Research Article
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Bioassessment of Ecological Status of Three Aegean Reservoirs Based on Phytoplankton Metrics

Year 2018, Volume 2, Issue 1, 76 - 99, 24.01.2018
https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.363608

Abstract

Avrupa Birliği Su Çerçeve Direktifi’nin uygulanmasıyla birlikte su kalitesinin değerlendirilmesi büyük önem kazanmıştır. Bu çalışmada, Türkiye’nin Kuzey Ege Nehir Havzası’nda bulunan üç barajın su kalitesi Akdeniz Fitoplankton Trofik İndeksi (Med-PTI) ve Fitoplankton Trofik İndeksi (PTI) kullanılarak değerlendirilmiştir. Veriler üç barajdan 2014 ve 2015 yaz dönemi arasında mevsimsel olarak toplanmıştır. Üç baraj alkali su özelliği göstermiştir. En yüksek nutrient değerleri olarak TP (203,5 µg L-1) Bayramiç Baraj Gölü’nde ve TN (1012,0 µg L-1) Sevişler Barajı’nde kaydedilmiştir. Toplamda 120 tür teşhis edilmiş ve türlerin çoğunluğu Bacillariophyta ile temsil edilmiştir. Fitoplankton türleri ve çevresel değişkenler arasındaki ilişki multivaryete analizler ile incelenmiştir. Fitoplankton kompozisyonu ve dağılımı çevresel değişkenler yönetmiştir. Toplam fosfor, ortofosfat, toplam Kjeldahl azotu, biyolojik oksijen ihtiyacı, toplam organik karbon ve sıcaklık en önemli faktörler olmuştur. İlk iki CCA ekseni tür verisinin kümülatif yüzde varyansının %31’ini %97,7 tür-çevre korelasyonu ile açıklamış ve durum Monte Carlo testi (p= 0,002 ve F = 1,157) ile doğrulanmıştır. Med-PTI, Ayvacık ve Bayramiç Barajları için iyi su kalitesini gösterirken Sevişler Barajı’nı orta su kalitesinde indike etmiştir. PTI’ye göre Bayramiç ve Sevişler Barajları orta ekolojik durumda sınıflandırılmışken Ayvacık Barajı iyi su kalitesinde indike edilmiştir. Sonuçlara göre, Med-PTI ve PTI’nin Kuzey Ege Havzası’nda bulunan barajların su kalitesinin değerlendirilmesinde uygun metrikler olduğu görülmüştür.

