Research Article
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

Year 2022, Volume 23, Issue 1, 43 - 59, 01.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1050351

Abstract

References

  • Adjabeng, S. (2017). The status and challenges of online distance education programs in post-secondary institutions in Ghana. University of North Texas.
  • Alienor Salmon, Thanwai, S. A., & Wongsaengpaiboon, H. (2013). In School, in Society: Early childhood development in Myanmar migrant communities in Thailand. In VSO Thailand. Bangkok: VSO Thailand.
  • Andersson, A. (2008). Seven major challenges for e-learning in developing countries: Case study eBIT, Sri Lanka. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 4(3), 45–62.
  • Arkorful, V., & Abaidoo, N. (2015). The role of e-learning, advantages and disadvantages of its adoption in higher education. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 12(1), 29–42. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijac.v3i2.1322
  • Arphattananon, T. (2012). Education that leads to nowhere: Thailand’s education policy for children of migrants. International Journal of Multicultural Education, 14(1), 1–15. Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Sorensen, C. K., & Walker, D. A. (2010). Introduction to Research in Education.
  • Atisabda, W., Kritpracha, C., Kaosaiyaporn, O., & Pattaro, A. (2015). Strategies for Distance Learning to Increase Academic Achievement of High School Students in Risk Area of the Southernmost of Thailand. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 2384–2389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. sbspro.2015.01.905
  • Attride-stirling, J. (2001). Thematic networks: an analytic tool for qualitative research Jennifer. Qualitative Research.
  • Australian Catholic University. (2009). ACU refugee program on the Thai-Burma border. Retrieved from https://www.acu.edu.au/giving-to-acu/what-you-can-support/acu-refugee-program-on-the-thai- burma-border
  • Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived Self-Efficacy in Cognitive Development and Functioning. Educational Psychologist, Vol. 28, pp. 117–148. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep2802_3
  • Budginaite, I., Siarova, H., Sternadel, D., Mackonyte, G., & Spurga, S. A. (2016). Policies and practices for more equality and inclusion in and through education: Evidence and policy guidance. Luxembourg: Office of the European Union.
  • Chamratrithirong, A., & Punpuing, S. (2017). The “ Regional Demographic Transition ” towards Peace and Prosperity : A Case Study of Thailand and its Neighboring Countries.
  • Chongkittavorn, K. (2012, October 7). Educating the next generation of Myanmarese children. The Nation Thailand. Retrieved from https://www.nationthailand.com/opinion/30191853
  • Cleveland-innes, M., Gauvreau, S., Richardson, G., Mishra, S., & Ostashewski, N. (2019). Technology- enabled learning and the benefits and challenges of using the community of inquiry theoretical framework. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education, 34(1), 1–18.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method (4th ed.). California: SAGE Publications.
  • Cross, J. (2004). The future of eLearning. On the Horizon, 12(4), 151–157. https://doi. org/10.1108/10748120410564458
  • Demirel, E. (2016). Accreditation of Distance Learning. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4(10), 2457–2464. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2016.041026
  • Dowding, L. (2014). Pathways to a Better Future : A Review of Education for Migrant Children in Thailand - A Situational Analysis of Two Communities : Bangkok and Mae Sot. In Save the Children, World Education.
  • Dyrbye, L., Cumyn, A., Day, H., & Heflin, M. (2009). A qualitative study of physicians’ experiences with online learning in a master’s degree program: Benefits, challenges, and proposed solutions. Medical Teacher, 31(2), e40–e46. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590802366129
  • Eidson, L. A. K. (2009). Barriers to E-Learning job training: government employee experiences in an online wilderness management course. University of Montana.
  • Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T. (2010). Teacher technology change: How knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(3), 255–284. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2010.10782551
  • Gillett-Swan, J. (2017). The Challenges of Online Learning: Supporting and Engaging the Isolated Learner. Journal of Learning Design, 10(1), 20–30.
  • Global Education Monitoring Report. (2019). Migration, displacement and education: building bridges, not walls. In UNESCO. Paris. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
  • Gyamfi, G., & Sukseemuang, P. (2018). EFL learners’ satisfaction with the online learning program, Tell Me More. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 19(1), 183–202. https://doi.org/10.17718/ tojde.382798
  • Halkic, B., & Arnold, P. (2019). Refugees and online education: student perspectives on need and support in the context of (online) higher education. Learning, Media and Technology, 44(3), 345–364. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439884.2019.1640739
  • Harkins, B. (Ed.). (2019). Thailand migration report 2019. Bangkok: United Nations Thematic Working Group on Migration in Thailand. Retrieved from United Nations
  • Thematic Working Group on Migration in Thailand website: https://thailand.iom.int/Thailand-migration- report-2019-0
  • Help Without Frontiers. (2018). A step forward towards the accreditation of migrant education.
  • Hennebury, L. E. (2007). Transfer of training: E-learning in a global Fortune 500 company.
  • Holmes, B., & Gardner, J. (2006). e-Learning: Concepts and Practice. London: SAGE Publications.
  • International Labour Organization. (2017). TRIANGLE in ASEAN Quarterly Briefing Note: Thailand (January – March 2017).
  • Itthipongmaetee, C. (2018, August 2). Denied education, Thailand’s migrants and refugees go digital. Khao Sod English. Retrieved from https://www.khaosodenglish.com/featured/2018/08/02/denied- education-thailands-migrants-and-refugees-go-digital/
  • Jury, A., Sherer, E., David, E.-G., & Morganti, M. (2016). Learning Zone: facilitating language learning of adult migrants in the host country (A. Jury, Ed.).
  • Konayuma, G. (2015). A study of the enablers and challenges in the implementation of e-learning policies in technical education, vocational and entrepreneurship training colleges in Zambia (University of Cape Town). University of Cape Town. Retrieved from https://open.uct.ac.za/handle/11427/20063
  • Lee, R., & Kim, J. (2016). Community-Based Lifelong Learning and Adult Education: Situations of Community Learning Centres in 7 Asian Countries. In T. Krausz (Ed.), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Vol. 37).
  • Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
  • Loong, S. (2019). The neoliberal borderscape: Neoliberalism’s effects on the social worlds of migrants along the Thai-Myanmar border. Political Geography, 74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2019.102035
  • MacLaren, D. (2013). Tertiary Education For Refugees: ACU’s Program On The Thai-Burma Border. All Ireland Journal of Higher Education, 5(3), 1491–1494.
  • Makokha, G. L., & Mutisya, D. N. (2016). Status of E-Learning in Public Universities in Kenya. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(3). Retrieved from https://files.eric. ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102715.pdf
  • Mirmoghtadaie, Z., Ahmady, S., Kohan, N., & Rakhshani, Z. (2019). Explaining the Concept and Dimensions of Professional Functions in Online Learning System of Medical Sciences: A Qualitative Content Analysis. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 20(4), 61–72. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.640510
  • Mohebi, S., Parham, M., Sharifirad, G., & Gharlipour, Z. (2018). Social Support and Self - Care Behavior Study. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 7, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp. jehp_39_18
  • Nawarat, N. (2012). Thailand Education Policy for Migrant Children from Burma. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 956–961. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S1877042812024998
  • Nawarat, N. (2018). Education obstacles and family separation for children of migrant workers in Thailand: a case from Chiang Mai. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 38(4), 488–500. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2018.1530191
  • Nyagorme, P. (2014). E-learning adoption and utilization: a comparative study of Kenyatta University, Kenya and University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Kenyatta University.
  • Ossiannilsson, E., Williams, K., Camilleri, A. F., & Brown, M. (2015). Quality Models in Online and Open Education around the Globe: State of the Art and Recommendations. Oslo: International Council for Open and Distance Education - ICDE. Retrieved from http://elib.tcd.ie/login?url=http:// search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=ED557055&site=eds-live

