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Extend of trunk decay caused by and control of Heterobasidion abietinum in Taurus Fir Stands in Seydişehir

Year 2014, Volume 15, Issue 2, 94 - 101, 27.11.2014

Abstract

This study was conducted in Abies cilicica stands in Seydişehir Forestry Enterprise of Konya Regional Directorate of Forestry. The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of selected biological and chemical control agents against establishment of the root and butt rot pathogen Heterobasidion abietinum. In field trials, spore solutions of Trichoderma harzianum and Phlebiopsis gigantea isolates, 30% aqueous urea solution and borax powder were applied onto the freshly cut A. cilicica stumps. Within one hour after the treatments the stumps were inoculated with the pathogen. In order to evaluate the growth of the fungus inside the trunk, living trees were cut into six 1-m-long sections starting from 0.5 m height. Approximately 2-cm-thick discs were then taken from the bottom of each section. A total of 120 disks, collected from the study areas, were investigated for the presence of the conidiophores of H. abietinum in the laboratory. The mean efficacies of urea, T. harzianum, borax and P. gigantea were 98.8, 96.4, 96.3, and 72.3%, respectively. The decay inside the trunk caused by the pathogen reached up to 5.5 meters. Keywords: H. abietinum, Taurus fir, Konya-Seydişehir, decay, biological control

