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THE POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF FOREST ROADS

Year 2010, Volume 11, Issue 1, 109 - 125, 22.02.2010

Abstract

Roads have general impacts: shrinkage and habitat losses on plant and animal population, creation erosion and sedimentation on soil, streams, and water resources, chemical pollution from vehicle emission, habitat fragmentation, road edge and effect zones, and associated human impacts in isolated natural areas. The study was carried out in order to describe and classify some ecological impacts of roads on forest ecosystem, and create awareness about the impacts of forest roads. The ecological impacts were classified by impact factors, distribution of impacts to land, and affected objects. As a result, it was drawn a conclusion that the potential ecological impacts of forest roads can be turn into active impacts in the course of time depending on road density in the forest ecosystem, number of vehicle, and the other factors. The ecological impacts of forest roads should be, therefore, evaluated in Environmental Impact Assessment criteria and taken into consideration as quality indicator from sustainability of forest resources point of view. Keywords: Forest roads, Classification of ecological impacts, Road density, Transportation network, Road ecology, Edge effect of roads

References

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  • Acar, H.H.; Eker, M., 2001. Excavator using for the forest road construction at steep terrain ve ıts case in Turkey. Proceedings of The Third Balkan Scientific Conference, 2-6 October, Volume IV, Sofia, Bulgaria, p. 257 – 268.
  • Akay, A.E., Erdas, O., Yüksel, A., Bozali, N., Gündogan, R., Öztürk, T., 2007. Bilgisayar destekli orman yolu planlama modeli. TMMOB Harita ve Kadastro Mühendisleri Odası Ulusal Cografi Bilgi Sistemleri Kongresi 30 Ekim –02 Kasım 2007, KTÜ, Trabzon
  • Akkuzu, E., Eroğlu, H, Sonmez, T., Yolasigmaz, H.A., Sariyildiz, T., 2009. Effects of forest roads on foliage discoloration of oriental spruce by Ips typographus (L.), African Journal of Agricultural Research 4 (5): 468-473.
  • Angelsen, A., Kaimowitz, D., 1999. Rethinking the causes of deforestation: lessons from economic models. The World Bank Research Observer 14:73-98.
  • Arıcak B. 2008. Orman yolu inşaatında dolgu ve inşaat etki alanlarının uzaktan algılama verileri ile belirlenmesi üzerine bir araştırma. Doktora Tezi, K.T.Ü. Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Trabzon.
  • Canaday, C., 1996. Loss of insectivorous birds along a gradient of human impact in Amazonia. Biological Conservation 77, 63–77.
  • Crist, M.R., Wilmer, B., 2002. Roadless areas: the missing link in conservation. an analysis of biodiversity and lanscape Connectivity in the Northern Rockies. The Wilderness Society, Washington, DC.
  • Carr , L.W., Fahrig, L., Pope, S.E., 2002. Impacts of landscape transformation by roads. In:Gutzwiller, K.J. (Eds.), Applying Landscape Ecology in Biological Conservation, Springer- Verlag, New York, pp. 225-243.
  • Coffin, A.W., 2007. From roadkill to road ecology:a review of the ecological effects of roads. Journal of Transport Geography 15:396-406.
  • Dale, V. H., H. Offerman, R. Frohn, and R. H. Gardner. 1994. Landscape characterisation and biodiversity research. Pages 47–66 in T. J. B. Boyle and B. Boontawee, (Eds.), Measuring and monitoring biodiversity in tropical and temperate forests. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
  • Develey, P.F., Stouffer, P.C., 2001. Effects of roads on movements by understory birds in mixed- species flocks in central Amazonian Brazil. Conservation Biology 15, 1416–1422.
  • Dodd Jr., C.K., Barichivich, W.J., Smith, L.L., 2004. Effectiveness of a barrier wall and culverts in reducing wildlife mortality on a heavily traveled highway in Florida. Biological Conservation 118, 619–631.