IMPLEMENTATION OF ONLINE LEARNING PROGRAM IN MIGRANT COMMUNITY: TEACHERS’ CHALLENGES AND SUGGESTIONS

Year 2022, Volume 23, Issue 1, 43 - 59, 01.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1050351

Abstract

While several scholarship opportunities are available to Myanmar migrants and refugee students in Thailand, many students face difficulties finding affordable and convenient ways to prepare for university entry requirements. To provide lifelong learning opportunities for these marginalized young adults, flexible online learning programs can play a significant role. This exploratory qualitative case study presents the challenges hindering the implementation of an online learning program in Mae Sot, a Thai town on the border with Myanmar. The study also reports suggestions of the participants in dealing with challenges of online learning for migrant students. Nine administrators and teachers of migrant learning centers (MLCs) in Tak province participated in this study. Semi-structured interviews and document analysis were methods applied. Although the migrant community acknowledges the benefits and opportunities of online learning, MLCs have not yet fully implemented eLearning as a mode of education. There are particular challenges to effectively implement the online learning program in the migrant community. Six challenges are identified: accessibility, support services, attitude, networking, contents, and accreditation, along with solutions proposed by the participants. This study claims that lack of accessibility, attitude and networking in the community are the major barriers among the other challenges in the migrant community. In dealing with challenges, three main recommendations proposed by the participants were: to develop courses for the beginner level, to establish an online learning study center with suitable infrastructure and resources in the migrant community, and to have regular communications with the migrant education providers.

