Research Article
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Year 2022, Volume 23, Issue 3, 1 - 17, 01.07.2022

Abstract

References

  • Alonso-Mencia, M.E., Alario-Hoyos, C., Maldonado-Mahauad, J., Estevez-Ayres, I., Perez-Sanagustin, M. & Kloos, C.D. (2020). Self-regulated learning in MOOCs: lessons learned from a literature review. Educational Review, 72(3), 319-345, DOI: 10.1080/00131911.2019.1566208
  • Aria, M., & Cuccurullo, C. (2017). Bibliometrix: An R-tool for comprehensive science mapping analysis. Journal of Informetrics, 11(4), 959–975. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2017.08.007.
  • Babori, A., Zaid, A., & Fihri Fassi, H. (2019). Research on MOOCs in Major Referred Journals: The Role and Place of Content. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 20(3). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v20i4.4385
  • Babori, A. (2020). Trends in MOOCs Research: Analysis of Educational Technology Journals. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(17), 47-68.
  • Bhattacharya S, Singh A, Hossain MM (2020). Epedemiology, epidemiologists and coronavirus disease (COVID-19)- A perspective. J Public Health Prim Care, 1(43),4.
  • Bergdahl, N., Nouri, J. (2020). Covid-19 and Crisis-Prompted Distance Education in Sweden. Tech Know Learn. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-020-09470-6
  • Bozkurt, Aras (2020). A global outlook to the interruption of education due to COVID-19 pandemic: Navigating in a time of uncertainty and crisis. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 1-126.
  • Bozkurt, A., Akgun-Ozbek, E., & Zawacki-Richter, O. (2017). Trends and Patterns in Massive Open Online Courses: Review and Content Analysis of Research on MOOCs (2008-2015). The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(5). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v18i5.3080
  • Breslow, L., Pritchard, D.E., DeBoer, J., Stump, G. S., Ho, A.D., & Seaton, D.T. (2013). Studying learning in the worldwide classroom. Research into edX’s first MOOC. Research & Practice in Assessment, 8, 13–25.
  • Broadus, R. N. (1987). Toward a definition of “bibliometrics”. Scientometrics, 12(5–6), 373–379. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02016680.
  • Bylieva, D., Bekirogullari, Z., Lobatyuk, V., & Nam, T. (2020). Analysis of the consequences of the transition to online learning on the example of MOOC philosophy during the covid-19 pandemic. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 8(4), 1083-1093.
  • Cha H., So HJ. (2020). Integration of Formal, Non-formal and Informal Learning Through MOOCs. In: Burgos D. (eds) Radical Solutions and Open Science. Lecture Notes in Educational Technology. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-4276-3_9
  • Chaw L.Y., Tang C.M. (2019). Driving high inclination to complete massive open online courses (MOOCs): Motivation and engagement factors for learners. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 17(2), 118-130.
  • Cormier, D., & Siemens, G. (2010). Through the open door: open courses as research, learning, and engagement. EDUCAUSE Review, 45(4) 30-39. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/through-open-door-open-courses-researchlearning-and-engagement.
  • Duggal, S. & Dahiya, A. (2020). An Investigation into Research Trends of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Systems, 13 (2), 17-28.
  • Gaševic, D., Kovanovi, V., Joksimovi, S., & Siemens, G. (2014). Where is research on massive open online courses headed? A data analysis of the MOOC Research Initiative. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(5), 134-176.
  • Heersmink, R., van den Hoven, J., van Eck, N. J., & van den Berg, J. (2011). Bibliometric mapping of computer and information ethics. Ethics and Information Technology, 13(3), 241. doi:10.1007/s10676-011-9273-7
  • Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. EDUCAUSE Review. https://er. educause. edu/articles/2020/3/the-difference-between-emergency-remote-teachingand-online-learning.
  • Huang, R., Liu, D., Tlili, A., Knyazeva, S., Chang, T. W., Zhang, X., ... & Holotescu, C. (2020a). Guidance on open educational practices during school closures: Utilizing OER under COVID-19 pandemic in line with UNESCO OER recommendation. Beijing: Smart Learning Institute of Beijing Normal University.
  • Huang, R., Tlili, A., Chang, TW. et al. (2020b). Disrupted classes, undisrupted learning during COVID-19 outbreak in China: application of open educational practices and resources. Smart Learning Environments, 7, 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-020-00125-8
  • Littlejohn, A., Hood, N., Milligan, C., & Mustain, P. (2016). Learning in MOOCs: Motivations and Self-Regulated Learning in MOOCs. Internet and Higher Education, 29, 40-48.
  • Liyanagunawardena, T.R., Adams, A., & Williams, S.A. (2013). MOOCs: A systematic study of the pub- lished literature 2008-2012. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(3), 202-227.
  • Lochlainn, C.M., Mhichil, M.N.G., Beirne, E., & Brown, M. (2020). The soul behind the screen: understanding cultural enrichment as a motivation of informal MOOC learning. Distance Education, 41(2), 201-215, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2020.1757408