  • Eaglin, G.S., Hubert, W.A. 1993. Effects of logging and roads on substrate and trout in streams of the Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 13(4):844-846.
  • Eker, M., Acar, H.H., 2005. Orman yolları ve üretim faaliyetlerinde çevresel etkilerin azaltılmasına yönelik bazı uygulama önlemleri. I. Çevre ve Ormancılık Şurası, 21-24 Mart 2005, Antalya, Tebliğler Kitabı, Cilt-II, s.381-389.
  • Eker, M., Acar, H.H., 2006. Ormancılıkta odun hammaddesi üretiminde yıllık operasyonel planlama modelinin geliştirilmesi. SDÜ Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 10(2), 235-248. Isparta
  • Eker, M, Çoban, H.O., 2008. Impacts of forest road network on the landscape spatial structure of a multifunctional forest planning unit. Journal of Environmental Biology, (In progress)
  • Erdaş, O., 1997. Orman Yolları – Cilt:I, KTÜ Orman Fakültesi Yayınları No:187/25, 391 s., Trabzon
  • Forman, R.T.T. 1995. Some general principles of landscape and regional ecology. Landscape Ecology 10(3):133-142.
  • Forman, R.T.T., Collinge, S.K. 1996. The ‘spatial solution’ to conserving biodiversity in landscape regions. In: DeGraaf, R.M.; Miller, R.I., (Eds.), Conservation of faunal diversity in forested landscapes. London: Chapman & Hall: 537-568.
  • Forman, R.T.T.; Hersperger, A.M. 1996. Road ecology and road density in different landscapes, with international planning and mitigation solutions. In: Evink, G.; Garrett, P.; Berry, J. (Eds.), Proceedings, transportation and wildlife: reducing wildlife mortality and improving wildlife passageways across transportation corridors, Florida Department of Transportation/ Federal Highway Administration transportation-related wildlife mortality seminar, April 3-May 2, 1996, Orlando, FL. 1-23.
  • Forman, R.T.T.; Friedman, D.S.; Fitzhenry, D.; Martin, J.D.; Chen, A.S.; Alexander, L.E. 1997. Ecological effects of roads: toward three summary indices and an overview for North America. In: Canters, K.; Piepers, A.; Hendriks-Heersma, D., (Eds.), Proceedings of the international conference “Habitat fragmentation, infrastructure and the role of ecological engineering”, 17-21 September 1995, Maastricht—The Hague, The Netherlands. Delft, The Netherlands: Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: 40-54.
  • Forman, R.T.T., 1998. Road ecology: a solution for the giant embracing us. Landscape Ecology 13, III–V.
  • Forman, R.T.T., Alexander, L.E., 1998. Roads and their major ecological effects. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 29 : 207-231
  • Forman, R.T.T., Deblinger, R.D., 2000. The ecological road-effect zone of a Massachusetts (USA) suburban highway. Conservation Biology 14, 36–46.
  • Godefroid, S., Koedam, N., 2004. The impact of forest paths upon adjacent vegetation: effects of the path surfacing material on the species composition and soil compaction. Biological Conservation 119, 405–419.
  • Görcelioğlu, E., 2004. Orman yolları-erozyon ilişkisi. İ.Ü. Orman Fakültesi Yayınları No:4460/476, 184 s., İst
  • Gucinski, H., Brooks, M. H., Furniss, M. J., Ziemer, R. R., 2000. Forest roads: a synthesis of scientific information. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-509, Portland, Oregon
  • Gümüş, S., Acar, H.H., 2005. Orman yollarının planlanmasında çevre etki değerlendirmesi imkanları. 1. Çevre ve Ormancılık Şurası, Mart 2005-Antalya, Çevre ve Orman Bakanlığı, Tebliğler Kitabı, Cilt-1, s.259-266
  • Hasdemir, M., Demir, M., 2000. Türkiye’ de orman yollarını karayollarından ayıran özellikler ve bu yolların sınıflandırması. İ.Ü. Orman Fakültesi, Seri B, Cilt 50, Sayı 2, s.85-97.
  • Hawbaker, T.J., Radeloff V.C, 2004. Roads and landscape pattern in northern wisconsin based on a comparison of four road data sources. Conservation Biology, 18 (5), 1233–1244.