References

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  • Brucet S., Poikane S., Lyche-Solheim A. & Sebastian B. (2013). Biological assessment of European lakes: ecological rationale and human impacts. Freshwater Biology 58, 1106–1115.
  • Chen X., Wang, X., Wu, D., He, S., Kong, H. & Kawabata, Z. (2009). Seasonal variation of mixing depth and its influence on phytoplankton dynamics in the Zeya reservoir, China. Limnology 10:159–165.
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  • Krammer, K. & Lange–Bertalot, H. (1991b). Bacillariophyceae. 4 Teil: Achnanthaceae. Kritische Erganzungen zu Navicula (Lineolatae) und Gomphonema. In: Ettl, H., Gartner, G., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. (Hrsgb.), Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Band 2. - Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.
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  • Lund, J. W. G., Kipling, C. D. & Le Cren, E. (1958). The Inverted microscope method of estimating algal numbers and statistical basis of estimations by counting. Hydrobiologia 11, 143-170.
  • Marchetto, A., Padedda, B. M., Mariani, M. A., Lugliè, A. & Sechi, N. (2009). A numerical index for evaluating phytoplankton response to changes in nutrient levels in deep Mediterranean reservoirs. Journal of Limnology 68, 106–121.
  • Molina-Navarro, E., Martínez-Perez, S., Sastre-Merlín, A., Verdugo-Althöfer, M. & Padisák, J. (2014). Phytoplankton and suitability of derived metrics for assessing the ecological status in a limno-reservoir, a Water Framework Directive nondefined type of Mediterranean water body. Lake and Reservoir Management 30, 46–62.
  • Negro, A. I., De Hoyos, C. & Vega, J. C. (2000). Phytoplankton structure and dynamics in Lake Sanabria and Valparáıso reservoir (NW Spain). Hydrobiologia 424, 25–37.
  • Padisák J., Borics, G., Grigorszky, I. & Soróczki-Pintér, E. (2006). Use of phytoplankton assemblages for monitoring ecological status of lakes within the Water Framework Directive: the assemblage index. Hydrobiologia 553, 1–14.
  • Pasztaleniec, A. & Poniewozik, M. (2004). Pediastrum species (Hydrodictyaceae, Sphaeropleales) in phytoplankton of Sumin Lake (Łęczna-Włodawa lakeland). Acta societatis botanicorum Poloniae 73 (1), 39-46.
  • Phillips, G., Lyche-Solheim, A., Skjelbred, B., Mischke, U., Drakare, S., Free, G., Järvinen, M., de Hoyos, C., Morabito, G. & Poikane, S. (2013). A phytoplankton trophic index to assess the status of lakes for the Water Framework Directive. Hydrobiologia 704, 75–95.
  • Poikane, S., van den Berg, M., Hellsten, S., de Hoyos, C., Ortiz-Casas, J., Pall, K., Portielje, R., Phillips, G., Solheim, A. L. & Tierney, D. (2011). Lake ecological assessment systems and intercalibration for the European Water Framework Directive: aims, achievements and further challenges. Procedia Environmental Sciences 9, 153–168.
  • Reynolds, C. S. (1984). The ecology of freshwater phytoplankton. Cambridge: - Cambridge University Press, pp. 384.
  • Reynolds, C. S., Huszar, V., Kruk, C., Naselli–Flores, L. & Melo, S. (2002). Towards a functional classification of the freshwater phytoplankton, review. Journal of Plankton Research 24(5), 417-428. Salmaso, N., Morabito, G., Buzzi, F., Garibaldi, L., Simona, M. & Mosello, R. (2006). Phytoplankton as an Indicator of the Water Quality of the Deep Lakes South of the Alps. Hydrobiologia. 536, 167-187.
  • Sevindik, T. O., Çelik, K. & Naselli-Flores, L. (2017). Spatial heterogeneity and seasonal succession of phytoplankton functional groups along the vertical gradient in a mesotrophic reservoir. Annales de limnologie-International Journal of Limnology 53, 129-141.
  • Soares, M. C. S., Marinho, M. M., Huszar, V. L. M., Branco, C. W. C. & Azevedo, S. M. F. O. (2008). The effects of water retention time and watershed features on the limnology of two tropical reservoirs in Brazil. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management 13, 257–269.
  • Straškraba M. (1999). Retention time as a key variable of reservoir limnology. In: Theoretical Reservoir Ecology and its Applications (eds T. G. Tundisi & M. Straskraba) pp. 385–410. International Institute of Ecology, Brazilian Academy and Backhuys Publishers, São Carlos, Brazil.
  • Sun, J. & Liu, D. (2003). Geometric models for calculating cell biovolume and surface area for phytoplankton. Journal of Plankton Research 25, 1331–1346.
  • ter Braak, C. J. F. & Smilauer, P. (1998). CANOCO reference manual and user’s guide to CANOCO for windows (version 4). Center for biometry, Wageningen New York.
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Year 2018, Volume 2, Issue 1, 76 - 99, 24.01.2018
https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.363608