References

  • Adjabeng, S. (2017). The status and challenges of online distance education programs in post-secondary institutions in Ghana. University of North Texas.
  • Alienor Salmon, Thanwai, S. A., & Wongsaengpaiboon, H. (2013). In School, in Society: Early childhood development in Myanmar migrant communities in Thailand. In VSO Thailand. Bangkok: VSO Thailand.
  • Andersson, A. (2008). Seven major challenges for e-learning in developing countries: Case study eBIT, Sri Lanka. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 4(3), 45–62.
  • Arkorful, V., & Abaidoo, N. (2015). The role of e-learning, advantages and disadvantages of its adoption in higher education. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 12(1), 29–42. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijac.v3i2.1322
  • Arphattananon, T. (2012). Education that leads to nowhere: Thailand’s education policy for children of migrants. International Journal of Multicultural Education, 14(1), 1–15. Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Sorensen, C. K., & Walker, D. A. (2010). Introduction to Research in Education.
  • Atisabda, W., Kritpracha, C., Kaosaiyaporn, O., & Pattaro, A. (2015). Strategies for Distance Learning to Increase Academic Achievement of High School Students in Risk Area of the Southernmost of Thailand. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 2384–2389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. sbspro.2015.01.905
  • Attride-stirling, J. (2001). Thematic networks: an analytic tool for qualitative research Jennifer. Qualitative Research.
  • Australian Catholic University. (2009). ACU refugee program on the Thai-Burma border. Retrieved from https://www.acu.edu.au/giving-to-acu/what-you-can-support/acu-refugee-program-on-the-thai- burma-border
  • Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived Self-Efficacy in Cognitive Development and Functioning. Educational Psychologist, Vol. 28, pp. 117–148. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep2802_3
  • Budginaite, I., Siarova, H., Sternadel, D., Mackonyte, G., & Spurga, S. A. (2016). Policies and practices for more equality and inclusion in and through education: Evidence and policy guidance. Luxembourg: Office of the European Union.
  • Chamratrithirong, A., & Punpuing, S. (2017). The “ Regional Demographic Transition ” towards Peace and Prosperity : A Case Study of Thailand and its Neighboring Countries.
  • Chongkittavorn, K. (2012, October 7). Educating the next generation of Myanmarese children. The Nation Thailand. Retrieved from https://www.nationthailand.com/opinion/30191853
  • Cleveland-innes, M., Gauvreau, S., Richardson, G., Mishra, S., & Ostashewski, N. (2019). Technology- enabled learning and the benefits and challenges of using the community of inquiry theoretical framework. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education, 34(1), 1–18.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method (4th ed.). California: SAGE Publications.
  • Cross, J. (2004). The future of eLearning. On the Horizon, 12(4), 151–157. https://doi. org/10.1108/10748120410564458
  • Demirel, E. (2016). Accreditation of Distance Learning. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4(10), 2457–2464. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2016.041026
  • Dowding, L. (2014). Pathways to a Better Future : A Review of Education for Migrant Children in Thailand - A Situational Analysis of Two Communities : Bangkok and Mae Sot. In Save the Children, World Education.
  • Dyrbye, L., Cumyn, A., Day, H., & Heflin, M. (2009). A qualitative study of physicians’ experiences with online learning in a master’s degree program: Benefits, challenges, and proposed solutions. Medical Teacher, 31(2), e40–e46. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590802366129
  • Eidson, L. A. K. (2009). Barriers to E-Learning job training: government employee experiences in an online wilderness management course. University of Montana.
  • Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T. (2010). Teacher technology change: How knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(3), 255–284. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2010.10782551
  • Gillett-Swan, J. (2017). The Challenges of Online Learning: Supporting and Engaging the Isolated Learner. Journal of Learning Design, 10(1), 20–30.
  • Global Education Monitoring Report. (2019). Migration, displacement and education: building bridges, not walls. In UNESCO. Paris. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
  • Gyamfi, G., & Sukseemuang, P. (2018). EFL learners’ satisfaction with the online learning program, Tell Me More. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 19(1), 183–202. https://doi.org/10.17718/ tojde.382798
