Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex Cite

An Investigation of the Threshold Hypothesis Using ASIS Intelligence Scale and Creative Imagination Cards

Year 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, 143 - 161, 11.01.2021
https://doi.org/10.46893/talent.831465

Abstract

In this study, it was aimed to examine the relation-ships between creative imagination and intelligence and to test the threshold hypothesis with younger students. The sample included 492 students aged 5-7 years. The Anadolu Sak Intelligence Scale was used to measure intelligence and Creative Imagination Cards were used to measure creativity. Firstly the relationship between intelligence and creative imagination scores were analyzed, and then the correlation values of the lower and upper groups were compared. To determine the threshold at other IQ levels, different from 120 IQ, segmented regression analysis were performed. A weak relationship was found between intelligence and creative imagination. The results showed that the threshold theory was not supported in younger children. Even, according to the segmented regression analysis, inverse threshold effect was observed between creative imagination scores and general intelligence scores around 120 IQ. This is interpreted as the fact that in contrast to the threshold hypothesis, intelligence level above the 120 IQ, provides an advantage in the creative imagination process for young age groups.

References

  • Baddeley, A. D., & Andrade, J. (2000). Working memory and the vividness of imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129(1), 126–145. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.129.1.126
  • Beaty, R. E., Silvia, P. J., Nusbaum, E. C., Jauk, E., & Benedek, M. (2014). The roles of associative and executive processes in creative cognition. Memory & cognition, 42(7), 1186-1197. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-014-0428-8
  • Cho, S. H., Nijenhuis, J. T., Van Vianen, A. E., Kim, H. B., & Lee, K. H. (2010). The relationship between diverse components of intelligence and creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 44(2), 125-137. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2010.tb01329.x
  • Cicirelli, V. G. (1965). Form of the relationship between creativity, IQ, and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 56(6), 303-308. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0022792
  • Daniels‐McGhee, S., & Davis, G. A. (1994). The imagery‐creativity connection. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 28(3), 151-176. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.1994.tb01189.x
  • Durndell, A. J., & Wetherick, N. E. (1976). The relation of reported imagery to cognitive perf mance. British Journal of Psychology, 67(4), 501-506. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.20448295.1976.tb01538.x
  • Einstein, A. (1952) Letter to Jacque Hadamard. In B. Ghiselin (Ed.), The creative process (pp. 43-44). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Ferrando, M., Soto, G., Prieto, L., Sáinz, M., & Ferrándiz, C. (2016). Synthetic-creative intelligence and psychometric intelligence: Analysis of the threshold theory and creative process/sentetik-yaratici zeka ve psikometrik zeka: Esik kuramı ve yaratıcı süreç analizi. Türk Üstün Zekâ ve Egitim Dergisi, 6(2), 88-98.
  • Finke, R. A. (1996). Imagery, Creativity, and Emergent Structure. Consciousness and Cognition, 5(3), 381–393. https://doi.org/10.1006/ccog.1996.0024
  • Fuchs-Beauchamp, K. D., Karnes, M. B., & Johnson, L. J. (1993). Creativity and intelligence in preschoolers. Gifted Child Quarterly, 37(3), 113-117. https://doi.org/10.1177/001698629303700303
  • Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligence. New York: Basic Books
  • Glăveanu, V. P., Karwowski, M., Jankowska, D. M., & de Saint Laurent, C. (2017). Creative imagination. In T. Zittoun & V. P. Glăveanu (Eds.), Handbook of imagination and culture (pp. 1-39). Oxford University Press.
  • Getzels, J. W., & Jackson, P. W. (1960). Occupational choice and cognitive functioning: Career aspirations of highly intelligent and of highly creative adolescents. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 61(1), 119-123. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0045583
  • Getzels, J. W., & Jackson, P. W. (1962). Creativity and intelligence: Explorations with gifted students. New York: Wiley.
  • Gonzalez, M. A., Campos, A., & Pérez, M. J. (1997). Mental imagery and creative thinking. The Journal of psychology, 131(4), 357-364. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223989709603521