Abstract

References

  • APHA. (2012). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 22nd Edition. Americans Public Health Association, Washington DC.
  • Beck M.W. & Hatch L.H. (2009) A review of research on the development of lake indices of biotic integrity. Environmental Reviews 17, 21–44.
  • Becker, V., Caputo, L., Ordóñez, J., Marcé, R., Armengol, J., Crossetti, L. O. & Huszar, V. L. M. (2010). Driving factors of the phytoplankton functional groups in a deep Mediterranean reservoir. Water Research 44(11), 3345–3354.
  • Bica, A., Barbu-Tudoran, L., Drugǎ, B., Coman, C., Ana, N., Szöke-Nagy, T. & Dragoş, N. (2012). Desmodesmus communis (chlorophyta) from romanian freshwaters: coenobial morphology and molecular taxonomy based on the its2 of new isolates. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 17(1), 16-28.
  • Brucet S., Poikane S., Lyche-Solheim A. & Sebastian B. (2013). Biological assessment of European lakes: ecological rationale and human impacts. Freshwater Biology 58, 1106–1115.
  • Chen X., Wang, X., Wu, D., He, S., Kong, H. & Kawabata, Z. (2009). Seasonal variation of mixing depth and its influence on phytoplankton dynamics in the Zeya reservoir, China. Limnology 10:159–165.
  • Cieszynska M., Wesolowski, M., Bartoszewicz, M., Michalska, M. & Nowacki, J. (2012). Application of physicochemical data for water-quality assessment of watercourses in the Gdansk Municipality (South Baltic coast). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184(4), 2017-29.
  • Cheshmedjiev, S., Mladenov, R., Belkinova, D., Gecheva, G., Dimitrova-Dyulgerova, I., Ivanov, P., & Mihov, S. (2010). Development of classification system and biological reference conditions for Bulgarian rivers and lakes according to the water framework directive. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 24, 155-163.
  • Comité européen de normalisation (CEN). (2004). Water quality – Guidance standard for the routine analysis of phytoplankton abundance and composition using inverted microscopy (Utermöhl technique). CEN TC 230/WG 2/TG 3/N83, Brussels.
  • Comité européen de normalisation (CEN). (2006). Water quality - Guidance standard on the enumeration of phytoplankton using inverted microscopy (Utermöhl technique). - European Standard EN, 15204, Brussels.
  • Çelekli, A. & Öztürk, B. (2014). Determination of ecological status and ecological preferences of phytoplankton using multivariate approach in a Mediterranean reservoir. Hydrobiologia 740,115–135.
  • Dale, V. H. & Beyeler, S. C. (2001). Challenges in the development and use of ecological indicators. Ecological Indicators 1, 3–10.
  • Davies, S. P. & Jackson, S. K. (2006). The biological condition gradient: a descriptive model for interpreting change in aquatic ecosystems. Ecological Applications, 16, 1251–1266.
  • Delgado, C. & Pardo, I. (2014). Comparison of benthic diatoms from Mediterranean and AtlanticSpanish streams: Community changes in relation to environmentalfactors. Aquatic Botany 120, 304–314. Directive. (2000). Directive 2000/60/EC of the European parliament and of the council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Communities 327, 1–72.
  • Ettl, H. (1983). Chlorophyta I Phytomonadina. In: Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. - Band 6 Gustav Fischer Verlag Stuttgart.
  • European Communities (EC). (2009). Water Framework Directive intercalibration technical report. Part 2. In: Poikane S, editor. Lakes. Ispra (Italy): European Commission, Joint Research Centre.
  • Figueredo, C. C. & Giani, A. (2001).Seasonal variation in the diversity and species richness of phytoplankton in a tropical eutrophic reservoir. Hydrobiologia 445, 165–174.
  • Hegewald, E. (1977). Scenedesmus communis Hegewald, a new species and its relation to Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Bréb. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement. 51: Algological Studies 19, 142-155.
