Research Article
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Prevalence of attitudes and behaviors related to obesity in cartoons

Year 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, 157 - 167, 23.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.20518/tjph.773434

Abstract

Objective: Childhood obesity is one of the most important public health problems of the 21st century. In this study, it is aimed that determine the prevalence of attitudes and behaviours associated with obesity in tv channels being for children in Turkey.

Methods: In this descriptive study, all children’s channels broadcasting over Turksat for free were evaluated. 110 cartoon series are broadcasted on five channels. The total of 30 cartoons were included in the study by selecting 6 cartoon series from each channel using the draw method. Seven episodes from each cartoon were randomly
selected. 210 episodes were watched by researchers. Kappa analysis was used to evaluate inter-observer consistency. Pearson chi-square and Kruskal Wallis tests were used for statistical analysis of the data.

Results: There were vegetables and fruits in 26.2% of the cartoons, food containing high calcium in 3.8%, food containing high fiber in 3.3%, and milk in 2.4%. Vegetable and fruit visuals were significantly higher on TRT Çocuk. Fast food in 10.5% of the cartoons, soft drink flavored with sugar in 12.9%, and eating in front of the screen in 1.0%. The fast food visuals on the screen is significantly higher on Cartoon Network (28.6%). Healthy eating behavior is significantly higher in TRT Çocuk. Obesogenic eating behavior is higher in Cartoon Network than TRT Çocuk and Minika Çocuk.

Conclusion: The prevalence of content that can lead to obesity, negative messages for healthy foods and exercises attract attention in daytime television programmes watched by children.

References

  • WHO. European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative -Severe obesity among children aged 6-9 years report. Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/400654/COSI-Severe-Obesity-FS-ENG-LowRes.pdf. Accessed June 24, 2020.
  • WHO. Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Childhood overweight and obesity. Available at: https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood/en/. Accessed June 25, 2020.
  • Dietz WH. Health consequences of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics 1998;101(3, pt 2):518–525.
  • Estrada E, Eneli I, Hampl S, et al. Children’s Hospital Association. Children’s hospital association consensus statements for comorbidities of childhood obesity. Child Obes. 2014;10(4): 304–317.
  • Pulgarón ER. Childhood obesity: a review of increased risk for physical and psychological comorbidities. Clin Ther. 2013;35(1):A18–A32.
  • Bruce AS, Lim S, Smith TR, et al. Apples or candy? Internal and external influences on children’s food choices. Appetite. 2015;93:31–34.
  • Jacobson Vann JC, Finkle J, Ammerman A, et al. Use of a tool to determine perceived barriers to children’s healthy eating and physical activity and relationships to health behaviors. J Pediatr Nurs. 2011;26(5):404–415.
  • Marsh S, Ni Mhurchu C, Maddison R. The non-advertising effects of screen-based sedentary activities on acute eating behaviours in children, adolescents, and young adults. A systematic review. Appetite. 2013;71:259–273.
  • Braithwaite I, Stewart AW, Hancox RJ, et al. The worldwide association between television viewing and obesity in children and adolescents: cross sectional study. PloS one. 2013; 8(9), e74263.
  • Maher C, Olds TS, Eisenmann JC, et al. Screen time is more strongly associated than physical activity with overweight and obesity in 9- to 16-year-old Australians. Acta Paediatr. 2012;101: 1170–1174.
  • Rey Lopez JP, Vicente Rodriguez G, Biosca M, et al. Sedentary behaviour and obesity development in children and adolescents. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008;18(3):242-251.
  • Spielvogel I, Matthes J, Naderer B. A treat for the eyes. An eye-tracking study on children's attention to unhealthy and healthy food cues in media content. Appetite 2018;125:63-71.
  • Throop EM, Skinner AC, Perrin AJ, et al. Pass the popcorn: obesogenic behaviors and stigma in children’s movies. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(7):1694–1700.
  • Naderer B, Matthes J, Binder A, et al. Shaping children’s healthy eating habits with food placements? Food placements of high and low nutritional value in cartoons, Children’s BMI, food-related parenparental mediation strategies, and food choice. Appetite; 2018120: 644-653.
  • Brown CL, Matherne CE, Bulik CM, et al. Influence of product placement in children’s movies on children’s snack choices. Appetite 2017; 114: 118-124.
  • Matthes J, Naderer B. Children’s consumption behavior in response to food product placements in movies. JnConsum Behav. 2015; 14: 127–136.
  • Naderer B, Matthes J, Marquart F, et al. Children’s attitudinal and behavioral reactions to product placements: Investigating the role of placement frequency, placement integration, and parental mediation. Int J Advert. 2018; 37:236–255.
  • Jordan AB. Heavy television viewing and childhood obesity. J ChildMedia. 2007;1(1):45‐54.
  • Cynthia Radnitz , Shannon Byrne, Rachel Goldman. Food cues in children’s television programs. Appetite 2009;52:230–233.
  • Bandura A. Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall;1977.
  • Brody GH, Stoneman Z. Selective imitation of same-age, older, and younger peer models. Child Dev. 1981;52:717-720. TİAK.Televizyon İzleme Araştırma Şirketi 2019 yılı yıllık reyting raporları. Available at: http://tiak.com.tr/tablolar. Accessed June 25, 2020.
  • Roseman M, Poor M. A Content Analysis of Food References in Television. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2014 ;46(1):20-25.
  • Howard JB, Skinner AC, Ravanbakht SN, et al. Obesogenic Behavior and Weight-Based Stigma in Popular Children's Movies, 2012 to 2015.Pediatrics 2017;140(6):e20172126.
  • Matthess J, Naderrer B. Sugary, fatty, and prominent: food and beverage appearances in children's movies from 1991 to 2015. Pediatric Obesity 2019;14:e12488.
  • Théodore FL, Tolentino‐Mayo L, Hernández‐Zenil E, et al. Pitfalls of the self‐regulation of advertisements directed at children on Mexican television. Pediatric Obesity 2017;12(4):312‐319.
  • Olafsdottir S, Berg C. Food appearances in children’s television programmes in Sweden. Int J Consum Stud 2016;40: 484–491.