  • Marti-Parreno, J., Mendez-Ibanez, E., & Alonso-Arroyo, A. (2016). The use of gamification in education: A bibliometric and text mining analysis. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32(6), 663-676. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12161
  • Maya-Jariego, I., Holgado, D., Gonzalez-Tinoco, E., Castano-Munoz, J., & Punie, Y. (2019). Typology of motivation and learning intentions of users in MOOCs: the MOOCKNOWLEDGE study. Education Technology Research & Development, 68, 203–224.
  • Merzdorf, H.E., & Douglas, K.A. (2020). Surveying Motivation and Learning Outcomes of Advanced Learners in Online Engineering Graduate MOOCs. 2020 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), Uppsala, 1-4, doi: 10.1109/FIE44824.2020.9273965.
  • Paton, R.M, Fluck, A.E., & Scanlan, J.D. (2018). Engagement and retention in VET MOOCs and online courses: A systematic review of literature from 2013 to 2017. Computers & Education, 125, 191-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.06.013.
  • Raffaghelli, J., Cucchiara, S., & Persico, D. (2015). Methodological approaches in MOOC research: Retracing the myth of Proteus. British Journal of Educational Technologies, 46(3), 488-509.
  • Razo, D. (2020, September 17). The Rebirth of Online Courses in the COVID-19 Era. Observatory of Education Innovation. Retrieved from https://observatory.tec.mx/edu-news/boom-of-online-courses-covid-era
  • Reparaz, C., Aznarez-Sanado, M., & Mendoza, G. (2020). Self-regulation of learning and MOOC retention. Computer and Human Behavior, 111, 106423.
  • Setia, S., Tay, J. C., Chia, Y. C., & Subramaniam, K. (2019). Massive open online courses (MOOCs) for continuing medical education - why and how?. Advances in medical education and practice, 10, 805–812. https://doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S219104
  • Shah, D. (2020, Dec 14th). The Second Year of the MOOC: A Review of MOOC Stats and Trends in 2020. Retrieved from https://www.classcentral.com/report/the-second-year-of-the-mooc/.
  • Shah, D. (2020, September 21). The 200 Best Free Online Courses of All Time (Based on the Data - 2020 Edition). Retrieved from: https://www.freecodecamp.org/news/best-online-courses/
  • Stracke, C. M., Downes, S., Conole, G., Burgos, D., & Nascimbeni, F. (2019). Are MOOCs open educational resources?: A literature review on history, definitions and typologies of OER and MOOCs. Open Praxis, 11(4), 331.
  • UNICEF (2020). Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/coronavirus/keeping-worlds-children-learning-through-covid-19
  • UNESCO (2020). Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Report. Retrieved from https://en.unesco.org/news/global-education-monitoring-gem-report-2020
  • Vogel, R., & Masal, D. (2015). Public leadership: A review of the literature and framework for future research. Public Management Review, 17(8), 1165–1189.
  • Xing, W. (2019). Exploring the influences of MOOC design features on student performance and persistence. Distance Education, 40(3), 1-16.
  • Yuan, L., Powell, S., & Olivier, B. (2014). Beyond MOOCs: sustainable online learning in institutions. A white paper for the Centre for Educational Technology, Interoperability and Standards. Retrieved from http://publications.cetis.ac.uk/2014/898
  • Veletsianos, G., & Shepherdson, P. (2016). A Systematic Analysis and Synthesis of the Empirical MOOC Literature Published in 2013–2015. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(2). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v17i2.2448
  • Van Eck, N. J., & Waltman, L. (2010). Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping. Scientometrics, 84(2), 523-538.
  • Verma, S., & Gustafsson, A. (2020). Investigating the emerging COVID-19 research trends in the field of business and management: A bibliometric analysis approach. Journal of Business Research, 118, 253-261.
  • Yilmaz, R. M., Topu, F. B., & Takkac Tulgar, A. (2019). An examination of the studies on foreign language teaching in pre-school education: a bibliometric mapping analysis. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-24.
  • Zancanaro, A., Erpen, J. G., Santos, J. L. S., Stell, A. V., & Todesco, J. L. (2013). Mapeamento da producão cientifica sobre memoria organizacional e ontologias. Perspectivas em Ciência da Informacão, 18(1), 43-65.
  • Zhang, X., Tlili, A., Huang, R., Chang, T., Burgos, D., Yang, J., & Zhang, J. (2020). A Case Study of Applying Open Educational Practices in Higher Education during COVID-19: Impacts on Learning Motivation and Perceptions. Sustainability, 12(21), 9129.
  • Zhang, M., Yin, S., Luo, M., & Yan, W. (2017). Learner control, user characteristics, platform difference, and their role in adoption intention for MOOC learning in China. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(1). https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.2722
  • Zhu, M., Sari, A.R. & Lee, M.M. (2020). A comprehensive systematic review of MOOC research: Research techniques, topics, and trends from 2009 to 2019. Educational Technology Research & Development, 68, 1685–1710. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-020-09798-x

