Research Article
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TOO MUCH SCREEN? AN EXPLORATORY EXAMINATION OF DIGITAL EXHAUSTION OF EDUCATORS IN TURKIYE

Year 2023, Volume 24, Issue 1, 54 - 73, 01.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1071640

Abstract

Screen time is now widely available and due to the increasing use of these technologies in school and home, it is important to consider teacher views about their use and possible results. The purpose of this study is to analyze the digital exhaustion of educators in Turkey and its proposed antecedents. 534 educators participated in the study. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive analysis, regression analysis, and thematic content analysis. Key findings were that educators had digital exhaustion and they offered some practical solutions.

References

  • Ainley, J. and R. Carstens (2018), "Teaching and Learning International Questionnaire (TALIS) 2018 Conceptual Framework", OECD Education Working Papers, No. 187, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/799337c2-en.
  • Ballet, K., Kelchtermans, G. (2009). Struggling with workload: Primary teachers’ experience of intensification. Teaching and Teacher Education. 25(8): 1150-1157. 10.1016/j.tate.2009.02.012
  • Bailenson, J. N. (2021). Nonverbal Overload: A Theoretical Argument for the Causes of Zoom Fatigue. Technology, Mind, and Behavior, 1(3). doi.org/10.1037/tmb0000030.
  • Bellibas, M. S., & Gumus, E. (2016). Teachers’ perceptions of the quantity and quality of professional development activities in Turkey. Cogent Education, 3(1), 1172950.
  • Besser, A., Flett, G. L., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2020). Adaptability to a sudden transition to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: Understanding the challenges for students. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/stl0000198
  • Boniel-Nissim, M., Lenzi, M., Zsiros, E., de Matos, M., Gommans, R., & Harel-Fisch, Y. et al. (2015). International trends in electronic media communication among 11- to 15-year-olds in 30 countries from 2002 to 2010: association with ease of communication with friends of the opposite sex. The European Journal of Public Health, 25, 41-45. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckv025
  • Bozkurt, A., & Sharma, R. C. (2020). Emergency remote teaching in a time of global crisis due to CoronaVirus pandemic. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), i-vi. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3778083
  • Chawla, A. (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19) – ‘Zoom’ application boon or bane. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3606716
  • Daniel, J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 49(1), 91-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09464-3
  • Daumiller, M., & Dresel, M. (2020). Researchers’ achievement goals: Prevalence, structure, and associations with job burnout/engagement and professional learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61, 101843. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101843
  • Epstein, H. (2020). Virtual Meeting Fatigue. Journal Of Hospital Librarianship, 20(4), 356-360. doi: 10.1080/15323269.2020.1819758
  • Fauville, G., Luo, M., Queiroz, A. C. M., Bailenson, J. N. & Hancock, J. T. (2021). Zoom Exhaustion & Fatigue Scale. SSRN. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3786329
  • Ferran, C., & Watts, S. (2008). Videoconferencing in the field: A heuristic processing model. Management Science, 54(9), 1565-1578. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1080.0879
  • Ghekiere, A., Van Cauwenberg, J., Vandendriessche, A., Inchley, J., Gaspar de Matos, M., & Borraccino, A. et al. (2018). Trends in sleeping difficulties among European adolescents: Are these associated with physical inactivity and excessive screen time?. International Journal Of Public Health, 64(4), 487-498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-018-1188-1
  • Gordon, S.P., Solis, R.D. (2018). Teacher Leaders of Collaborative Action Research: Challenges and Rewards. Inquiry in Education. 10(2): Article 3. https://digitalcommons.nl.edu/ie/vol10/iss2/3
  • Hair, J. F., Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Howe, E. R., & Watson, G. C. (2021, May). Finding Our Way Through a Pandemic: Teaching in Alternate Modes of Delivery. In Frontiers in Education (Vol. 6, p. 187). from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2021.661513/full
  • Huang, Q. (2019). Comparing teacher’s roles of F2f learning and online learning in a blended English course. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 32(3), 190–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2018.1540434
  • Iqbal, M. (2020). Zoom revenue and usage statistics. Business of apps. Retrieved February 12, 2021 from: https://www.businessofapps.com/data/zoom-statistics
  • Irish, L., Kline, C., Rothenberger, S., Krafty, R., Buysse, D., & Kravitz, H. et al. (2013). A 24-hour Approach to the Study of Health Behaviors: Temporal Relationships Between Waking Health Behaviors and Sleep. Annals Of Behavioral Medicine, 47(2), 189-197. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-013-9533-3
  • Kara, G., Dilek, M., & Liman-Kaban, A (2022). Teachers Practices towards Providing Interaction during Online Education in K-8 Settings. Transferring Language Learning and Teaching from Face-to-Face to Online Settings. IGI Global, Editor: Giannikas,Christina, ISBN:9781799887171. Karchmer-Klein, R., & Pytash, K. E. (Eds). (2020). Effective practices in online teacher preparation for literacy educators. IGI Global.