Türksat’ta yer alan çocuk kanallarında yayınlanan çizgi filmlerde obezite ile ilgili tutum ve davranışların sıklığı

Year 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, 157 - 167, 23.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.20518/tjph.773434

Abstract

Amaç: Çocukluk çağı obezitesi 21. yüzyılın en önemli halk sağlığı sorunlarından biridir. Bu çalışmada Türkiye’deki çocuk kanallarında yayınlanan çizgi filmlerde obezite ile ilgili tutum ve davranışların yaygınlığını belirlemek amaçlanmıştır.

Yöntem: Tanımlayıcı nitelikli bu araştırmada Türksat üzerinden ücretsiz yayın yapan tüm çocuk kanalları değerlendirildi. Beş kanalda toplam 110 çizgi film serisi
yayınlanmaktadır. Her kanaldan 6 çizgi film serisi kura yöntemiyle seçilerek, toplam 30 çizgi film çalışmaya alındı. Her çizgi filmden yedişer bölüm rastgele seçildi.Toplam 210 bölüm araştırmacılar tarafından izlendi. Gözlemciler arası tutarlılığı değerlendirmek için kappa analizi yapıldı. Verilerin istatiksel analizinde Pearson ki kare, Kruskal Wallis testleri kullanıldı.

Bulgular: Çizgi filmlerin %26.2’sinde sebze ve meyve, %3.8’inde yüksek kalsiyum içeren besin, %3.3’ünde yüksek lif içeren besin, %2.4’ünde süt görseli mevcuttu. Sebze ve meyve görseli TRT Çocuk’ ta önemli derece yüksek oranda bulunmuştur. Filmlerin %10.5’inde fast-food, %12.9’unda şekerle tatlandırılmış meşrubat, %1’inde ekran karşısında yemek yeme görüntüleri mevcuttu. Ekranda yer alan fast-food görseli Cartoon Network’ te (%28.6) önemli oranda fazladır.Sağlıklı yeme davranışı, TRT Çocuk’ ta istatistiksel açıdan önemli derecede fazladır. Obezojenik yeme davranışı, Cartoon Network’ te TRT Çocuk ve Minika Çocuk’ a göre daha yüksektir.

Sonuç: Çocukların gündüz kuşaklarını izledikleri kanallarda obeziteye yol açabilecek içeriklerin yaygınlığının yanı sıra sağlıklı gıdalara ve egzersize yönelik verilen negatif mesajlar dikkat çekmektedir.