  • Kerley, L.L., Goodrich, J.M., Miquelle, D.G., Smirnov, E.N., Quigley, H.B., Hornocker, M.G., 2002. Effects of roads and human disturbance on Amur tigers. Conservation Biology 16, 97–108.
  • KGM, 2009. İstatistikler, Karayolları Genel Müdürlüğü, www.kgm.gov.tr, Erişim Tarihi: Şubat 2009
  • KHGM, 2009. Genel Envanter Özeti, Köy Yolları Envanteri, Köy Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü, http://www.khgm.gov.tr/ENVANTER/EN_GENEL.HTM, Erişim Tarihi: Şubat 2008
  • Li, H., Franklin, J.F., Swanson, F.J., Spies, T.A., 1993. Developing alternative forest cutting patterns: a simulation approach. Landsc. Ecol. 8, 63–75.
  • Mader, H.J., Schell, C., Kornacker, P., 1990. Linear barriers to arthopod movements in the landscape. Biological conservation 54: 209-222.
  • McGurk, B.J.; Fong, D.R. 1995. Equivalent roaded area as a measure of cumulative effect of logging. Environmental Management 19(4):609-621.
  • Mech, L.D., Harris, S.H., Radde, G.L., Paul, W.J., 1988. Wolf distribution and road density in Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 16, 85–87.
  • Mech, L.D., 1989. Wolf population survival in an area of high road density. Am. Midl. Nat., 121, 387-389.
  • Megahan, W.F., 1988. Effects of forest roads on watershed function in mountainous areas. In: Balasubramaniam, [and others] eds. Symposium on environmental geotechnics and problematic soils and rocks, proceedings, Bangkok. Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Brookfield, VT: A.A. Balkema: 335-348.
  • Miller, J.R.; Joyce, L.A.; Knight, R.L.; King, R.M. 1996. Forest roads and landscape structure in the southern Rocky Mountains. Landscape Ecology 11(2):115-127.
  • Noss, R., 2002. The ecological effects of roads, Wildlands Center for Preventing Roads, http://www.eco-action.org/dt/roads.html, Erişim Tarihi:Kasım 2008
  • OGM, 2008a. Orman yolları planlaması, yapımı ve bakımı, Tebliğ No: 292, Orman Genel Müdürlüğü,338 s. Ank.
  • OGM, 2008b. 2003-2007 Çalışma döneminin değerlendirilmesi, Orman Genel Müdürlüğü, 100 s.
  • Reed, R.A.; Johnson-Barnard, J.; Baker, W.L. 1996. Contribution of roads to forest fragmentation in the Rocky Mountains. Conservation Biology 10(4):1098-1106.
  • Reijnen, R., Foppen R., Meeuwsen, H., 1996. The effects of traffic on the density of breeding birds in Dutch agricultural grasslands. Biological Conservation, 75, 255-260.
  • Ries, L., Fletcher, R.J., Battin, J., Sisk, T.D., 2004. Ecological responses to habitat edges: mechanisms, models and variability explained. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35, 491–522.
  • Riitters, K.H., Wickham, J.D., 2003. How far to the nearest road? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1, 125–129.
  • Saunders D.A., Hobbs, R.J., 1991. Nature Conservation - 2: The Role of Corridors. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty.
  • Saunders, S.C., Mislivets, M.R., Chena J., Cleland D.T., 2002. Effects of roads on landscape structure within nested ecological units of the Northern Great Lakes Region-USA. Biological Conservation, 103, 209–225.
  • Seiler, A., Eriksson, IM., 1997. New Approaches for ecological consideration in Swedish Road Planning, In: Canters, K. et al., (Eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference on Habitat Fragmentation, Infrastructure and the Role of Ecological Engineering, Maastricht&DenHauge, Netherlands, pp. 253-264
  • Strittholt, J.R., DellaSala, D.A., 2001. Importance of roadless areas in biodiversity conservation in forested ecosystems: case study of the Klamath-Siskiyou Ecoregion of the United States. Conservation Biology 15, 1742–1754.
  • Spellerberg, I.F., 1998. Ecological effects of roads and traffic: a literature review. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters,7(5), 317-333.
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ORMAN YOLLARININ POTANSİYEL EKOLOJİK ETKİLERİ