REFLECTIONS ON MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSES (MOOCS) DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A BIBLIOMETRIC MAPPING ANALYSIS

Year 2022, Volume 23, Issue 3, 1 - 17, 01.07.2022

Abstract

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been around for some time, but several studies highlighted different issues associated with them, including quality. The COVID-19 pandemic catalyzed their second blooming, where MOOCs have seen a surge in enrollments since March 2020. This study intended to explore how this enrollment reflected on the research studies included in scientific publications, indexed by Web of Science. Specifically, the bibliometric mapping analyses of 108 studies have revealed an ongoing trend in the countries contributing to the MOOCs research, namely USA, China, UK and Spain. Additionally, MOOCs research coming from US, UK and other western countries was decreasing before the pandemic and showed a continuous dramatic reduction also during the COVID-19 pandemic. Growing attention in MOOCs research among less represented countries was also observed. Besides, most of the topics focused on by MOOCs research during the pandemic were mainly related to education and engineering.

References

  • Alonso-Mencia, M.E., Alario-Hoyos, C., Maldonado-Mahauad, J., Estevez-Ayres, I., Perez-Sanagustin, M. & Kloos, C.D. (2020). Self-regulated learning in MOOCs: lessons learned from a literature review. Educational Review, 72(3), 319-345, DOI: 10.1080/00131911.2019.1566208
  • Aria, M., & Cuccurullo, C. (2017). Bibliometrix: An R-tool for comprehensive science mapping analysis. Journal of Informetrics, 11(4), 959–975. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2017.08.007.
  • Babori, A., Zaid, A., & Fihri Fassi, H. (2019). Research on MOOCs in Major Referred Journals: The Role and Place of Content. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 20(3). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v20i4.4385
  • Babori, A. (2020). Trends in MOOCs Research: Analysis of Educational Technology Journals. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(17), 47-68.
  • Bhattacharya S, Singh A, Hossain MM (2020). Epedemiology, epidemiologists and coronavirus disease (COVID-19)- A perspective. J Public Health Prim Care, 1(43),4.
  • Bergdahl, N., Nouri, J. (2020). Covid-19 and Crisis-Prompted Distance Education in Sweden. Tech Know Learn. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-020-09470-6
  • Bozkurt, Aras (2020). A global outlook to the interruption of education due to COVID-19 pandemic: Navigating in a time of uncertainty and crisis. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 1-126.
  • Bozkurt, A., Akgun-Ozbek, E., & Zawacki-Richter, O. (2017). Trends and Patterns in Massive Open Online Courses: Review and Content Analysis of Research on MOOCs (2008-2015). The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(5). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v18i5.3080
  • Breslow, L., Pritchard, D.E., DeBoer, J., Stump, G. S., Ho, A.D., & Seaton, D.T. (2013). Studying learning in the worldwide classroom. Research into edX’s first MOOC. Research & Practice in Assessment, 8, 13–25.
  • Broadus, R. N. (1987). Toward a definition of “bibliometrics”. Scientometrics, 12(5–6), 373–379. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02016680.
  • Bylieva, D., Bekirogullari, Z., Lobatyuk, V., & Nam, T. (2020). Analysis of the consequences of the transition to online learning on the example of MOOC philosophy during the covid-19 pandemic. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 8(4), 1083-1093.
  • Cha H., So HJ. (2020). Integration of Formal, Non-formal and Informal Learning Through MOOCs. In: Burgos D. (eds) Radical Solutions and Open Science. Lecture Notes in Educational Technology. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-4276-3_9
  • Chaw L.Y., Tang C.M. (2019). Driving high inclination to complete massive open online courses (MOOCs): Motivation and engagement factors for learners. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 17(2), 118-130.
  • Cormier, D., & Siemens, G. (2010). Through the open door: open courses as research, learning, and engagement. EDUCAUSE Review, 45(4) 30-39. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/through-open-door-open-courses-researchlearning-and-engagement.