References

  • WHO. European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative -Severe obesity among children aged 6-9 years report. Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/400654/COSI-Severe-Obesity-FS-ENG-LowRes.pdf. Accessed June 24, 2020.
  • WHO. Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Childhood overweight and obesity. Available at: https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood/en/. Accessed June 25, 2020.
  • Dietz WH. Health consequences of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics 1998;101(3, pt 2):518–525.
  • Estrada E, Eneli I, Hampl S, et al. Children’s Hospital Association. Children’s hospital association consensus statements for comorbidities of childhood obesity. Child Obes. 2014;10(4): 304–317.
  • Pulgarón ER. Childhood obesity: a review of increased risk for physical and psychological comorbidities. Clin Ther. 2013;35(1):A18–A32.
  • Bruce AS, Lim S, Smith TR, et al. Apples or candy? Internal and external influences on children’s food choices. Appetite. 2015;93:31–34.
  • Jacobson Vann JC, Finkle J, Ammerman A, et al. Use of a tool to determine perceived barriers to children’s healthy eating and physical activity and relationships to health behaviors. J Pediatr Nurs. 2011;26(5):404–415.
  • Marsh S, Ni Mhurchu C, Maddison R. The non-advertising effects of screen-based sedentary activities on acute eating behaviours in children, adolescents, and young adults. A systematic review. Appetite. 2013;71:259–273.
  • Braithwaite I, Stewart AW, Hancox RJ, et al. The worldwide association between television viewing and obesity in children and adolescents: cross sectional study. PloS one. 2013; 8(9), e74263.
  • Maher C, Olds TS, Eisenmann JC, et al. Screen time is more strongly associated than physical activity with overweight and obesity in 9- to 16-year-old Australians. Acta Paediatr. 2012;101: 1170–1174.
  • Rey Lopez JP, Vicente Rodriguez G, Biosca M, et al. Sedentary behaviour and obesity development in children and adolescents. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008;18(3):242-251.
  • Spielvogel I, Matthes J, Naderer B. A treat for the eyes. An eye-tracking study on children's attention to unhealthy and healthy food cues in media content. Appetite 2018;125:63-71.
  • Throop EM, Skinner AC, Perrin AJ, et al. Pass the popcorn: obesogenic behaviors and stigma in children’s movies. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(7):1694–1700.
  • Naderer B, Matthes J, Binder A, et al. Shaping children’s healthy eating habits with food placements? Food placements of high and low nutritional value in cartoons, Children’s BMI, food-related parenparental mediation strategies, and food choice. Appetite; 2018120: 644-653.
  • Brown CL, Matherne CE, Bulik CM, et al. Influence of product placement in children’s movies on children’s snack choices. Appetite 2017; 114: 118-124.
  • Matthes J, Naderer B. Children’s consumption behavior in response to food product placements in movies. JnConsum Behav. 2015; 14: 127–136.
  • Naderer B, Matthes J, Marquart F, et al. Children’s attitudinal and behavioral reactions to product placements: Investigating the role of placement frequency, placement integration, and parental mediation. Int J Advert. 2018; 37:236–255.
  • Jordan AB. Heavy television viewing and childhood obesity. J ChildMedia. 2007;1(1):45‐54.
  • Cynthia Radnitz , Shannon Byrne, Rachel Goldman. Food cues in children’s television programs. Appetite 2009;52:230–233.
  • Bandura A. Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall;1977.
  • Brody GH, Stoneman Z. Selective imitation of same-age, older, and younger peer models. Child Dev. 1981;52:717-720. TİAK.Televizyon İzleme Araştırma Şirketi 2019 yılı yıllık reyting raporları. Available at: http://tiak.com.tr/tablolar. Accessed June 25, 2020.
  • Roseman M, Poor M. A Content Analysis of Food References in Television. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2014 ;46(1):20-25.
  • Howard JB, Skinner AC, Ravanbakht SN, et al. Obesogenic Behavior and Weight-Based Stigma in Popular Children's Movies, 2012 to 2015.Pediatrics 2017;140(6):e20172126.
  • Matthess J, Naderrer B. Sugary, fatty, and prominent: food and beverage appearances in children's movies from 1991 to 2015. Pediatric Obesity 2019;14:e12488.
  • Théodore FL, Tolentino‐Mayo L, Hernández‐Zenil E, et al. Pitfalls of the self‐regulation of advertisements directed at children on Mexican television. Pediatric Obesity 2017;12(4):312‐319.
  • Olafsdottir S, Berg C. Food appearances in children’s television programmes in Sweden. Int J Consum Stud 2016;40: 484–491.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Original Research
Authors

Sinem SIPÇIK (Primary Author)
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-2558-288X
Türkiye