  • Guilford, J. P. (1962). Potentiality for creativity. Gifted Child Quarterly, 6(3), 87-90. https://doi.org/10.1177/001698626200600307
  • Guilford, J. P. (1967). Creativity: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 1(1), 3-14. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.1967.tb00002.x
  • Gündoğan, A. (2019). The Test of Creative Imagination: making the test suitable to the age group of 5–6 years. Early Child Development and Care, 189(8), 1219-1227. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2017.1372429
  • Hanggi, D. (1989). Differential aspects of visual short and long-term memory. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 1(4), 285-292. https://doi.org/10.1080/09541448908403089
  • Hoffmann, J., & Russ, S. (2012). Pretend play, creativity, and emotion regulation in children. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 6(2), 175-184. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026299
  • Holton, G. (1972). On trying to understand scientific genius. American Scholar, 41(1), 95-110. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41209034
  • Hu, W., & Adey, P. (2002). A scientific creativity test for secondary school students. International Journal of Science Education, 24(4), 389-403. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690110098912
  • Jauk, E., Benedek, M., Dunst, B., & Neubauer, A. C. (2013). The relationship between intelligence and creativity: New support for the threshold hypothesis by means of empirical breakpoint detection. Intelligence, 41(4), 212-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2013.03.003
  • Karwowski, W., & Gralewski, J. (2013). Threshold hypothesis: Fact or artifact? Thinking Skills and Creativity, 8, 25-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2012.05.003
  • Kaufman, J. C., Kaufman, S. B., & Lichtenberger, E. O. (2011). Finding creative potential on intelligence tests via divergent production. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 26(2), 83-106. https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573511406511
  • Kim, K. H. (2005). Can only intelligent people be creative? A meta-analysis. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 16(2-3), 57-66. https://doi.org/10.4219/jsge-2005-473
  • Kosslyn, S. M. (1980). Image and mind. London: Harvard University Press. Lane, J. B. (1977). Problems in Assessment of Vividness and Control of Imagery. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 45(2), 363–368. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1977.45.2.363
  • Lindqvist, G. (2003). Vygotsky's theory of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 15(2), 245-251. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2003.9651416
  • Mourgues, C. V., Hein, T. M., Al-Harbi, S., Aljughaiman, A., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2016). The relationship between analytical and creative cognitive skills from middle childhood to adolescence: Testing the threshold theory in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Learning and Individual Differences, 52(2016), 137-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.05.005
  • Muggeo, V. M. (2008). Segmented: an R package to fit regression models with broken-line relationships. R news, 8(1), 20-25.
  • Nusbaum, E. C., & Silvia, P. J. (2011). Are intelligence and creativity really so different?: Fluid intelligence, executive processes, and strategy use in divergent thinking. Intelligence, 39(1), 36–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2010.11.002
  • Policastro, E., & Gardner, H. (1999). From case studies to robust generalizations: An approach to the study of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg, & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 213-225). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Preckel, F., Holling, H., & Wiese, M. (2006). Relationship of intelligence and creativity in gifted and non-gifted students: An investigation of threshold theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(1), 159-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.06.022
  • Ripple, R. E., & May , F. B. (1962). Caution in comparing creativity and IQ. Psychological Reports, 10(1), 229-230. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1962.10.1.229
  • Runco, M. A., & Albert, R. S. (1986). The threshold theory regarding creativity and intelligence: An empirical test with gifted and nongifted children. Creative Child and Adult Quarterly, 11(4), 212-218.