Year 2010, Volume 11, Issue 1, 109 - 125, 22.02.2010

Abstract

Yollar bitki ve hayvan popülasyonları üzerinde küçülmelere ve habitat kayıplarına, toprak, su kaynakları ve akarsular üzerindeki erozyon ve sedimentasyon oluşumuna, kimyasal kirlenmeye, fragmentasyona, kenar etkilerine ve insan etkilerinin ıssız alanlara erişimine neden olur. Bu çalışma, yolların orman ekosistemi üzerindeki bazı ekolojik özelliklerinin tanımlanması ve bilinen ekolojik etkilerin sınıflandırılarak bu konuda farkındalık oluşturulması amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmada, etki faktörlerine, etkinin dağılımına ve etkilenen nesnelere göre sınıflandırılmalar yapılmış ve orman ekosistemi içindeki yol yoğunluğu, araç sayısı, vb. faktörlere bağlı olarak orman yollarının potansiyel ekolojik etkilerinin zamanla aktif etkilere dönüşebileceği sonucuna varılmıştır. Orman kaynaklarından yararlanmanın sürdürülebilirliği açısından yolların ekolojik etkileri, ÇED kriterleri içinde değerlendirilmeli ve bir kalite göstergesi olarak göz önünde bulundurulmalıdır. Anahtar kelimeler: Orman yolları, Yolların ekolojik Etki sınıflandırması, Yol yoğunluğu, Transport ağı, Yol ekolojisi, Yolların kenar etkisi