Ayşe TAT This is me
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-6925-432X
Türkiye


Osman GÜNAY
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-7131-2253
Türkiye


Ahmet ÖZTÜRK
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-1353-4397
Türkiye

Publication Date July 23, 2021
Application Date July 24, 2020
Acceptance Date April 26, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { tjph773434, journal = {Turkish Journal of Public Health}, issn = {}, eissn = {1304-1088}, address = {}, publisher = {Turkish Society of Public Health Specialists}, year = {2021}, volume = {19}, pages = {157 - 167}, doi = {10.20518/tjph.773434}, title = {Türksat’ta yer alan çocuk kanallarında yayınlanan çizgi filmlerde obezite ile ilgili tutum ve davranışların sıklığı}, key = {cite}, author = {Sıpçık, Sinem and Tat, Ayşe and Günay, Osman and Öztürk, Ahmet} }
APA Sıpçık, S. , Tat, A. , Günay, O. & Öztürk, A. (2021). Türksat’ta yer alan çocuk kanallarında yayınlanan çizgi filmlerde obezite ile ilgili tutum ve davranışların sıklığı . Turkish Journal of Public Health , 19 (2) , 157-167 . DOI: 10.20518/tjph.773434
MLA Sıpçık, S. , Tat, A. , Günay, O. , Öztürk, A. "Türksat’ta yer alan çocuk kanallarında yayınlanan çizgi filmlerde obezite ile ilgili tutum ve davranışların sıklığı" . Turkish Journal of Public Health 19 (2021 ): 157-167 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tjph/issue/64227/773434>
Chicago Sıpçık, S. , Tat, A. , Günay, O. , Öztürk, A. "Türksat’ta yer alan çocuk kanallarında yayınlanan çizgi filmlerde obezite ile ilgili tutum ve davranışların sıklığı". Turkish Journal of Public Health 19 (2021 ): 157-167
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Türksat’ta yer alan çocuk kanallarında yayınlanan çizgi filmlerde obezite ile ilgili tutum ve davranışların sıklığı AU - Sinem Sıpçık , Ayşe Tat , Osman Günay , Ahmet Öztürk Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.20518/tjph.773434 DO - 10.20518/tjph.773434 T2 - Turkish Journal of Public Health JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 157 EP - 167 VL - 19 IS - 2 SN - -1304-1088 M3 - doi: 10.20518/tjph.773434 UR - https://doi.org/10.20518/tjph.773434 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Public Health Türksat’ta yer alan çocuk kanallarında yayınlanan çizgi filmlerde obezite ile ilgili tutum ve davranışların sıklığı %A Sinem Sıpçık , Ayşe Tat , Osman Günay , Ahmet Öztürk %T Türksat’ta yer alan çocuk kanallarında yayınlanan çizgi filmlerde obezite ile ilgili tutum ve davranışların sıklığı %D 2021 %J Turkish Journal of Public Health %P -1304-1088 %V 19 %N 2 %R doi: 10.20518/tjph.773434 %U 10.20518/tjph.773434
ISNAD Sıpçık, Sinem , Tat, Ayşe , Günay, Osman , Öztürk, Ahmet . "Türksat’ta yer alan çocuk kanallarında yayınlanan çizgi filmlerde obezite ile ilgili tutum ve davranışların sıklığı". Turkish Journal of Public Health 19 / 2 (July 2021): 157-167 . https://doi.org/10.20518/tjph.773434
AMA Sıpçık S. , Tat A. , Günay O. , Öztürk A. Türksat’ta yer alan çocuk kanallarında yayınlanan çizgi filmlerde obezite ile ilgili tutum ve davranışların sıklığı. TurkJPH. 2021; 19(2): 157-167.
Vancouver Sıpçık S. , Tat A. , Günay O. , Öztürk A. Türksat’ta yer alan çocuk kanallarında yayınlanan çizgi filmlerde obezite ile ilgili tutum ve davranışların sıklığı. Turkish Journal of Public Health. 2021; 19(2): 157-167.
IEEE S. Sıpçık , A. Tat , O. Günay and A. Öztürk , "Türksat’ta yer alan çocuk kanallarında yayınlanan çizgi filmlerde obezite ile ilgili tutum ve davranışların sıklığı", Turkish Journal of Public Health, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 157-167, Jul. 2021, doi:10.20518/tjph.773434

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TURKISH JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH - TURK J PUBLIC HEALTH. online-ISSN: 1304-1096 

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