  • Hering, D., Feld, C. K., Moog, O. & Ofenb€ock, T. (2006). Cook book for the development of a Multimetric Index for biological condition of aquatic ecosystems: experiences from the European AQEM and STAR projects and related initiatives. Hydrobiologia 566, 311–324.
  • Hillebrand, H., Dürselen, C. D., Kirschtel, D., Polingher, D. & Zohary, T. (1999). Biovolume calculation for pelagic and benthic microalgae. Journal of Phycology 35, 403–424.
  • Hoyer, A. B., Moreno-Ostos, E., Vidal, J., Blanco, J. M., Palomino-Torres, L. R., Basanta, A., Escot, C. & Rueda, F. J. (2009). The influence of external perturbations on the functional composition of phytoplankton in a Mediterranean reservoir. Hydrobiologia 636, 49–64. Johnson, R. K., Hering, D., Furse, M. T. & Verdonschot, P.F.M. (2006) Indicators of ecological change: comparison of the early response of four organism groups to stress gradients. Hydrobiologia 566, 139–152.
  • Johnson, R. K. & Hering, D. (2009) Response of taxonomic groups in streams to gradients in resource and habitat characteristics. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 175–186.
  • Juggins, S. & ter Braak, C. F. J. (1992). CALIBRATE-Program for species-environment calibration by (weighted averaging) partial least squares regression. Environmental Change Res Cent University College London
  • Leira, M., Chen, G., Dalton, C., Irvine, K. & Taylor, D. (2009). Patterns in freshwaterdiatom taxonomic distinctness along an eutrophication gradient. Freshwater Biology 54, 1–4.
  • Katsiapi, M., Moustaka-Gouni, M., Michaloudi, E. & Kormas, K. A. (2011). Phytoplankton and water quality in a Mediterranean drinking-water reservoir (Marathonas Reservoir, Greece). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 181, 563–575.
  • Karr, J. R. (1981). Assessment of biotic integrity using fish communities. Fisheries, 6, 21–27.
  • Karr, J. R. & Chu, E. W. (1999). Restoring Life in Running Waters: Better Biological Monitoring. Island Press, Washington, DC.
  • Komàrek, J. & Jonkovskà, V. (2001). Review of the Green Algal Genus Pediastrum; Implication for Pollen-analytical Research. Bibliotheca Phycologica. Cramer J. Berlin-Stuttgart, pp. 108.
  • Komárek, J. & Anagnostidis, K. (1998). Cyanoprokaryota Chroococcales In: Susswasserflora von Mitteleuropa. - Gustav Fisher Jena.
  • Komárek, J. & Fott, B. (1983). Chlorophyceae (Grünalgen) Ordnung: Chlorococcales In: Huber–Pestallozi – Das Phytoplankton des Süßwassers Systematik und Biologie 7 Teil, 1 Hälfte E Schweizerbart`sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart. Krammer, K. & Lange–Bertalot, H. (1991a). Bacillariophyceae. 3 Teil: Centrales, Fragilariaceae, Eunotiaceae In: Ettl, H., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. (Hrsgb.), Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Band 2. - Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.
  • Krammer, K. & Lange–Bertalot, H. (1991b). Bacillariophyceae. 4 Teil: Achnanthaceae. Kritische Erganzungen zu Navicula (Lineolatae) und Gomphonema. In: Ettl, H., Gartner, G., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. (Hrsgb.), Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Band 2. - Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.
  • Krammer, K. & Lange–Bertalot, H. (1999a). Bacillariophyceae. 1 Teil: Naviculaceae In: Ettl, H., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. (Hrsgb.), Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Band 2. - Akademischer Verlag Heidelberg, Berlin.
  • Krammer, K. & Lange–Bertalot, H. (1999b). Bacillariophyceae. 2 Teil: Bacillariaceae, Epithemiaceae, Surirellaceae In: Ettl, H., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. (Hrsgb.), Süßwasser–flora von Mitteleuropa. Band 2. - Akademischer Verlag Heidelberg, Berlin.
  • Lund, J. W. G., Kipling, C. D. & Le Cren, E. (1958). The Inverted microscope method of estimating algal numbers and statistical basis of estimations by counting. Hydrobiologia 11, 143-170.