References

  • Annesi, T., Curcio, G., D’Amico, L., Motta, E., 2005. Biological control of Heterobasidion annosum on Pinus pinea by Phlebiopsis gigantea. Forest Pathology, 35(2): 127-134.
  • Asiegbu, F., Adomas, A., Stenlid, J., 2005. Conifer root and butt rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. s.l. Molecular Plant Pathology, 6(4): 395-409.
  • Axmon, J., Hansson, M., Sörnmo, L., 2004. Experimental study on the possibility of detecting internal decay in standing Picea abies by blind impact response analysis. Forestry, 77: 179-192.
  • Bendz- Hellgren, M., Lipponen, K., Solheim, H., Thomsen, I.M., 1998. The Nordic countries. In: Woodward, S., Stenlid, J., Karjalainen, R., Hüttermann, A. (Eds), Heterobasidion annosum: Biology, Ecology, Impact and Control, CAB Internatinal, Wallingford, UK, pp. 333- 345.
  • Berglund, M., Rönnberg, J., 2004. Effectiveness of treatment of Norway spruce stumps with Phlebiopsis gigantea at different rates of coverage for the control of Heterobasidion. Forest Patholgy, 34(4): 233-243.
  • Berglund, M., 2005. Infection and growth of Heterobasidion spp. in Picea abies. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Alnarp: Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880; 2005:36
  • Berglund, M., Rönnberg, J., Holmer, L., Stenlid, J., 2005. Comparison of five strains of Phlebiopsis gigantea and two Trichoderma formulations for treatment against natural Heterobasidion spore infections on Norway spruce stumps. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 20: 12-17.
  • Blanchard, R.O., Shortle, W.C., 1977. Changes in electrical resistance associated with disease and death of elm seedlings. Proceedings of American Phytopathological Society, 4: 183 (abstract).
  • Blanchard, R.O., Carter, J.K., 1980. Electrical resistance measurements to detect Dutch elm disease prior to symptom expression. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 10: 111-114.
  • Costello, L., Quarles, S., 1999. Detection of wood decay in blue gum and elm: an evaluation of the IML- Resistograph and the portable drill. Journal of Arboriculture, 25: 311-317.
  • Doğmuş -Lehtijärvi, H. T., Lehtijärvi, A., Korhonen, K., 2006. Heterobasidion abietinum on Abies species in western Turkey. Forest Pathology, 36: 280-286.
  • Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi, H. T., Lehtijärvi,, A., Korhonen, K., 2007a. Heterobasidion on Abies nordmanniana in north- eastern Turkey. Forest Pathology, 37: 387-390.
  • Doğmuş- Lehtijärvi, H.T., Lehtijärvi, A., Karaca, G. ve Aday, A.G., 2007b. Heterobasidion annosum s. l.' un Uludağ göknarında oluşturduğu alt gövde çürüklüğünün arazi ve laboratuar metotları ile tespiti. SDÜ Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, Seri: A, 1: 58- 67.
  • Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi, H. T Lehtijärvi, A., Oskay, F., Aday, A. G., Karadeniz, M., 2008. Annosum kök ve alt gövde çürüklüğünün Abies bornmülleriana ve Abies cilicica meşcerelerinde yoğunluğunun belirlenmesi. Artvin Çoruh University, Faculty of Forestry Journal, 9: 111- 120. (in Turkish, English abstract).
  • Doğmuş Lehtijärvi, H.T., Lehtijärvi, A., Aday, A.G., Oskay, F., 2010a. Annosum kök çürüklüğüne karşı uygulanan biyolojik kontrol ajanı; Phlebiopsis gigantea. 3. Ulusal Karadeniz Ormancılık Kongresi, 20-22 Mayıs 2010, Artvin, 5: 1403-1410.
  • Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi, H. T., Lehtijärvi, A., Oskay, F., Aday, A.G., 2010b. Efficacy of urea, borax and Trichoderma treatments against Heterobasidion spore infections of stumps of Abies nordmanniana ssp. bornmülleriana. Proceedings 13th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union (MPU).p: 573-574. 20-25, June 2010, Rome- Italy.
  • Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi, H.T., Lehtijärvi, A., Aday, A.G., Oskay, F., 2011. Heterobasidion abietinum’un kimyasal mücadelesinde üre uygulamasının etkisi. Türkiye I. Orman Entomolojisi ve Patolojisi Sempozyumu, 23-25 Kasım 2011, Antalya.
  • Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi, H.T., Lehtijärvi, A., Aday, A.G., Oskay, F. 2012. Arazi koşullarında bazı kimyasal ve biyolojik ajanların Heterobasidion annosum s.l’ un mücadelesinde kullanım olanakları. Kastamonu Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(2): 313-320.
  • Edman, M., Jonsson, B.G., 2001. Spatial pattern of downed logs and wood-decaying fungi in an old-growth Picea abies forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, 12(5): 609- 620.
  • Guglielmo, F., Bergemann, S.E., Gonthier, P., Nicolotti, G., Garbelotto, M., 2007. A multiplex PCR-based method for the detection and early identification of wood rotting fungi Microbiology, 103: 1490-1507. Journal of Applied
  • Guglielmo, F., Gonthier, P., Garbelotto, M., Nicolotti, G., 2010. Optimization of sampling procedures for DNA- based diagnosis of wood decay fungi in standing trees. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 51: 90-97.