  • Kauffman, H. (2015). A review of predictive factors of student success in and satisfaction with online learn- ing. Research in Learning Technology, 23(1063519), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3402/rlt.v23.26507.
  • Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York London: The Guilford Press.
  • Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28(4), 563–575. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x
  • Li, C., & Lalani, F. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic has changed education forever. This is how. World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/04/coronavirus-education-global-covid19-online-digital-learning/
  • Liebermann, A., Miller, L. (2005). Teachers as leaders. The Educational Forum. 69: 151-162. DOI: 10.1080/00131720508984679
  • Liman Kaban, A. (2021). The influence of online CoI presences on learner satisfaction in higher education. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 16(1), 230-246. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5021228
  • Lissak G. (2018). Adverse physiological and psychological effects of screen time on children and adolescents: literature review and case study. Environ Res;164:149-157.
  • Lowenthal, P., Borup, J., West, R., & Archambault, L. (2020). Thinking beyond Zoom: Using asynchronous video to maintain connection and engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(2), 383–391. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/216192/
  • Nuutinen, T., Ray C, Roos, E. (2013). Do computer use, TV viewing, and the presence of the media in the bedroom predict school-aged children’s sleep habits in a longitudinal study? BMC Public Health 13:684. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-684
  • OECD (2020). Education at a Glance 2020: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  • OECD (2020). Turkey: School education during COVID-19: Were teachers and students ready? Retrieved March 9, 2021, from OECD: www.oecd.org/education/Turkey-coronaviruseducation-country-note.pdf
  • Peper, E. (2021). Resolve eyestrain and screen fatigue. Well Being Journal, 30, 24–28. Riedl, R. (2021). On the stress potential of videoconferencing: definition and root causes of Zoom fatigue. Electronic Markets. doi: 10.1007/s12525-021-00501-3
  • Sabagh, Z., Hall, N., & Saroyan, A. (2018). Antecedents, correlates and consequences of faculty burnout. Educational Research, 60(2), 131-156. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2018.1461573
  • Schleicher, A. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on education: Insights from Education at a Glance 2020, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  • Spilt, J. L., Koomen, H. M., & Thijs, J. T. (2011). Teacher wellbeing: The importance of teacher-student relationships. Educational psychology review, 23(4), 457-477.
  • Stevens, J. P. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (4th ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Strasburger, V.C., & Hogan, M.J., (2013). Children, adolescents, and the media. Pediatrics. 132:958-961.
  • Stone, K. (2021). The State of Video Conferencing in 2020 [50 Statistics] | GetVoIP. Getvoip.com. Retrieved 20 May 2021, from https://getvoip.com/blog/2020/07/07/video-conferencing-stats/.
  • Storck, J., and Sproull, L. (1995). Through a glass darkly: What do people learn in videoconferences? Human Communication Research, 22(2), 197-219. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1995.tb00366.x
  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.), Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Themelis, C., & Sime, J. A. (2020). From Video-Conferencing to Holoportation and Haptics: How Emerging Technologies Can Enhance Presence in Online Education?. In Emerging technologies and pedagogies in the curriculum (pp. 261-276). Springer.
  • UNICEF (2020). UNICEF and Microsoft launch a global learning platform to help address the COVID-19 education crisis. UNICEF.
  • United Nations (2020, August). Education during COVID-19 and beyond. Retrieved March 9, 2021, from United Nations: https://kyrgyzstan.un.org/index.php/en/86264-educationduring-covid-19-and-beyond
  • UNESCO (2020). COVID-19 Educational Disruption and Response. https://en.unesco.org/covid19 /educationresponse
  • Van Droogenbroeck, F., Spruyt, B., Vanroelen, Ch. (2014). Burnout among senior teachers: Investigating the role of workload and interpersonal relationships at work. Teaching and Teacher Education. 43: 99-109.
  • Wakoli, C. (2015). Effects of Workload on the Teachers’ Performance in Kanduyi Division, Bungoma District. International Journal of Science and Research. 5(10): 1215-1219. DOI: 10.21275/SUB154454
  • Wiederhold, B. (2020). Connecting Through Technology During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: Avoiding “Zoom Fatigue”. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, And Social Networking, 23(7), 437-438. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2020.29188.bkw
  • Williams, N. (2021). Working through COVID-19: ‘Zoom’ gloom and ‘Zoom’ fatigue. Occupational Medicine, 71(3), 164-164. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqab041
  • World Health Organization (2021). Burn-out an "occupational phenomenon": International Classification of Diseases. Retrieved 20 May 2021, from https://www.who.int/news/item/28-05-2019-burn-out-an-occupational-phenomenon-international-classification-of-diseases.
  • Zydziunaite, V., Kontrimiene, S., Ponomarenko, T., & Kaminskiene, L. (2020). Challenges in Teacher Leadership: Workload, Time Allocation, and Self-Esteem. European Journal Of Contemporary Education, 9(4). https://doi.org/10.13187/ejced.2020.4.948