  • Şahin, F. (2014). Yaratıcılık–zeka ilişkisi: Yeni deliller. İlköğretim Online, 13(4), 1516-1530.
  • Sak, U. (2004). About creativity, giftedness, and teaching the creatively gifted in the classroom. Roeper Review, 26(4), 216-222. https://doi.org/10.1080/02783190409554272
  • Sak, U. (2014a). Üstün zekâlılar: Özellikleri, tanılanmaları, eğitimleri. (4th ed.). Ankara: Vize Yayıncılık.
  • Sak, U. (2014b). Yaratıcılık gelişimi ve geliştirilmesi. Ankara: Vize Yayıncılık.
  • Shaw, G. A., & Belmore, S. M. (1982). The Relationship between Imagery and Creativity. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 2(2), 115–123. https://doi.org/10.2190/4RGA-Y1A6-HEK5-LMF8
  • Shaw, G. A. (1985). The use of imagery by intelligent and by creative schoolchildren. The Journal of General Psychology, 112(2), 153-171. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221309.1985.9711000
  • Shaw, G. A., & de Mers, S. T. (1987). Relationships between imagery and creativity in high-IQ children. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 6(3), 247-262. https://doi.org/10.2190/R18B-PUG2-4TBB-U4QP
  • Shi, B., Wang, L., Yang, J., Zhang, M., & Xu, L. (2017). Relationship between divergent thinking and intelligence: an empirical study of the Threshold Hypothesis with Chinese children. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(254), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00254
  • Singer, J. L. (1999). Imagination. In M. A. Runco, M. A. Pritzker, S. R. Pritzker, & S. Pritzker (Eds.), Encyclopedia of creativity (pp. 13-25). California: Academic Press.
  • Sligh, A. C. (2003). The relation between intelligence and creativity in different intelligence levels. (Publication No. 3115075). [Doctoral dissertation, Alabama University]. https://search.proquest.com/docview/305334711?accountid=7181
  • Sligh, A. C., Conners, F. A., & Roskos‐Ewoldsen, B. (2005). Relation of creativity to fluid and crystallized intelligence. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 39(2), 123-136. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2005.tb01254.x
  • Sternberg, R. J. (2004). Nonentrenchment in the assessment of intellectual giftedness. In J. S. Renzulli (Eds.), Identification of students for gifted and talented programs (pp. 43-52). California: Corwin Press.
  • Snyder, A., Mitchell, J., Bossomaier, T., & Pallier, G. (2004). The creativity quotient: an objective scoring of ideational fluency. Creativity Research Journal, 16(4), 415-419. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400410409534552
  • Şahin, F., (2014). Yaratıcılık–zeka ilişkisi: Yeni deliller, İlköğretim Online, 13(4), 1516-1530. Şahin, F. (2015). A Research on the structure of intelligence and creativity, and creativity style, Turkish Journal of Giftedness and Education, 5(1), 2-20
  • Tardif, T. Z., & Sternberg, R. J. (1988). What do we know about creativity?. The nature of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Contemporary psychological perspectives (pp. 429-438). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Thompson, W. L., Hsiao, Y., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2011). Dissociation between visual attention and visual mental imagery. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23(2), 256-263. https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2011.477810
  • Torrance, E. P. (1962). Guiding creative talent. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  • Torrance, E. P. (1967). Understanding the fourth grade slump in creative thinking. Athens: University of Minnesota.
  • Vygotsky, L. S. (2004). Imagination and creativity in childhood. Journal of Russian & East European Psychology, 42(1), 7-97. https://doi.org/10.1080/10610405.2004.11059210
  • Yamamoto, K. (1964). Threshold of intelligence in academic achievement of highly creative students. The Journal of Experimental Education, 32(4), 401-405. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.1964.11010849
  • Yılmaz, G. (2018). Eşik hipotezinin Asis Zekâ Ölçeği puanları ve yaratıcı hayal gücü kartları ile incelenmesi (Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Anadolu Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilim- leri Enstitüsü, Eskişehir, Türkiye.
  • Yılmaz, G. and Ayas, M. B. (2017, July 3-5). Examination of threshold theory with a new measure of Intelligence. Paper presented at 15th Internatinal Conference on Excellence in Education (ICIE), sözlü bildiri, Lisboa, Portugual.