  • Duggal, S. & Dahiya, A. (2020). An Investigation into Research Trends of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Systems, 13 (2), 17-28.
  • Gaševic, D., Kovanovi, V., Joksimovi, S., & Siemens, G. (2014). Where is research on massive open online courses headed? A data analysis of the MOOC Research Initiative. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(5), 134-176.
  • Heersmink, R., van den Hoven, J., van Eck, N. J., & van den Berg, J. (2011). Bibliometric mapping of computer and information ethics. Ethics and Information Technology, 13(3), 241. doi:10.1007/s10676-011-9273-7
  • Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. EDUCAUSE Review. https://er. educause. edu/articles/2020/3/the-difference-between-emergency-remote-teachingand-online-learning.
  • Huang, R., Liu, D., Tlili, A., Knyazeva, S., Chang, T. W., Zhang, X., ... & Holotescu, C. (2020a). Guidance on open educational practices during school closures: Utilizing OER under COVID-19 pandemic in line with UNESCO OER recommendation. Beijing: Smart Learning Institute of Beijing Normal University.
  • Huang, R., Tlili, A., Chang, TW. et al. (2020b). Disrupted classes, undisrupted learning during COVID-19 outbreak in China: application of open educational practices and resources. Smart Learning Environments, 7, 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-020-00125-8
  • Littlejohn, A., Hood, N., Milligan, C., & Mustain, P. (2016). Learning in MOOCs: Motivations and Self-Regulated Learning in MOOCs. Internet and Higher Education, 29, 40-48.
  • Liyanagunawardena, T.R., Adams, A., & Williams, S.A. (2013). MOOCs: A systematic study of the pub- lished literature 2008-2012. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(3), 202-227.
  • Lochlainn, C.M., Mhichil, M.N.G., Beirne, E., & Brown, M. (2020). The soul behind the screen: understanding cultural enrichment as a motivation of informal MOOC learning. Distance Education, 41(2), 201-215, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2020.1757408
  • Marti-Parreno, J., Mendez-Ibanez, E., & Alonso-Arroyo, A. (2016). The use of gamification in education: A bibliometric and text mining analysis. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32(6), 663-676. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12161
  • Maya-Jariego, I., Holgado, D., Gonzalez-Tinoco, E., Castano-Munoz, J., & Punie, Y. (2019). Typology of motivation and learning intentions of users in MOOCs: the MOOCKNOWLEDGE study. Education Technology Research & Development, 68, 203–224.
  • Merzdorf, H.E., & Douglas, K.A. (2020). Surveying Motivation and Learning Outcomes of Advanced Learners in Online Engineering Graduate MOOCs. 2020 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), Uppsala, 1-4, doi: 10.1109/FIE44824.2020.9273965.
  • Paton, R.M, Fluck, A.E., & Scanlan, J.D. (2018). Engagement and retention in VET MOOCs and online courses: A systematic review of literature from 2013 to 2017. Computers & Education, 125, 191-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.06.013.
  • Raffaghelli, J., Cucchiara, S., & Persico, D. (2015). Methodological approaches in MOOC research: Retracing the myth of Proteus. British Journal of Educational Technologies, 46(3), 488-509.
  • Razo, D. (2020, September 17). The Rebirth of Online Courses in the COVID-19 Era. Observatory of Education Innovation. Retrieved from https://observatory.tec.mx/edu-news/boom-of-online-courses-covid-era
  • Reparaz, C., Aznarez-Sanado, M., & Mendoza, G. (2020). Self-regulation of learning and MOOC retention. Computer and Human Behavior, 111, 106423.
  • Setia, S., Tay, J. C., Chia, Y. C., & Subramaniam, K. (2019). Massive open online courses (MOOCs) for continuing medical education - why and how?. Advances in medical education and practice, 10, 805–812. https://doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S219104
  • Shah, D. (2020, Dec 14th). The Second Year of the MOOC: A Review of MOOC Stats and Trends in 2020. Retrieved from https://www.classcentral.com/report/the-second-year-of-the-mooc/.
  • Shah, D. (2020, September 21). The 200 Best Free Online Courses of All Time (Based on the Data - 2020 Edition). Retrieved from: https://www.freecodecamp.org/news/best-online-courses/