Year 2023, Volume 24, Issue 1, 54 - 73, 01.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1071640

Abstract

References

  • Ainley, J. and R. Carstens (2018), "Teaching and Learning International Questionnaire (TALIS) 2018 Conceptual Framework", OECD Education Working Papers, No. 187, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/799337c2-en.
  • Ballet, K., Kelchtermans, G. (2009). Struggling with workload: Primary teachers’ experience of intensification. Teaching and Teacher Education. 25(8): 1150-1157. 10.1016/j.tate.2009.02.012
  • Bailenson, J. N. (2021). Nonverbal Overload: A Theoretical Argument for the Causes of Zoom Fatigue. Technology, Mind, and Behavior, 1(3). doi.org/10.1037/tmb0000030.
  • Bellibas, M. S., & Gumus, E. (2016). Teachers’ perceptions of the quantity and quality of professional development activities in Turkey. Cogent Education, 3(1), 1172950.
  • Besser, A., Flett, G. L., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2020). Adaptability to a sudden transition to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: Understanding the challenges for students. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/stl0000198
  • Boniel-Nissim, M., Lenzi, M., Zsiros, E., de Matos, M., Gommans, R., & Harel-Fisch, Y. et al. (2015). International trends in electronic media communication among 11- to 15-year-olds in 30 countries from 2002 to 2010: association with ease of communication with friends of the opposite sex. The European Journal of Public Health, 25, 41-45. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckv025
  • Bozkurt, A., & Sharma, R. C. (2020). Emergency remote teaching in a time of global crisis due to CoronaVirus pandemic. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), i-vi. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3778083
  • Chawla, A. (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19) – ‘Zoom’ application boon or bane. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3606716
  • Daniel, J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 49(1), 91-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09464-3
  • Daumiller, M., & Dresel, M. (2020). Researchers’ achievement goals: Prevalence, structure, and associations with job burnout/engagement and professional learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61, 101843. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101843
  • Epstein, H. (2020). Virtual Meeting Fatigue. Journal Of Hospital Librarianship, 20(4), 356-360. doi: 10.1080/15323269.2020.1819758
  • Fauville, G., Luo, M., Queiroz, A. C. M., Bailenson, J. N. & Hancock, J. T. (2021). Zoom Exhaustion & Fatigue Scale. SSRN. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3786329
  • Ferran, C., & Watts, S. (2008). Videoconferencing in the field: A heuristic processing model. Management Science, 54(9), 1565-1578. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1080.0879
  • Ghekiere, A., Van Cauwenberg, J., Vandendriessche, A., Inchley, J., Gaspar de Matos, M., & Borraccino, A. et al. (2018). Trends in sleeping difficulties among European adolescents: Are these associated with physical inactivity and excessive screen time?. International Journal Of Public Health, 64(4), 487-498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-018-1188-1
  • Gordon, S.P., Solis, R.D. (2018). Teacher Leaders of Collaborative Action Research: Challenges and Rewards. Inquiry in Education. 10(2): Article 3. https://digitalcommons.nl.edu/ie/vol10/iss2/3
  • Hair, J. F., Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Howe, E. R., & Watson, G. C. (2021, May). Finding Our Way Through a Pandemic: Teaching in Alternate Modes of Delivery. In Frontiers in Education (Vol. 6, p. 187). from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2021.661513/full