  • Greig, B.J.W., 1998. Field Regocnition and Diagnosis of Heterobasidion annosum. In: Woodward, S., Stenlid, J., Karjalainen, R., Hüttermann, A. (Eds), Heterobasidion annosum: Biology, Ecology, Impact and Control, CAB Internatinal, Wallingford, UK, pp. 35-41.
  • Holdenrieder, O., Greig, B.J.W., 1998. Biological methods of control. In. Heterobasidion annosum. Biology, Ecology, Impact and Control. Ed. By Woodward, S., Stenlid, J., Karjalainen, R., Hüttermann, A. Wallingford, New York. CAB International, pp. 235-258.
  • Johanstone, D., Tausz, M., Moore, G, Nicolas, M., 2010. Quantifying Wood Decay in Sydney Bluegum (Eucalyptus saligna) Trees. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry, 36(6): 243-252.
  • Korhonen, K., Piri, T., 1994. The main hosts and distribution of the S and P groups of Heterobasidion annosum in Finland. In: Johansson, M. and Stenlid, J. (Eds), Proceeding of the Eight IUFRO Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Sweden /Finland August 1993. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, pp. 260-267.
  • Lawday, G., Hodges, P.A., 2000. The analytical use of stress waves for the detection of decay in standing trees. Forestry, 73(5): 447-456.
  • Lehtijärvi, A., Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi, H.T., Aday, A.G., Oskay, F., 2009. Abies cilicica Ant. & Kotschy meşcerelerinde Heterobasidion abietinum Niemelä & Korhonen’un kimyasal ve biyolojik kontrolü. Türkiye III. Bitki Koruma Kongresi, s. 338, 15-18, Temmuz 2009, Van.
  • Lehtijärvi, A., Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi, T., Aday, A.G., Oskay, F., 2011. The efficacy of selected biological and chemical abietinum on Abies cilicica. Forest Pathology, 41: 470- 476. against Heterobasidion
  • Lin, C.J., Kao, Y.C., Lin, T.T., Tsai, M.J., Wang, S.Y., Lin, L.D., Wang, Y.N., Chan, M.H., 2008. Application of an ultrasonic tomographic technique for detecting defects in standing trees. International Bio deterioration & Biodegradation, 62: 434-441.
  • Mattheck, C., Breloer, H., 1994. Field guide for visual tree assessment (VTA). Arboricultural Journal, 18: 1-23.
  • Nicolotti, G., Gonthier, P., 2005. Stump treatment against Heterobasidion with Phlebiopsis gigantea and some chemicals in Picea abies stands in the western Alps. Forest Pathology, 35: 365-374.
  • Nicolotti, G., Gonthier, P., Guglielmo, F., Garbelotto, M., 2009. A biomolecular method for the detection of wood decay fungi a focus on tree stability assessment. Arboric Urban Forestry, 35: 14-19.
  • Piri, T., Korhonen, K., Sairanen, A., 1990. Occurence of Heterobasidion annosum in pure and mixed spruce stands in Southern Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 5: 113-125.
  • Piri, T., Valkonen, S. 2013. Incidence and spread of Heterobasidion root rot in uneven-aged Norway spruce stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 43(9): 872- 877.
  • Pratt, J.E., Niemi, M., Sierota, Z.H., 2000. Comparison of three products based on Phlebiopsis gigantea for the control of Heterobasidion annosum in Europe. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 10(4): 467-477.
  • Pratt, J. E., Redfern, D.B., 2001. Infection of Sitka spruce stumps by spores of Heterobasidion annosum. control by means of urea. Forestry, 74, 73-78.
  • Rönnberg, J., Sidorov, E., Petrylaite, E., 2006. Efficacy of different concentrations of Rotstop® and Rotstop®S and imperfect Heterobasidion spp. spore infections on Norway spruce of stump, Forest Pathology, 36(6): 422-433. against
  • Seifert, T., 2007. Simulating the extent of decay caused by Heterobasidion annosum s. 1. in stems of Norway spruce. Forest Ecology and Management, 248: 95-106.
  • Shigo, A.L., Shigo, A., 1974. Detection of discoloration and decay in living trees and utility poles. Res. Pap. NE-294. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 11p.
  • Shigo, A. L., Shortle, W.C., Ochrymowych, J., 1977. Detection of active decay at groundline in utility poles. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-35.
  • Shigo, A.L., Shortle, W.C., 1985. Shigometry: A reference guide. United States. Cooperative State Research Service.; Canada/United States Spruce Budworms Program. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook No: 646, 48 p.
  • Shortle, W.C., 1979. Detection of decay in trees. Journal of Arboriculture, 5: 226-232.
  • Shortle, W.C., 1982. Decaying Douglas-Fir: Ionization associated with resistance to a pulsed electric current. Wood Science, 15: 29-32.
  • Skutt, H.R., Shigo, A.L., Lessard, R.A., 1972. Detection of discolored and decayed wood in living trees using a pulsed electric current. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 2: 54-56.
  • Stenlid, J., Wästerlund, I., 1986 Estimating the frequency of