  • Stracke, C. M., Downes, S., Conole, G., Burgos, D., & Nascimbeni, F. (2019). Are MOOCs open educational resources?: A literature review on history, definitions and typologies of OER and MOOCs. Open Praxis, 11(4), 331.
  • UNICEF (2020). Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/coronavirus/keeping-worlds-children-learning-through-covid-19
  • UNESCO (2020). Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Report. Retrieved from https://en.unesco.org/news/global-education-monitoring-gem-report-2020
  • Vogel, R., & Masal, D. (2015). Public leadership: A review of the literature and framework for future research. Public Management Review, 17(8), 1165–1189.
  • Xing, W. (2019). Exploring the influences of MOOC design features on student performance and persistence. Distance Education, 40(3), 1-16.
  • Yuan, L., Powell, S., & Olivier, B. (2014). Beyond MOOCs: sustainable online learning in institutions. A white paper for the Centre for Educational Technology, Interoperability and Standards. Retrieved from http://publications.cetis.ac.uk/2014/898
  • Veletsianos, G., & Shepherdson, P. (2016). A Systematic Analysis and Synthesis of the Empirical MOOC Literature Published in 2013–2015. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(2). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v17i2.2448
  • Van Eck, N. J., & Waltman, L. (2010). Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping. Scientometrics, 84(2), 523-538.
  • Verma, S., & Gustafsson, A. (2020). Investigating the emerging COVID-19 research trends in the field of business and management: A bibliometric analysis approach. Journal of Business Research, 118, 253-261.
  • Yilmaz, R. M., Topu, F. B., & Takkac Tulgar, A. (2019). An examination of the studies on foreign language teaching in pre-school education: a bibliometric mapping analysis. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-24.
  • Zancanaro, A., Erpen, J. G., Santos, J. L. S., Stell, A. V., & Todesco, J. L. (2013). Mapeamento da producão cientifica sobre memoria organizacional e ontologias. Perspectivas em Ciência da Informacão, 18(1), 43-65.
  • Zhang, X., Tlili, A., Huang, R., Chang, T., Burgos, D., Yang, J., & Zhang, J. (2020). A Case Study of Applying Open Educational Practices in Higher Education during COVID-19: Impacts on Learning Motivation and Perceptions. Sustainability, 12(21), 9129.
  • Zhang, M., Yin, S., Luo, M., & Yan, W. (2017). Learner control, user characteristics, platform difference, and their role in adoption intention for MOOC learning in China. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(1). https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.2722
  • Zhu, M., Sari, A.R. & Lee, M.M. (2020). A comprehensive systematic review of MOOC research: Research techniques, topics, and trends from 2009 to 2019. Educational Technology Research & Development, 68, 1685–1710. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-020-09798-x

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Ahmed TLILI This is me (Primary Author)
Smart Learning Institute of Beijing Normal University
0000-0003-1449-7751
China


Fahriye ALTINAY This is me
Societal Research and Development Center, Faculty of Education
0000-0002-3861-6447
Türkiye


Zehra ALTINAY This is me
Societal Research and Development Center, Faculty of Education
0000-0002-6786-6787
Türkiye


Cengiz Hakan AYDIN This is me
ANADOLU UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-9186-1791
Türkiye


Ronghuai HUANG This is me
Smart Learning Institute of Beijing Normal University
0000-0003-4651-5248
China


Ramesh SHARMA This is me
School of Global Affairs
0000-0002-1371-1157
India

Publication Date July 1, 2022
Application Date October 7, 2021
Acceptance Date
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 23, Issue 3

Cite

APA Tlılı, A. , Altınay, F. , Altınay, Z. , Aydın, C. H. , Huang, R. & Sharma, R. (2022). REFLECTIONS ON MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSES (MOOCS) DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A BIBLIOMETRIC MAPPING ANALYSIS . Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 23 (3) , 1-17 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tojde/issue/70682/1137107