References

  • Acar, H.H., Şentürk, N., 1996. Dağlık arazide orman yollarının planlanması ve üretim çalışmalarının orman ekosistemi üzerine olan etkileri. İ.Ü. Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, Seri:B, Cilt 43, Sayı 1-2, s. 103-111.
  • Acar, H.H.; Eker, M., 2001. Excavator using for the forest road construction at steep terrain ve ıts case in Turkey. Proceedings of The Third Balkan Scientific Conference, 2-6 October, Volume IV, Sofia, Bulgaria, p. 257 – 268.
  • Akay, A.E., Erdas, O., Yüksel, A., Bozali, N., Gündogan, R., Öztürk, T., 2007. Bilgisayar destekli orman yolu planlama modeli. TMMOB Harita ve Kadastro Mühendisleri Odası Ulusal Cografi Bilgi Sistemleri Kongresi 30 Ekim –02 Kasım 2007, KTÜ, Trabzon
  • Akkuzu, E., Eroğlu, H, Sonmez, T., Yolasigmaz, H.A., Sariyildiz, T., 2009. Effects of forest roads on foliage discoloration of oriental spruce by Ips typographus (L.), African Journal of Agricultural Research 4 (5): 468-473.
  • Angelsen, A., Kaimowitz, D., 1999. Rethinking the causes of deforestation: lessons from economic models. The World Bank Research Observer 14:73-98.
  • Arıcak B. 2008. Orman yolu inşaatında dolgu ve inşaat etki alanlarının uzaktan algılama verileri ile belirlenmesi üzerine bir araştırma. Doktora Tezi, K.T.Ü. Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Trabzon.
  • Canaday, C., 1996. Loss of insectivorous birds along a gradient of human impact in Amazonia. Biological Conservation 77, 63–77.
  • Crist, M.R., Wilmer, B., 2002. Roadless areas: the missing link in conservation. an analysis of biodiversity and lanscape Connectivity in the Northern Rockies. The Wilderness Society, Washington, DC.
  • Carr , L.W., Fahrig, L., Pope, S.E., 2002. Impacts of landscape transformation by roads. In:Gutzwiller, K.J. (Eds.), Applying Landscape Ecology in Biological Conservation, Springer- Verlag, New York, pp. 225-243.
  • Coffin, A.W., 2007. From roadkill to road ecology:a review of the ecological effects of roads. Journal of Transport Geography 15:396-406.
  • Dale, V. H., H. Offerman, R. Frohn, and R. H. Gardner. 1994. Landscape characterisation and biodiversity research. Pages 47–66 in T. J. B. Boyle and B. Boontawee, (Eds.), Measuring and monitoring biodiversity in tropical and temperate forests. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
  • Develey, P.F., Stouffer, P.C., 2001. Effects of roads on movements by understory birds in mixed- species flocks in central Amazonian Brazil. Conservation Biology 15, 1416–1422.
  • Dodd Jr., C.K., Barichivich, W.J., Smith, L.L., 2004. Effectiveness of a barrier wall and culverts in reducing wildlife mortality on a heavily traveled highway in Florida. Biological Conservation 118, 619–631.
  • Eaglin, G.S., Hubert, W.A. 1993. Effects of logging and roads on substrate and trout in streams of the Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 13(4):844-846.
  • Eker, M., Acar, H.H., 2005. Orman yolları ve üretim faaliyetlerinde çevresel etkilerin azaltılmasına yönelik bazı uygulama önlemleri. I. Çevre ve Ormancılık Şurası, 21-24 Mart 2005, Antalya, Tebliğler Kitabı, Cilt-II, s.381-389.
  • Eker, M., Acar, H.H., 2006. Ormancılıkta odun hammaddesi üretiminde yıllık operasyonel planlama modelinin geliştirilmesi. SDÜ Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 10(2), 235-248. Isparta
  • Eker, M, Çoban, H.O., 2008. Impacts of forest road network on the landscape spatial structure of a multifunctional forest planning unit. Journal of Environmental Biology, (In progress)
  • Erdaş, O., 1997. Orman Yolları – Cilt:I, KTÜ Orman Fakültesi Yayınları No:187/25, 391 s., Trabzon
  • Forman, R.T.T. 1995. Some general principles of landscape and regional ecology. Landscape Ecology 10(3):133-142.
  • Forman, R.T.T., Collinge, S.K. 1996. The ‘spatial solution’ to conserving biodiversity in landscape regions. In: DeGraaf, R.M.; Miller, R.I., (Eds.), Conservation of faunal diversity in forested landscapes. London: Chapman & Hall: 537-568.
  • Forman, R.T.T.; Hersperger, A.M. 1996. Road ecology and road density in different landscapes, with international planning and mitigation solutions. In: Evink, G.; Garrett, P.; Berry, J. (Eds.), Proceedings, transportation and wildlife: reducing wildlife mortality and improving wildlife passageways across transportation corridors, Florida Department of Transportation/ Federal Highway Administration transportation-related wildlife mortality seminar, April 3-May 2, 1996, Orlando, FL. 1-23.
  • Forman, R.T.T.; Friedman, D.S.; Fitzhenry, D.; Martin, J.D.; Chen, A.S.; Alexander, L.E. 1997. Ecological effects of roads: toward three summary indices and an overview for North America. In: Canters, K.; Piepers, A.; Hendriks-Heersma, D., (Eds.), Proceedings of the international conference “Habitat fragmentation, infrastructure and the role of ecological engineering”, 17-21 September 1995, Maastricht—The Hague, The Netherlands. Delft, The Netherlands: Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: 40-54.
  • Forman, R.T.T., 1998. Road ecology: a solution for the giant embracing us. Landscape Ecology 13, III–V.