Seydişehir İlçesi, Toros Göknarı meşcerelerinde Heterobasidion abietinum tarafından kaynaklanan çürüklüğün gövde içindeki gelişimi ve mücadelesi

Year 2014, Volume 15, Issue 2, 94 - 101, 27.11.2014

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, Seydişehir Orman İşletme Şefliği sınırları içinde yer alan karışık ve saf Toros göknarı meşcerelerinde bazı biyolojik etmenlerin ve kimyasalların, göknarlarda kök ve alt gövde çürüklüğüne neden olan Heterobasidion abietinum' u engelleme üzerine etkileri ve bu ağaç türünde çürüklüğün gövde içindeki gelişimi araştırılmıştır. Arazi denemelerinde biyolojik mücadele etmenleri olarak, birer adet Trichoderma harzianum ve Phlebiopsis gigantea izolatı, kimyasallar olarak %30 üre (Tekkim) sulu solüsyonu ve boraks tozu kullanılmıştır. Çürüklüğün ağaç içindeki gelişiminin tespitine yönelik gerçekleştirilen çalışmada, biyolojik ve kimyasal muamelelerin yapıldığı alanlardan seçilen ağaçlardan, 1'er m aralıklarla diskler kestirilmiştir. Dip kütüğü seviyesinden başlayarak, her bir ağaçtan altı adet, toplamda 120 adet disk, laboratuvar koşullarında H. annosum s.l'a ait konidioforların varlığı açısından incelenmiştir. Toros göknarı meşcerelerinde H. abietinum'a karşı kimyasal ve biyolojik mücadele yöntemlerinin araştırıldığı bu denemelerde sırasıyla, üre, T. harzianum, boraks ve P. gigantea ile %98,90- 96,37- 96,25 ve 72,32 ortalama değerleri ile kontrole göre koruyuculuk sağlanmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra, patojen tarafından meydana getirilen çürüklüğün gövde içerisinde 5,5 m yüksekliğe kadar ulaştığı belirlenmiştir. Anahtar kelimeler: H. abietinum, Toros göknarı, Konya-Seydişehir, çürüklük, biyolojik mücadele