Year 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, 143 - 161, 11.01.2021
https://doi.org/10.46893/talent.831465

Abstract

Bu çalışmanın amacı küçük yaş grubundaki öğrencilerde yaratıcı hayal gücü ve zekâ ilişkisinin incelenmesi, eşik hipotezinin test edilmesidir. Çalışmada 5-7 yaş arası 492 öğrenci yer almıştır. Zekânın ölçümünde Anadolu-Sak Zekâ Ölçeği; yaratıcılığın ölçümünde Yaratıcı Hayal Gücü Kartları kullanılmıştır. Analiz aşamasında zekâ ve yaratıcı hayal gücü puanları arasındaki ilişkilere bakılmış; hipotezde belirtilen 120 IQ düzeyine göre alt ve üst grupların korelasyon değerleri karşılaştırılmıştır. Başka düzeylerde eşik değerin varlığını test etmek için ise parçalı regresyon analizi yapılmıştır. Çalışmada zekâ ve yaratıcı hayal gücü arasında zayıf bir ilişki bulunmuş; küçük yaş gruplarında eşik hipotezi desteklenmemiştir. Hatta parçalı regresyon analizinde yaratıcılık endeksleri ile genel zekâ düzeyi arasında 120 IQ civarında ters bir eşik değer etkisi gözlenmiştir. Bu durum eşik hipotezinin aksine küçük yaş gruplarında sahip olunan zekâ bileşenlerinin, 120 IQ’nun üzerine çıkıldıkça yaratıcı hayal gücü sürecine avantaj sağladığı şeklinde yorumlanmıştır.