  • Forman, R.T.T., Alexander, L.E., 1998. Roads and their major ecological effects. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 29 : 207-231
  • Forman, R.T.T., Deblinger, R.D., 2000. The ecological road-effect zone of a Massachusetts (USA) suburban highway. Conservation Biology 14, 36–46.
  • Godefroid, S., Koedam, N., 2004. The impact of forest paths upon adjacent vegetation: effects of the path surfacing material on the species composition and soil compaction. Biological Conservation 119, 405–419.
  • Görcelioğlu, E., 2004. Orman yolları-erozyon ilişkisi. İ.Ü. Orman Fakültesi Yayınları No:4460/476, 184 s., İst
  • Gucinski, H., Brooks, M. H., Furniss, M. J., Ziemer, R. R., 2000. Forest roads: a synthesis of scientific information. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-509, Portland, Oregon
  • Gümüş, S., Acar, H.H., 2005. Orman yollarının planlanmasında çevre etki değerlendirmesi imkanları. 1. Çevre ve Ormancılık Şurası, Mart 2005-Antalya, Çevre ve Orman Bakanlığı, Tebliğler Kitabı, Cilt-1, s.259-266
  • Hasdemir, M., Demir, M., 2000. Türkiye’ de orman yollarını karayollarından ayıran özellikler ve bu yolların sınıflandırması. İ.Ü. Orman Fakültesi, Seri B, Cilt 50, Sayı 2, s.85-97.
  • Hawbaker, T.J., Radeloff V.C, 2004. Roads and landscape pattern in northern wisconsin based on a comparison of four road data sources. Conservation Biology, 18 (5), 1233–1244.
  • Kerley, L.L., Goodrich, J.M., Miquelle, D.G., Smirnov, E.N., Quigley, H.B., Hornocker, M.G., 2002. Effects of roads and human disturbance on Amur tigers. Conservation Biology 16, 97–108.
  • KGM, 2009. İstatistikler, Karayolları Genel Müdürlüğü, www.kgm.gov.tr, Erişim Tarihi: Şubat 2009
  • KHGM, 2009. Genel Envanter Özeti, Köy Yolları Envanteri, Köy Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü, http://www.khgm.gov.tr/ENVANTER/EN_GENEL.HTM, Erişim Tarihi: Şubat 2008
  • Li, H., Franklin, J.F., Swanson, F.J., Spies, T.A., 1993. Developing alternative forest cutting patterns: a simulation approach. Landsc. Ecol. 8, 63–75.
  • Mader, H.J., Schell, C., Kornacker, P., 1990. Linear barriers to arthopod movements in the landscape. Biological conservation 54: 209-222.
  • McGurk, B.J.; Fong, D.R. 1995. Equivalent roaded area as a measure of cumulative effect of logging. Environmental Management 19(4):609-621.
  • Mech, L.D., Harris, S.H., Radde, G.L., Paul, W.J., 1988. Wolf distribution and road density in Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 16, 85–87.
  • Mech, L.D., 1989. Wolf population survival in an area of high road density. Am. Midl. Nat., 121, 387-389.
  • Megahan, W.F., 1988. Effects of forest roads on watershed function in mountainous areas. In: Balasubramaniam, [and others] eds. Symposium on environmental geotechnics and problematic soils and rocks, proceedings, Bangkok. Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Brookfield, VT: A.A. Balkema: 335-348.
  • Miller, J.R.; Joyce, L.A.; Knight, R.L.; King, R.M. 1996. Forest roads and landscape structure in the southern Rocky Mountains. Landscape Ecology 11(2):115-127.
  • Noss, R., 2002. The ecological effects of roads, Wildlands Center for Preventing Roads, http://www.eco-action.org/dt/roads.html, Erişim Tarihi:Kasım 2008
  • OGM, 2008a. Orman yolları planlaması, yapımı ve bakımı, Tebliğ No: 292, Orman Genel Müdürlüğü,338 s. Ank.
  • OGM, 2008b. 2003-2007 Çalışma döneminin değerlendirilmesi, Orman Genel Müdürlüğü, 100 s.
  • Reed, R.A.; Johnson-Barnard, J.; Baker, W.L. 1996. Contribution of roads to forest fragmentation in the Rocky Mountains. Conservation Biology 10(4):1098-1106.
  • Reijnen, R., Foppen R., Meeuwsen, H., 1996. The effects of traffic on the density of breeding birds in Dutch agricultural grasslands. Biological Conservation, 75, 255-260.
  • Ries, L., Fletcher, R.J., Battin, J., Sisk, T.D., 2004. Ecological responses to habitat edges: mechanisms, models and variability explained. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35, 491–522.
  • Riitters, K.H., Wickham, J.D., 2003. How far to the nearest road? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1, 125–129.
  • Saunders D.A., Hobbs, R.J., 1991. Nature Conservation - 2: The Role of Corridors. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty.
  • Saunders, S.C., Mislivets, M.R., Chena J., Cleland D.T., 2002. Effects of roads on landscape structure within nested ecological units of the Northern Great Lakes Region-USA. Biological Conservation, 103, 209–225.
  • Seiler, A., Eriksson, IM., 1997. New Approaches for ecological consideration in Swedish Road Planning, In: Canters, K. et al., (Eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference on Habitat Fragmentation, Infrastructure and the Role of Ecological Engineering, Maastricht&DenHauge, Netherlands, pp. 253-264
  • Strittholt, J.R., DellaSala, D.A., 2001. Importance of roadless areas in biodiversity conservation in forested ecosystems: case study of the Klamath-Siskiyou Ecoregion of the United States. Conservation Biology 15, 1742–1754.
  • Spellerberg, I.F., 1998. Ecological effects of roads and traffic: a literature review. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters,7(5), 317-333.
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Details