References

  • Annesi, T., Curcio, G., D’Amico, L., Motta, E., 2005. Biological control of Heterobasidion annosum on Pinus pinea by Phlebiopsis gigantea. Forest Pathology, 35(2): 127-134.
  • Asiegbu, F., Adomas, A., Stenlid, J., 2005. Conifer root and butt rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. s.l. Molecular Plant Pathology, 6(4): 395-409.
  • Axmon, J., Hansson, M., Sörnmo, L., 2004. Experimental study on the possibility of detecting internal decay in standing Picea abies by blind impact response analysis. Forestry, 77: 179-192.
  • Bendz- Hellgren, M., Lipponen, K., Solheim, H., Thomsen, I.M., 1998. The Nordic countries. In: Woodward, S., Stenlid, J., Karjalainen, R., Hüttermann, A. (Eds), Heterobasidion annosum: Biology, Ecology, Impact and Control, CAB Internatinal, Wallingford, UK, pp. 333- 345.
  • Berglund, M., Rönnberg, J., 2004. Effectiveness of treatment of Norway spruce stumps with Phlebiopsis gigantea at different rates of coverage for the control of Heterobasidion. Forest Patholgy, 34(4): 233-243.
  • Berglund, M., 2005. Infection and growth of Heterobasidion spp. in Picea abies. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Alnarp: Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880; 2005:36
  • Berglund, M., Rönnberg, J., Holmer, L., Stenlid, J., 2005. Comparison of five strains of Phlebiopsis gigantea and two Trichoderma formulations for treatment against natural Heterobasidion spore infections on Norway spruce stumps. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 20: 12-17.
  • Blanchard, R.O., Shortle, W.C., 1977. Changes in electrical resistance associated with disease and death of elm seedlings. Proceedings of American Phytopathological Society, 4: 183 (abstract).
  • Blanchard, R.O., Carter, J.K., 1980. Electrical resistance measurements to detect Dutch elm disease prior to symptom expression. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 10: 111-114.
  • Costello, L., Quarles, S., 1999. Detection of wood decay in blue gum and elm: an evaluation of the IML- Resistograph and the portable drill. Journal of Arboriculture, 25: 311-317.
  • Doğmuş -Lehtijärvi, H. T., Lehtijärvi, A., Korhonen, K., 2006. Heterobasidion abietinum on Abies species in western Turkey. Forest Pathology, 36: 280-286.
  • Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi, H. T., Lehtijärvi,, A., Korhonen, K., 2007a. Heterobasidion on Abies nordmanniana in north- eastern Turkey. Forest Pathology, 37: 387-390.
  • Doğmuş- Lehtijärvi, H.T., Lehtijärvi, A., Karaca, G. ve Aday, A.G., 2007b. Heterobasidion annosum s. l.' un Uludağ göknarında oluşturduğu alt gövde çürüklüğünün arazi ve laboratuar metotları ile tespiti. SDÜ Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, Seri: A, 1: 58- 67.
  • Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi, H. T Lehtijärvi, A., Oskay, F., Aday, A. G., Karadeniz, M., 2008. Annosum kök ve alt gövde çürüklüğünün Abies bornmülleriana ve Abies cilicica meşcerelerinde yoğunluğunun belirlenmesi. Artvin Çoruh University, Faculty of Forestry Journal, 9: 111- 120. (in Turkish, English abstract).
  • Doğmuş Lehtijärvi, H.T., Lehtijärvi, A., Aday, A.G., Oskay, F., 2010a. Annosum kök çürüklüğüne karşı uygulanan biyolojik kontrol ajanı; Phlebiopsis gigantea. 3. Ulusal Karadeniz Ormancılık Kongresi, 20-22 Mayıs 2010, Artvin, 5: 1403-1410.
  • Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi, H. T., Lehtijärvi, A., Oskay, F., Aday, A.G., 2010b. Efficacy of urea, borax and Trichoderma treatments against Heterobasidion spore infections of stumps of Abies nordmanniana ssp. bornmülleriana. Proceedings 13th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union (MPU).p: 573-574. 20-25, June 2010, Rome- Italy.
  • Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi, H.T., Lehtijärvi, A., Aday, A.G., Oskay, F., 2011. Heterobasidion abietinum’un kimyasal mücadelesinde üre uygulamasının etkisi. Türkiye I. Orman Entomolojisi ve Patolojisi Sempozyumu, 23-25 Kasım 2011, Antalya.
  • Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi, H.T., Lehtijärvi, A., Aday, A.G., Oskay, F. 2012. Arazi koşullarında bazı kimyasal ve biyolojik ajanların Heterobasidion annosum s.l’ un mücadelesinde kullanım olanakları. Kastamonu Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(2): 313-320.
  • Edman, M., Jonsson, B.G., 2001. Spatial pattern of downed logs and wood-decaying fungi in an old-growth Picea abies forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, 12(5): 609- 620.
  • Guglielmo, F., Bergemann, S.E., Gonthier, P., Nicolotti, G., Garbelotto, M., 2007. A multiplex PCR-based method for the detection and early identification of wood rotting fungi Microbiology, 103: 1490-1507. Journal of Applied
  • Guglielmo, F., Gonthier, P., Garbelotto, M., Nicolotti, G., 2010. Optimization of sampling procedures for DNA- based diagnosis of wood decay fungi in standing trees. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 51: 90-97.