References

  • Baddeley, A. D., & Andrade, J. (2000). Working memory and the vividness of imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129(1), 126–145. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.129.1.126
  • Beaty, R. E., Silvia, P. J., Nusbaum, E. C., Jauk, E., & Benedek, M. (2014). The roles of associative and executive processes in creative cognition. Memory & cognition, 42(7), 1186-1197. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-014-0428-8
  • Cho, S. H., Nijenhuis, J. T., Van Vianen, A. E., Kim, H. B., & Lee, K. H. (2010). The relationship between diverse components of intelligence and creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 44(2), 125-137. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2010.tb01329.x
  • Cicirelli, V. G. (1965). Form of the relationship between creativity, IQ, and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 56(6), 303-308. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0022792
  • Daniels‐McGhee, S., & Davis, G. A. (1994). The imagery‐creativity connection. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 28(3), 151-176. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.1994.tb01189.x
  • Durndell, A. J., & Wetherick, N. E. (1976). The relation of reported imagery to cognitive perf mance. British Journal of Psychology, 67(4), 501-506. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.20448295.1976.tb01538.x
  • Einstein, A. (1952) Letter to Jacque Hadamard. In B. Ghiselin (Ed.), The creative process (pp. 43-44). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Ferrando, M., Soto, G., Prieto, L., Sáinz, M., & Ferrándiz, C. (2016). Synthetic-creative intelligence and psychometric intelligence: Analysis of the threshold theory and creative process/sentetik-yaratici zeka ve psikometrik zeka: Esik kuramı ve yaratıcı süreç analizi. Türk Üstün Zekâ ve Egitim Dergisi, 6(2), 88-98.
  • Finke, R. A. (1996). Imagery, Creativity, and Emergent Structure. Consciousness and Cognition, 5(3), 381–393. https://doi.org/10.1006/ccog.1996.0024
  • Fuchs-Beauchamp, K. D., Karnes, M. B., & Johnson, L. J. (1993). Creativity and intelligence in preschoolers. Gifted Child Quarterly, 37(3), 113-117. https://doi.org/10.1177/001698629303700303
  • Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligence. New York: Basic Books
  • Glăveanu, V. P., Karwowski, M., Jankowska, D. M., & de Saint Laurent, C. (2017). Creative imagination. In T. Zittoun & V. P. Glăveanu (Eds.), Handbook of imagination and culture (pp. 1-39). Oxford University Press.
  • Getzels, J. W., & Jackson, P. W. (1960). Occupational choice and cognitive functioning: Career aspirations of highly intelligent and of highly creative adolescents. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 61(1), 119-123. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0045583
  • Getzels, J. W., & Jackson, P. W. (1962). Creativity and intelligence: Explorations with gifted students. New York: Wiley.
  • Gonzalez, M. A., Campos, A., & Pérez, M. J. (1997). Mental imagery and creative thinking. The Journal of psychology, 131(4), 357-364. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223989709603521
  • Guilford, J. P. (1962). Potentiality for creativity. Gifted Child Quarterly, 6(3), 87-90. https://doi.org/10.1177/001698626200600307
  • Guilford, J. P. (1967). Creativity: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 1(1), 3-14. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.1967.tb00002.x
  • Gündoğan, A. (2019). The Test of Creative Imagination: making the test suitable to the age group of 5–6 years. Early Child Development and Care, 189(8), 1219-1227. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2017.1372429
  • Hanggi, D. (1989). Differential aspects of visual short and long-term memory. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 1(4), 285-292. https://doi.org/10.1080/09541448908403089
  • Hoffmann, J., & Russ, S. (2012). Pretend play, creativity, and emotion regulation in children. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 6(2), 175-184. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026299
  • Holton, G. (1972). On trying to understand scientific genius. American Scholar, 41(1), 95-110. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41209034
  • Hu, W., & Adey, P. (2002). A scientific creativity test for secondary school students. International Journal of Science Education, 24(4), 389-403. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690110098912
  • Jauk, E., Benedek, M., Dunst, B., & Neubauer, A. C. (2013). The relationship between intelligence and creativity: New support for the threshold hypothesis by means of empirical breakpoint detection. Intelligence, 41(4), 212-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2013.03.003
  • Karwowski, W., & Gralewski, J. (2013). Threshold hypothesis: Fact or artifact? Thinking Skills and Creativity, 8, 25-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2012.05.003
  • Kaufman, J. C., Kaufman, S. B., & Lichtenberger, E. O. (2011). Finding creative potential on intelligence tests via divergent production. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 26(2), 83-106. https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573511406511
  • Kim, K. H. (2005). Can only intelligent people be creative? A meta-analysis. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 16(2-3), 57-66. https://doi.org/10.4219/jsge-2005-473
  • Kosslyn, S. M. (1980). Image and mind. London: Harvard University Press. Lane, J. B. (1977). Problems in Assessment of Vividness and Control of Imagery. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 45(2), 363–368. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1977.45.2.363
  • Lindqvist, G. (2003). Vygotsky's theory of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 15(2), 245-251. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2003.9651416
  • Mourgues, C. V., Hein, T. M., Al-Harbi, S., Aljughaiman, A., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2016). The relationship between analytical and creative cognitive skills from middle childhood to adolescence: Testing the threshold theory in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Learning and Individual Differences, 52(2016), 137-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.05.005
  • Muggeo, V. M. (2008). Segmented: an R package to fit regression models with broken-line relationships. R news, 8(1), 20-25.