  • Marchetto, A., Padedda, B. M., Mariani, M. A., Lugliè, A. & Sechi, N. (2009). A numerical index for evaluating phytoplankton response to changes in nutrient levels in deep Mediterranean reservoirs. Journal of Limnology 68, 106–121.
  • Molina-Navarro, E., Martínez-Perez, S., Sastre-Merlín, A., Verdugo-Althöfer, M. & Padisák, J. (2014). Phytoplankton and suitability of derived metrics for assessing the ecological status in a limno-reservoir, a Water Framework Directive nondefined type of Mediterranean water body. Lake and Reservoir Management 30, 46–62.
  • Negro, A. I., De Hoyos, C. & Vega, J. C. (2000). Phytoplankton structure and dynamics in Lake Sanabria and Valparáıso reservoir (NW Spain). Hydrobiologia 424, 25–37.
  • Padisák J., Borics, G., Grigorszky, I. & Soróczki-Pintér, E. (2006). Use of phytoplankton assemblages for monitoring ecological status of lakes within the Water Framework Directive: the assemblage index. Hydrobiologia 553, 1–14.
  • Pasztaleniec, A. & Poniewozik, M. (2004). Pediastrum species (Hydrodictyaceae, Sphaeropleales) in phytoplankton of Sumin Lake (Łęczna-Włodawa lakeland). Acta societatis botanicorum Poloniae 73 (1), 39-46.
  • Phillips, G., Lyche-Solheim, A., Skjelbred, B., Mischke, U., Drakare, S., Free, G., Järvinen, M., de Hoyos, C., Morabito, G. & Poikane, S. (2013). A phytoplankton trophic index to assess the status of lakes for the Water Framework Directive. Hydrobiologia 704, 75–95.
  • Poikane, S., van den Berg, M., Hellsten, S., de Hoyos, C., Ortiz-Casas, J., Pall, K., Portielje, R., Phillips, G., Solheim, A. L. & Tierney, D. (2011). Lake ecological assessment systems and intercalibration for the European Water Framework Directive: aims, achievements and further challenges. Procedia Environmental Sciences 9, 153–168.
  • Reynolds, C. S. (1984). The ecology of freshwater phytoplankton. Cambridge: - Cambridge University Press, pp. 384.
  • Reynolds, C. S., Huszar, V., Kruk, C., Naselli–Flores, L. & Melo, S. (2002). Towards a functional classification of the freshwater phytoplankton, review. Journal of Plankton Research 24(5), 417-428. Salmaso, N., Morabito, G., Buzzi, F., Garibaldi, L., Simona, M. & Mosello, R. (2006). Phytoplankton as an Indicator of the Water Quality of the Deep Lakes South of the Alps. Hydrobiologia. 536, 167-187.
  • Sevindik, T. O., Çelik, K. & Naselli-Flores, L. (2017). Spatial heterogeneity and seasonal succession of phytoplankton functional groups along the vertical gradient in a mesotrophic reservoir. Annales de limnologie-International Journal of Limnology 53, 129-141.
  • Soares, M. C. S., Marinho, M. M., Huszar, V. L. M., Branco, C. W. C. & Azevedo, S. M. F. O. (2008). The effects of water retention time and watershed features on the limnology of two tropical reservoirs in Brazil. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management 13, 257–269.
  • Straškraba M. (1999). Retention time as a key variable of reservoir limnology. In: Theoretical Reservoir Ecology and its Applications (eds T. G. Tundisi & M. Straskraba) pp. 385–410. International Institute of Ecology, Brazilian Academy and Backhuys Publishers, São Carlos, Brazil.
  • Sun, J. & Liu, D. (2003). Geometric models for calculating cell biovolume and surface area for phytoplankton. Journal of Plankton Research 25, 1331–1346.
  • ter Braak, C. J. F. & Smilauer, P. (1998). CANOCO reference manual and user’s guide to CANOCO for windows (version 4). Center for biometry, Wageningen New York.
  • Utermöhl, H. (1958). Zur Vervollkommnung der quantitativen phytoplankton–methodik. Mitteilungen Internationale Vereinigung Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 9:1-38.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Engineering, Multidisciplinary
Journal Section TURKISH JOURNAL OF WATER SCIENCES AND MANAGEMENT
Authors