  • Greig, B.J.W., 1998. Field Regocnition and Diagnosis of Heterobasidion annosum. In: Woodward, S., Stenlid, J., Karjalainen, R., Hüttermann, A. (Eds), Heterobasidion annosum: Biology, Ecology, Impact and Control, CAB Internatinal, Wallingford, UK, pp. 35-41.
  • Holdenrieder, O., Greig, B.J.W., 1998. Biological methods of control. In. Heterobasidion annosum. Biology, Ecology, Impact and Control. Ed. By Woodward, S., Stenlid, J., Karjalainen, R., Hüttermann, A. Wallingford, New York. CAB International, pp. 235-258.
  • Johanstone, D., Tausz, M., Moore, G, Nicolas, M., 2010. Quantifying Wood Decay in Sydney Bluegum (Eucalyptus saligna) Trees. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry, 36(6): 243-252.
  • Korhonen, K., Piri, T., 1994. The main hosts and distribution of the S and P groups of Heterobasidion annosum in Finland. In: Johansson, M. and Stenlid, J. (Eds), Proceeding of the Eight IUFRO Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Sweden /Finland August 1993. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, pp. 260-267.
  • Lawday, G., Hodges, P.A., 2000. The analytical use of stress waves for the detection of decay in standing trees. Forestry, 73(5): 447-456.
  • Lehtijärvi, A., Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi, H.T., Aday, A.G., Oskay, F., 2009. Abies cilicica Ant. & Kotschy meşcerelerinde Heterobasidion abietinum Niemelä & Korhonen’un kimyasal ve biyolojik kontrolü. Türkiye III. Bitki Koruma Kongresi, s. 338, 15-18, Temmuz 2009, Van.
  • Lehtijärvi, A., Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi, T., Aday, A.G., Oskay, F., 2011. The efficacy of selected biological and chemical abietinum on Abies cilicica. Forest Pathology, 41: 470- 476. against Heterobasidion
  • Lin, C.J., Kao, Y.C., Lin, T.T., Tsai, M.J., Wang, S.Y., Lin, L.D., Wang, Y.N., Chan, M.H., 2008. Application of an ultrasonic tomographic technique for detecting defects in standing trees. International Bio deterioration & Biodegradation, 62: 434-441.
  • Mattheck, C., Breloer, H., 1994. Field guide for visual tree assessment (VTA). Arboricultural Journal, 18: 1-23.
  • Nicolotti, G., Gonthier, P., 2005. Stump treatment against Heterobasidion with Phlebiopsis gigantea and some chemicals in Picea abies stands in the western Alps. Forest Pathology, 35: 365-374.
  • Nicolotti, G., Gonthier, P., Guglielmo, F., Garbelotto, M., 2009. A biomolecular method for the detection of wood decay fungi a focus on tree stability assessment. Arboric Urban Forestry, 35: 14-19.
  • Piri, T., Korhonen, K., Sairanen, A., 1990. Occurence of Heterobasidion annosum in pure and mixed spruce stands in Southern Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 5: 113-125.
  • Piri, T., Valkonen, S. 2013. Incidence and spread of Heterobasidion root rot in uneven-aged Norway spruce stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 43(9): 872- 877.
  • Pratt, J.E., Niemi, M., Sierota, Z.H., 2000. Comparison of three products based on Phlebiopsis gigantea for the control of Heterobasidion annosum in Europe. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 10(4): 467-477.
  • Pratt, J. E., Redfern, D.B., 2001. Infection of Sitka spruce stumps by spores of Heterobasidion annosum. control by means of urea. Forestry, 74, 73-78.
  • Rönnberg, J., Sidorov, E., Petrylaite, E., 2006. Efficacy of different concentrations of Rotstop® and Rotstop®S and imperfect Heterobasidion spp. spore infections on Norway spruce of stump, Forest Pathology, 36(6): 422-433. against
  • Seifert, T., 2007. Simulating the extent of decay caused by Heterobasidion annosum s. 1. in stems of Norway spruce. Forest Ecology and Management, 248: 95-106.
  • Shigo, A.L., Shigo, A., 1974. Detection of discoloration and decay in living trees and utility poles. Res. Pap. NE-294. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 11p.
  • Shigo, A. L., Shortle, W.C., Ochrymowych, J., 1977. Detection of active decay at groundline in utility poles. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-35.
  • Shigo, A.L., Shortle, W.C., 1985. Shigometry: A reference guide. United States. Cooperative State Research Service.; Canada/United States Spruce Budworms Program. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook No: 646, 48 p.
  • Shortle, W.C., 1979. Detection of decay in trees. Journal of Arboriculture, 5: 226-232.
  • Shortle, W.C., 1982. Decaying Douglas-Fir: Ionization associated with resistance to a pulsed electric current. Wood Science, 15: 29-32.
  • Skutt, H.R., Shigo, A.L., Lessard, R.A., 1972. Detection of discolored and decayed wood in living trees using a pulsed electric current. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 2: 54-56.
  • Stenlid, J., Wästerlund, I., 1986 Estimating the frequency of