  • Nusbaum, E. C., & Silvia, P. J. (2011). Are intelligence and creativity really so different?: Fluid intelligence, executive processes, and strategy use in divergent thinking. Intelligence, 39(1), 36–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2010.11.002
  • Policastro, E., & Gardner, H. (1999). From case studies to robust generalizations: An approach to the study of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg, & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 213-225). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Preckel, F., Holling, H., & Wiese, M. (2006). Relationship of intelligence and creativity in gifted and non-gifted students: An investigation of threshold theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(1), 159-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.06.022
  • Ripple, R. E., & May , F. B. (1962). Caution in comparing creativity and IQ. Psychological Reports, 10(1), 229-230. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1962.10.1.229
  • Runco, M. A., & Albert, R. S. (1986). The threshold theory regarding creativity and intelligence: An empirical test with gifted and nongifted children. Creative Child and Adult Quarterly, 11(4), 212-218.
  • Şahin, F. (2014). Yaratıcılık–zeka ilişkisi: Yeni deliller. İlköğretim Online, 13(4), 1516-1530.
  • Sak, U. (2004). About creativity, giftedness, and teaching the creatively gifted in the classroom. Roeper Review, 26(4), 216-222. https://doi.org/10.1080/02783190409554272
  • Sak, U. (2014a). Üstün zekâlılar: Özellikleri, tanılanmaları, eğitimleri. (4th ed.). Ankara: Vize Yayıncılık.
  • Sak, U. (2014b). Yaratıcılık gelişimi ve geliştirilmesi. Ankara: Vize Yayıncılık.
  • Shaw, G. A., & Belmore, S. M. (1982). The Relationship between Imagery and Creativity. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 2(2), 115–123. https://doi.org/10.2190/4RGA-Y1A6-HEK5-LMF8
  • Shaw, G. A. (1985). The use of imagery by intelligent and by creative schoolchildren. The Journal of General Psychology, 112(2), 153-171. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221309.1985.9711000
  • Shaw, G. A., & de Mers, S. T. (1987). Relationships between imagery and creativity in high-IQ children. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 6(3), 247-262. https://doi.org/10.2190/R18B-PUG2-4TBB-U4QP
  • Shi, B., Wang, L., Yang, J., Zhang, M., & Xu, L. (2017). Relationship between divergent thinking and intelligence: an empirical study of the Threshold Hypothesis with Chinese children. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(254), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00254
  • Singer, J. L. (1999). Imagination. In M. A. Runco, M. A. Pritzker, S. R. Pritzker, & S. Pritzker (Eds.), Encyclopedia of creativity (pp. 13-25). California: Academic Press.
  • Sligh, A. C. (2003). The relation between intelligence and creativity in different intelligence levels. (Publication No. 3115075). [Doctoral dissertation, Alabama University]. https://search.proquest.com/docview/305334711?accountid=7181
  • Sligh, A. C., Conners, F. A., & Roskos‐Ewoldsen, B. (2005). Relation of creativity to fluid and crystallized intelligence. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 39(2), 123-136. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2005.tb01254.x
  • Sternberg, R. J. (2004). Nonentrenchment in the assessment of intellectual giftedness. In J. S. Renzulli (Eds.), Identification of students for gifted and talented programs (pp. 43-52). California: Corwin Press.
  • Snyder, A., Mitchell, J., Bossomaier, T., & Pallier, G. (2004). The creativity quotient: an objective scoring of ideational fluency. Creativity Research Journal, 16(4), 415-419. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400410409534552
  • Şahin, F., (2014). Yaratıcılık–zeka ilişkisi: Yeni deliller, İlköğretim Online, 13(4), 1516-1530. Şahin, F. (2015). A Research on the structure of intelligence and creativity, and creativity style, Turkish Journal of Giftedness and Education, 5(1), 2-20
  • Tardif, T. Z., & Sternberg, R. J. (1988). What do we know about creativity?. The nature of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Contemporary psychological perspectives (pp. 429-438). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Thompson, W. L., Hsiao, Y., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2011). Dissociation between visual attention and visual mental imagery. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23(2), 256-263. https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2011.477810
  • Torrance, E. P. (1962). Guiding creative talent. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  • Torrance, E. P. (1967). Understanding the fourth grade slump in creative thinking. Athens: University of Minnesota.
  • Vygotsky, L. S. (2004). Imagination and creativity in childhood. Journal of Russian & East European Psychology, 42(1), 7-97. https://doi.org/10.1080/10610405.2004.11059210
  • Yamamoto, K. (1964). Threshold of intelligence in academic achievement of highly creative students. The Journal of Experimental Education, 32(4), 401-405. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.1964.11010849
  • Yılmaz, G. (2018). Eşik hipotezinin Asis Zekâ Ölçeği puanları ve yaratıcı hayal gücü kartları ile incelenmesi (Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Anadolu Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilim- leri Enstitüsü, Eskişehir, Türkiye.
  • Yılmaz, G. and Ayas, M. B. (2017, July 3-5). Examination of threshold theory with a new measure of Intelligence. Paper presented at 15th Internatinal Conference on Excellence in Education (ICIE), sözlü bildiri, Lisboa, Portugual.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education, Special
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Gözde YILMAZ> (Primary Author)
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8074-4218
Türkiye


Bahadır AYAS>
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7560-9465
Türkiye


Uğur SAK>
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-6312-5239
Türkiye

Publication Date January 11, 2021
Application Date November 27, 2020
Acceptance Date January 9, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2

Cite

APA Yılmaz, G. , Ayas, B. & Sak, U. (2021). An Investigation of the Threshold Hypothesis Using ASIS Intelligence Scale and Creative Imagination Cards . Talent , 10 (2) , 143-161 . DOI: 10.46893/talent.831465