Abuzer ÇELEKLİ (Primary Author)
GAZİANTEP ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Assane Anabi TOUDJANİ This is me


Hacı Ömer LEKESİZ This is me


Seda KAYHAN This is me


Tolga ÇETİN

Publication Date January 24, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume 2, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { tjwsm363608, journal = {Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management}, issn = {2536-474X}, eissn = {2564-7334}, address = {Orman ve Su İşleri Bakanlığı Su Yönetimi Genel Müdürlüğü Beştepe Mahallesi Alparslan Türkeş Caddesi No: 71 -Yenimahalle / ANKARA, PK: 06560}, publisher = {Tarım ve Orman Bakanlığı Su Yönetimi Genel Müdürlüğü}, year = {2018}, volume = {2}, pages = {76 - 99}, doi = {10.31807/tjwsm.363608}, title = {Bioassessment of Ecological Status of Three Aegean Reservoirs Based on Phytoplankton Metrics}, key = {cite}, author = {Çelekli, Abuzer and Toudjani, Assane Anabi and Lekesiz, Hacı Ömer and Kayhan, Seda and Çetin, Tolga} }
APA Çelekli, A. , Toudjani, A. A. , Lekesiz, H. Ö. , Kayhan, S. & Çetin, T. (2018). Bioassessment of Ecological Status of Three Aegean Reservoirs Based on Phytoplankton Metrics . Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management , 2 (1) , 76-99 . DOI: 10.31807/tjwsm.363608
MLA Çelekli, A. , Toudjani, A. A. , Lekesiz, H. Ö. , Kayhan, S. , Çetin, T. "Bioassessment of Ecological Status of Three Aegean Reservoirs Based on Phytoplankton Metrics" . Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management 2 (2018 ): 76-99 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tjwsm/issue/34669/363608>
Chicago Çelekli, A. , Toudjani, A. A. , Lekesiz, H. Ö. , Kayhan, S. , Çetin, T. "Bioassessment of Ecological Status of Three Aegean Reservoirs Based on Phytoplankton Metrics". Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management 2 (2018 ): 76-99
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Bioassessment of Ecological Status of Three Aegean Reservoirs Based on Phytoplankton Metrics AU - Abuzer Çelekli , Assane Anabi Toudjani , Hacı Ömer Lekesiz , Seda Kayhan , Tolga Çetin Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.31807/tjwsm.363608 DO - 10.31807/tjwsm.363608 T2 - Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 76 EP - 99 VL - 2 IS - 1 SN - 2536-474X-2564-7334 M3 - doi: 10.31807/tjwsm.363608 UR - https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.363608 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management Bioassessment of Ecological Status of Three Aegean Reservoirs Based on Phytoplankton Metrics %A Abuzer Çelekli , Assane Anabi Toudjani , Hacı Ömer Lekesiz , Seda Kayhan , Tolga Çetin %T Bioassessment of Ecological Status of Three Aegean Reservoirs Based on Phytoplankton Metrics %D 2018 %J Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management %P 2536-474X-2564-7334 %V 2 %N 1 %R doi: 10.31807/tjwsm.363608 %U 10.31807/tjwsm.363608
ISNAD Çelekli, Abuzer , Toudjani, Assane Anabi , Lekesiz, Hacı Ömer , Kayhan, Seda , Çetin, Tolga . "Bioassessment of Ecological Status of Three Aegean Reservoirs Based on Phytoplankton Metrics". Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management 2 / 1 (January 2018): 76-99 . https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.363608
AMA Çelekli A. , Toudjani A. A. , Lekesiz H. Ö. , Kayhan S. , Çetin T. Bioassessment of Ecological Status of Three Aegean Reservoirs Based on Phytoplankton Metrics. Turkish J. Water Sci. Manag.. 2018; 2(1): 76-99.
Vancouver Çelekli A. , Toudjani A. A. , Lekesiz H. Ö. , Kayhan S. , Çetin T. Bioassessment of Ecological Status of Three Aegean Reservoirs Based on Phytoplankton Metrics. Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management. 2018; 2(1): 76-99.
IEEE A. Çelekli , A. A. Toudjani , H. Ö. Lekesiz , S. Kayhan and T. Çetin , "Bioassessment of Ecological Status of Three Aegean Reservoirs Based on Phytoplankton Metrics", Turkish Journal of Water Science and Management, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 76-99, Jan. 2018, doi:10.31807/tjwsm.363608