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Orijinal Araştırma Makalesi
Authors

Hatice DOĞMUŞ-LEHTİJARVİ>


Ayse ADAY KAYA>


Funda OSKAY>

0000-0002-8918-5595


Asko LEHTİJARVİ>

Publication Date November 27, 2014
Published in Issue Year 2014, Volume 15, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @ { tjf224502, journal = {Turkish Journal of Forestry}, eissn = {2149-3898}, address = {}, publisher = {Isparta University of Applied Sciences}, year = {2014}, volume = {15}, number = {2}, pages = {94 - 101}, doi = {10.18182/tjf.44015}, title = {Seydişehir İlçesi, Toros Göknarı meşcerelerinde Heterobasidion abietinum tarafından kaynaklanan çürüklüğün gövde içindeki gelişimi ve mücadelesi}, key = {cite}, author = {Doğmuş-lehtijarvi, Hatice and Aday Kaya, Ayse and Oskay, Funda and Lehtijarvi, Asko} }
APA Doğmuş-lehtijarvi, H. , Aday Kaya, A. , Oskay, F. & Lehtijarvi, A. (2014). Seydişehir İlçesi, Toros Göknarı meşcerelerinde Heterobasidion abietinum tarafından kaynaklanan çürüklüğün gövde içindeki gelişimi ve mücadelesi . Turkish Journal of Forestry , 15 (2) , 94-101 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tjf/issue/20903/224502
MLA Doğmuş-lehtijarvi, H. , Aday Kaya, A. , Oskay, F. , Lehtijarvi, A. "Seydişehir İlçesi, Toros Göknarı meşcerelerinde Heterobasidion abietinum tarafından kaynaklanan çürüklüğün gövde içindeki gelişimi ve mücadelesi" . Turkish Journal of Forestry 15 (2014 ): 94-101 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tjf/issue/20903/224502>
Chicago Doğmuş-lehtijarvi, H. , Aday Kaya, A. , Oskay, F. , Lehtijarvi, A. "Seydişehir İlçesi, Toros Göknarı meşcerelerinde Heterobasidion abietinum tarafından kaynaklanan çürüklüğün gövde içindeki gelişimi ve mücadelesi". Turkish Journal of Forestry 15 (2014 ): 94-101
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Extend of trunk decay caused by and control of Heterobasidion abietinum in Taurus Fir Stands in Seydişehir AU - HaticeDoğmuş-lehtijarvi, AyseAday Kaya, FundaOskay, AskoLehtijarvi Y1 - 2014 PY - 2014 N1 - DO - T2 - Turkish Journal of Forestry JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 94 EP - 101 VL - 15 IS - 2 SN - -2149-3898 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2023 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Forestry Seydişehir İlçesi, Toros Göknarı meşcerelerinde Heterobasidion abietinum tarafından kaynaklanan çürüklüğün gövde içindeki gelişimi ve mücadelesi %A Hatice Doğmuş-lehtijarvi , Ayse Aday Kaya , Funda Oskay , Asko Lehtijarvi %T Seydişehir İlçesi, Toros Göknarı meşcerelerinde Heterobasidion abietinum tarafından kaynaklanan çürüklüğün gövde içindeki gelişimi ve mücadelesi %D 2014 %J Turkish Journal of Forestry %P -2149-3898 %V 15 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Doğmuş-lehtijarvi, Hatice , Aday Kaya, Ayse , Oskay, Funda , Lehtijarvi, Asko . "Seydişehir İlçesi, Toros Göknarı meşcerelerinde Heterobasidion abietinum tarafından kaynaklanan çürüklüğün gövde içindeki gelişimi ve mücadelesi". Turkish Journal of Forestry 15 / 2 (November 2014): 94-101 .
AMA Doğmuş-lehtijarvi H. , Aday Kaya A. , Oskay F. , Lehtijarvi A. Seydişehir İlçesi, Toros Göknarı meşcerelerinde Heterobasidion abietinum tarafından kaynaklanan çürüklüğün gövde içindeki gelişimi ve mücadelesi. Turkish Journal of Forestry. 2014; 15(2): 94-101.
Vancouver Doğmuş-lehtijarvi H. , Aday Kaya A. , Oskay F. , Lehtijarvi A. Seydişehir İlçesi, Toros Göknarı meşcerelerinde Heterobasidion abietinum tarafından kaynaklanan çürüklüğün gövde içindeki gelişimi ve mücadelesi. Turkish Journal of Forestry. 2014; 15(2): 94-101.
IEEE H. Doğmuş-lehtijarvi , A. Aday Kaya , F. Oskay and A. Lehtijarvi , "Seydişehir İlçesi, Toros Göknarı meşcerelerinde Heterobasidion abietinum tarafından kaynaklanan çürüklüğün gövde içindeki gelişimi ve mücadelesi", Turkish Journal of Forestry, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 94-101, Nov. 2014, doi:10.18182/tjf.44015