  • Halkic, B., & Arnold, P. (2019). Refugees and online education: student perspectives on need and support in the context of (online) higher education. Learning, Media and Technology, 44(3), 345–364. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439884.2019.1640739
  • Harkins, B. (Ed.). (2019). Thailand migration report 2019. Bangkok: United Nations Thematic Working Group on Migration in Thailand. Retrieved from United Nations
  • Thematic Working Group on Migration in Thailand website: https://thailand.iom.int/Thailand-migration- report-2019-0
  • Help Without Frontiers. (2018). A step forward towards the accreditation of migrant education.
  • Hennebury, L. E. (2007). Transfer of training: E-learning in a global Fortune 500 company.
  • Holmes, B., & Gardner, J. (2006). e-Learning: Concepts and Practice. London: SAGE Publications.
  • International Labour Organization. (2017). TRIANGLE in ASEAN Quarterly Briefing Note: Thailand (January – March 2017).
  • Itthipongmaetee, C. (2018, August 2). Denied education, Thailand’s migrants and refugees go digital. Khao Sod English. Retrieved from https://www.khaosodenglish.com/featured/2018/08/02/denied- education-thailands-migrants-and-refugees-go-digital/
  • Jury, A., Sherer, E., David, E.-G., & Morganti, M. (2016). Learning Zone: facilitating language learning of adult migrants in the host country (A. Jury, Ed.).
  • Konayuma, G. (2015). A study of the enablers and challenges in the implementation of e-learning policies in technical education, vocational and entrepreneurship training colleges in Zambia (University of Cape Town). University of Cape Town. Retrieved from https://open.uct.ac.za/handle/11427/20063
  • Lee, R., & Kim, J. (2016). Community-Based Lifelong Learning and Adult Education: Situations of Community Learning Centres in 7 Asian Countries. In T. Krausz (Ed.), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Vol. 37).
  • Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
  • Loong, S. (2019). The neoliberal borderscape: Neoliberalism’s effects on the social worlds of migrants along the Thai-Myanmar border. Political Geography, 74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2019.102035
  • MacLaren, D. (2013). Tertiary Education For Refugees: ACU’s Program On The Thai-Burma Border. All Ireland Journal of Higher Education, 5(3), 1491–1494.
  • Makokha, G. L., & Mutisya, D. N. (2016). Status of E-Learning in Public Universities in Kenya. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(3). Retrieved from https://files.eric. ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102715.pdf
  • Mirmoghtadaie, Z., Ahmady, S., Kohan, N., & Rakhshani, Z. (2019). Explaining the Concept and Dimensions of Professional Functions in Online Learning System of Medical Sciences: A Qualitative Content Analysis. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 20(4), 61–72. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.640510
  • Mohebi, S., Parham, M., Sharifirad, G., & Gharlipour, Z. (2018). Social Support and Self - Care Behavior Study. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 7, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp. jehp_39_18
  • Nawarat, N. (2012). Thailand Education Policy for Migrant Children from Burma. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 956–961. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S1877042812024998
  • Nawarat, N. (2018). Education obstacles and family separation for children of migrant workers in Thailand: a case from Chiang Mai. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 38(4), 488–500. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2018.1530191
  • Nyagorme, P. (2014). E-learning adoption and utilization: a comparative study of Kenyatta University, Kenya and University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Kenyatta University.
  • Ossiannilsson, E., Williams, K., Camilleri, A. F., & Brown, M. (2015). Quality Models in Online and Open Education around the Globe: State of the Art and Recommendations. Oslo: International Council for Open and Distance Education - ICDE. Retrieved from http://elib.tcd.ie/login?url=http:// search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=ED557055&site=eds-live

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Sandar LWIN (Primary Author)
Prince of Songkla University
0000-0002-2951-3569
Thailand


Ekkarin SUNGTONG This is me
Prince of Songkla University
0000-0002-0067-9119
Thailand


Virintorn AUKSORNNIT This is me
Prince of Songkla University
0000-0001-7110-709X
Thailand

Publication Date January 1, 2022
Application Date November 8, 2020
Acceptance Date
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 23, Issue 1

Cite

APA Lwın, S. , Sungtong, E. & Auksornnıt, V. (2022). IMPLEMENTATION OF ONLINE LEARNING PROGRAM IN MIGRANT COMMUNITY: TEACHERS’ CHALLENGES AND SUGGESTIONS . Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 23 (1) , 43-59 . DOI: 10.17718/tojde.1050351