Primary Language Tr
Journal Section Derleme
Authors

Mehmet EKER This is me


H. Hulusi ACAR


Hüseyin ÇOBAN This is me

Publication Date February 22, 2010
Published in Issue Year 2010, Volume 11, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @ { tjf224327, journal = {Turkish Journal of Forestry}, issn = {}, eissn = {2149-3898}, address = {}, publisher = {Isparta Uygulamalı Bilimler Üniversitesi}, year = {2010}, volume = {11}, pages = {109 - 125}, doi = {10.18182/tjf.12468}, title = {THE POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF FOREST ROADS}, key = {cite}, author = {Eker, Mehmet and Acar, H. Hulusi and Çoban, Hüseyin} }
APA Eker, M. , Acar, H. H. & Çoban, H. (2010). THE POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF FOREST ROADS . Turkish Journal of Forestry , 11 (1) , 109-125 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tjf/issue/20894/224327
MLA Eker, M. , Acar, H. H. , Çoban, H. "THE POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF FOREST ROADS" . Turkish Journal of Forestry 11 (2010 ): 109-125 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tjf/issue/20894/224327>
Chicago Eker, M. , Acar, H. H. , Çoban, H. "THE POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF FOREST ROADS". Turkish Journal of Forestry 11 (2010 ): 109-125
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - THE POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF FOREST ROADS AU - Mehmet Eker , H. Hulusi Acar , Hüseyin Çoban Y1 - 2010 PY - 2010 N1 - DO - T2 - Turkish Journal of Forestry JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 109 EP - 125 VL - 11 IS - 1 SN - -2149-3898 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Forestry THE POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF FOREST ROADS %A Mehmet Eker , H. Hulusi Acar , Hüseyin Çoban %T THE POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF FOREST ROADS %D 2010 %J Turkish Journal of Forestry %P -2149-3898 %V 11 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Eker, Mehmet , Acar, H. Hulusi , Çoban, Hüseyin . "THE POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF FOREST ROADS". Turkish Journal of Forestry 11 / 1 (February 2010): 109-125 .
AMA Eker M. , Acar H. H. , Çoban H. THE POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF FOREST ROADS. Turkish Journal of Forestry. 2010; 11(1): 109-125.
Vancouver Eker M. , Acar H. H. , Çoban H. THE POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF FOREST ROADS. Turkish Journal of Forestry. 2010; 11(1): 109-125.
IEEE M. Eker , H. H. Acar and H. Çoban , "THE POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF FOREST ROADS", Turkish Journal of Forestry, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 109-125, Feb. 2010, doi:10.18182/tjf.12468