  • Huang, Q. (2019). Comparing teacher’s roles of F2f learning and online learning in a blended English course. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 32(3), 190–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2018.1540434
  • Iqbal, M. (2020). Zoom revenue and usage statistics. Business of apps. Retrieved February 12, 2021 from: https://www.businessofapps.com/data/zoom-statistics
  • Irish, L., Kline, C., Rothenberger, S., Krafty, R., Buysse, D., & Kravitz, H. et al. (2013). A 24-hour Approach to the Study of Health Behaviors: Temporal Relationships Between Waking Health Behaviors and Sleep. Annals Of Behavioral Medicine, 47(2), 189-197. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-013-9533-3
  • Kara, G., Dilek, M., & Liman-Kaban, A (2022). Teachers Practices towards Providing Interaction during Online Education in K-8 Settings. Transferring Language Learning and Teaching from Face-to-Face to Online Settings. IGI Global, Editor: Giannikas,Christina, ISBN:9781799887171. Karchmer-Klein, R., & Pytash, K. E. (Eds). (2020). Effective practices in online teacher preparation for literacy educators. IGI Global.
  • Kauffman, H. (2015). A review of predictive factors of student success in and satisfaction with online learn- ing. Research in Learning Technology, 23(1063519), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3402/rlt.v23.26507.
  • Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York London: The Guilford Press.
  • Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28(4), 563–575. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x
  • Li, C., & Lalani, F. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic has changed education forever. This is how. World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/04/coronavirus-education-global-covid19-online-digital-learning/
  • Liebermann, A., Miller, L. (2005). Teachers as leaders. The Educational Forum. 69: 151-162. DOI: 10.1080/00131720508984679
  • Liman Kaban, A. (2021). The influence of online CoI presences on learner satisfaction in higher education. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 16(1), 230-246. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5021228
  • Lissak G. (2018). Adverse physiological and psychological effects of screen time on children and adolescents: literature review and case study. Environ Res;164:149-157.
  • Lowenthal, P., Borup, J., West, R., & Archambault, L. (2020). Thinking beyond Zoom: Using asynchronous video to maintain connection and engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(2), 383–391. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/216192/
  • Nuutinen, T., Ray C, Roos, E. (2013). Do computer use, TV viewing, and the presence of the media in the bedroom predict school-aged children’s sleep habits in a longitudinal study? BMC Public Health 13:684. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-684
  • OECD (2020). Education at a Glance 2020: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  • OECD (2020). Turkey: School education during COVID-19: Were teachers and students ready? Retrieved March 9, 2021, from OECD: www.oecd.org/education/Turkey-coronaviruseducation-country-note.pdf
  • Peper, E. (2021). Resolve eyestrain and screen fatigue. Well Being Journal, 30, 24–28. Riedl, R. (2021). On the stress potential of videoconferencing: definition and root causes of Zoom fatigue. Electronic Markets. doi: 10.1007/s12525-021-00501-3
  • Sabagh, Z., Hall, N., & Saroyan, A. (2018). Antecedents, correlates and consequences of faculty burnout. Educational Research, 60(2), 131-156. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2018.1461573
