Edwin Cannan), London: Methuen. 1904.
  • Smolny, W. (1998), “Innovations, Prices and Employment”, Journal of Industrial Economics, 46(3), 359-380.
  • Tancioni, M. & R. Simonetti (2002), “A Macroeconometric Model for The Analysis of The Impact of Technological Change and Trade on Employment”, Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, 13, 185-221.
  • Torrecillas, C. et al. (2017), “The Dual Role of R&D Expenditures in European Union’s Member States: Short- and Long-Term Prospects”, Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 30(4), 433-54.
  • Triguero, Á. et al. (2017), “Environmental Innovation and Employment: Drivers and Synergies”, Sustainability, 9(2057), 1-12.
  • Van Reenen, J. (1997), “Employment and Technological Innovation: Evidence from U.K. Manufacturing Firms”, Journal of Labor Economics, 15(2), 255-84.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Economics
Journal Section Articles
Authors

İbrahim DAĞLI (Primary Author)
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8199-821X
Türkiye

Publication Date October 31, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 29, Issue 50

Cite

Bibtex @research article { sosyoekonomi903931, journal = {Sosyoekonomi}, issn = {1305-5577}, address = {}, publisher = {Sosyoekonomi Society}, year = {2021}, volume = {29}, pages = {485 - 501}, doi = {10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.22}, title = {Will Workers be Unemployed Because of Robots? A Meta-Analysis on Technology and Employment}, key = {cite}, author = {Dağlı, İbrahim} }
APA Dağlı, İ. (2021). Will Workers be Unemployed Because of Robots? A Meta-Analysis on Technology and Employment . Sosyoekonomi , 29 (50) , 485-501 . DOI: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.22
MLA Dağlı, İ. "Will Workers be Unemployed Because of Robots? A Meta-Analysis on Technology and Employment" . Sosyoekonomi 29 (2021 ): 485-501 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/sosyoekonomi/issue/65592/903931>
Chicago Dağlı, İ. "Will Workers be Unemployed Because of Robots? A Meta-Analysis on Technology and Employment". Sosyoekonomi 29 (2021 ): 485-501
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Will Workers be Unemployed Because of Robots? A Meta-Analysis on Technology and Employment AU - İbrahim Dağlı Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.22 DO - 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.22 T2 - Sosyoekonomi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 485 EP - 501 VL - 29 IS - 50 SN - 1305-5577- M3 - doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.22 UR - https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.22 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Sosyoekonomi Will Workers be Unemployed Because of Robots? A Meta-Analysis on Technology and Employment %A İbrahim Dağlı %T Will Workers be Unemployed Because of Robots? A Meta-Analysis on Technology and Employment %D 2021 %J Sosyoekonomi %P 1305-5577- %V 29 %N 50 %R doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.22 %U 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.22
ISNAD Dağlı, İbrahim . "Will Workers be Unemployed Because of Robots? A Meta-Analysis on Technology and Employment". Sosyoekonomi 29 / 50 (October 2021): 485-501 . https://doi.org/10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.22
AMA Dağlı İ. Will Workers be Unemployed Because of Robots? A Meta-Analysis on Technology and Employment. Sosyoekonomi. 2021; 29(50): 485-501.
Vancouver Dağlı İ. Will Workers be Unemployed Because of Robots? A Meta-Analysis on Technology and Employment. Sosyoekonomi. 2021; 29(50): 485-501.
IEEE İ. Dağlı , "Will Workers be Unemployed Because of Robots? A Meta-Analysis on Technology and Employment", Sosyoekonomi, vol. 29, no. 50, pp. 485-501, Oct. 2021, doi:10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2021.04.22