  • Schleicher, A. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on education: Insights from Education at a Glance 2020, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  • Spilt, J. L., Koomen, H. M., & Thijs, J. T. (2011). Teacher wellbeing: The importance of teacher-student relationships. Educational psychology review, 23(4), 457-477.
  • Stevens, J. P. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (4th ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Strasburger, V.C., & Hogan, M.J., (2013). Children, adolescents, and the media. Pediatrics. 132:958-961.
  • Stone, K. (2021). The State of Video Conferencing in 2020 [50 Statistics] | GetVoIP. Getvoip.com. Retrieved 20 May 2021, from https://getvoip.com/blog/2020/07/07/video-conferencing-stats/.
  • Storck, J., and Sproull, L. (1995). Through a glass darkly: What do people learn in videoconferences? Human Communication Research, 22(2), 197-219. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1995.tb00366.x
  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.), Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Themelis, C., & Sime, J. A. (2020). From Video-Conferencing to Holoportation and Haptics: How Emerging Technologies Can Enhance Presence in Online Education?. In Emerging technologies and pedagogies in the curriculum (pp. 261-276). Springer.
  • UNICEF (2020). UNICEF and Microsoft launch a global learning platform to help address the COVID-19 education crisis. UNICEF.
  • United Nations (2020, August). Education during COVID-19 and beyond. Retrieved March 9, 2021, from United Nations: https://kyrgyzstan.un.org/index.php/en/86264-educationduring-covid-19-and-beyond
  • UNESCO (2020). COVID-19 Educational Disruption and Response. https://en.unesco.org/covid19 /educationresponse
  • Van Droogenbroeck, F., Spruyt, B., Vanroelen, Ch. (2014). Burnout among senior teachers: Investigating the role of workload and interpersonal relationships at work. Teaching and Teacher Education. 43: 99-109.
  • Wakoli, C. (2015). Effects of Workload on the Teachers’ Performance in Kanduyi Division, Bungoma District. International Journal of Science and Research. 5(10): 1215-1219. DOI: 10.21275/SUB154454
  • Wiederhold, B. (2020). Connecting Through Technology During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: Avoiding “Zoom Fatigue”. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, And Social Networking, 23(7), 437-438. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2020.29188.bkw
  • Williams, N. (2021). Working through COVID-19: ‘Zoom’ gloom and ‘Zoom’ fatigue. Occupational Medicine, 71(3), 164-164. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqab041
  • World Health Organization (2021). Burn-out an "occupational phenomenon": International Classification of Diseases. Retrieved 20 May 2021, from https://www.who.int/news/item/28-05-2019-burn-out-an-occupational-phenomenon-international-classification-of-diseases.
  • Zydziunaite, V., Kontrimiene, S., Ponomarenko, T., & Kaminskiene, L. (2020). Challenges in Teacher Leadership: Workload, Time Allocation, and Self-Esteem. European Journal Of Contemporary Education, 9(4). https://doi.org/10.13187/ejced.2020.4.948

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Aysegul LIMAN KABAN> (Primary Author)
BAHCESEHIR UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-3813-2888
Türkiye


Neslihan KAYNAR>
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ-CERRAHPAŞA
0000-0002-7535-428X
Türkiye

Publication Date January 1, 2023
Submission Date February 10, 2022
Acceptance Date May 9, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2023, Volume 24, Issue 1

Cite

APA Lıman Kaban, A. & Kaynar, N. (2023). TOO MUCH SCREEN? AN EXPLORATORY EXAMINATION OF DIGITAL EXHAUSTION OF EDUCATORS IN TURKIYE . Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 24 (1) , 54-73 . DOI: 10.17718/tojde.1071640