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Year 2023, Volume 24, Issue 1, 145 - 161, 01.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1082978

Abstract

References

  • An, Y.-J., & Frick, T. (2006). Student Perceptions of Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication in Face-to-Face Courses. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(2), 485–499. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00023.x
  • Andersen, R., & Ponti, M. (2014). Participatory pedagogy in an open educational course: Challenges and opportunities. Distance Education, 35(2), 234–249. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2014.917703
  • Armellini, A., & De Stefani, M. (2016). Social presence in the 21st century: An adjustment to the Community of Inquiry framework: Social presence and the Community of Inquiry framework. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(6), 1202–1216. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12302
  • Attwell, G. (2007). Personal Learning Environments – the future of eLearning? ELearning Papers, 2(1), 1–8.
  • Bichsel, J. (2013). The State of E-Learning in Higher Education: An Eye Toward Growth and Increased Access. EDUCAUSE Center for Analysis and Research. http://rgdoi.net/10.13140/RG.2.1.3686.0644
  • Biggs, J. (2003). Aligning Teaching and Assessment to Curriculum Objectives. Imaginative Curriculum Project, LTSN Generic Centre.
  • Boud, D. (2000). Sustainable Assessment: Rethinking assessment for the learning society. Studies in Continuing Education, 22(2), 151–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/713695728
  • Carless, D. (2007). Learning‐oriented assessment: Conceptual bases and practical implications. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(1), 57–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703290601081332
  • Cormier, D. (2008). Rhizomatic Education: Community as Curriculum. Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 4(5), Article 2.
  • Cormier, D., & Siemens, G. (2010). Through the Open Door: Open Courses as Research, Learning, and Engagement. EDUCAUSE Review, 45(4), 30–39.
  • Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2012). Personal Learning Environments, social media, and self-regulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 15(1), 3–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.06.002
  • Dalsgaard, C., & Thestrup, K. (2015). Dimensions of Openness: Beyond the Course as an Open Format in Online Education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(6). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v16i6.2146
  • Downes, S. (2007). Learning networks in practice. In Emerging technologies for learning (Vol. 2, pp. 19–27). Becta.
  • Gaebel, M., Kupriyanova, V., Morais, R., & Colucci, E. (2014). E-Learning in European Higher Education Institutions: Results of a Mapping Survey Conducted in October-December 2013. European University Association.
  • Galley, R., Conole, G., & Alevizou, P. (2014). Community indicators: A framework for observing and supporting community activity on Cloudworks. Interactive Learning Environments, 22(3), 373–395. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2012.680965
  • Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (1999). Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2–3), 87–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1096-7516(00)00016-6
  • Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2010). The first decade of the community of inquiry framework: A retrospective. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(1–2), 5–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2009.10.003
  • Garrison, D. R., & Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review, issues, and future directions. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(3), 157–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2007.04.001
  • Gee, J. P. (2012). Situated Language and Learning: A Critique of Traditional Schooling (1st ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203594216
  • Gilakjani, A. P., Ismail, H. N., & Ahmadi, S. M. (2011). The Effect of Multimodal Learning Models on Language Teaching and Learning. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1(10), 1321–1327. https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.1.10.1321-1327
  • Girvan, C., Conneely, C., & Tangney, B. (2016). Extending experiential learning in teacher professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 58, 129–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.04.009
  • Goria, C. (2018, October). A COMP-PLETE experience for Distance Learning. International Conference on Distance Learning Education, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Goria, C., & Hanford, S. (2019). Using Teams for a COMP-PLETE distance learning experience. ICERI 2019 Conference, Seville, Spain.
  • Goria, C., & Konstantinidis, A. (2017, August). Implementing openness in a private online course: Theory, practice, and reflections. EUROCALL 2017 - CALL in a climate of change: adapting to turbulent global conditions, Southampton, UK.
  • Goria, C., Konstantinidis, A., Kilvinski, B., & Dogan, B. E. (2019). Personal learning environments and personal learning networks for language teachers’ professional development. In C. N. Giannikas, E. Kakoulli Constantinou, & S. Papadima-Sophocleous, Professional development in CALL: a selection of papers (pp. 87–99). Research-publishing.net. https://research-publishing.net/manuscript?10.14705/rpnet.2019.28.872
  • Guichon, N., & McLornan, S. (2008). The effects of multimodality on L2 learners: Implications for CALL resource design. System, 36(1), 85–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2007.11.005
  • Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020, March 27). The Difference Between Emergency Remote Teaching and Online Learning. EDUCAUSE Review. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/the-difference-between-emergency-remote-teaching-and-online-learning
  • Horspool, A., & Yang, S. S. (2010). A Comparison of University Student Perceptions and Success Learning Music Online and Face-to-face. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 15–29.
  • Jewitt, C. (2013). Multimodality and Digital Technologies in the Classroom. In I. de Saint-Georges & J.-J. Weber (Eds.), Multilingualism and Multimodality (pp. 141–152). SensePublishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6209-266-2_8
  • Johnson, M. W. (2016). The personal learning environment and the institution of education: Reflections on technological personalisation in iTEC schools. International Journal of Smart Technology and Learning, 1(1), 93. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJSMARTTL.2016.078164
  • Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Prentice-Hall.
  • Konstantinidis, A. (2017). Using SmallWorlds to Enhance Social Presence, Group Cohesion, and Group Identity in an Online Postgraduate Course. In G. Panconesi & M. Guida (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Collaborative Teaching Practice in Virtual Learning Environments: IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-2426-7
  • Konstantinidis, A., & Goria, C. (2016). Cultivating a community of learners in a distance learning postgraduate course for language professionals. In S. Papadima-Sophocleous, L. Bradley, & S. Thouësny (Eds.), CALL communities and culture – short papers from EUROCALL 2016 (pp. 230–236). Research-publishing.net. https://research-publishing.net/display_article.php?doi=10.14705/rpnet.2016.eurocall2016.567
  • Kravcik, M., & Klamma, R. (2012). Supporting Self-Regulation by Personal Learning Environments. 2012 IEEE 12th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, 710–711. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICALT.2012.192
  • Kress, G. (2012). What is multimodality? (B. Hendriksen, Interviewer) [Youtube]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nt5wPIhhDDU
  • Laakkonen, I. (2011). Personal learning environments in higher education language courses: An informal and learner-centred approach. In S. Thouësny & L. Bradley (Eds.), Second Language Teaching and Learning with Technology: Views of Emergent Researchers (pp. 9–28). Research-publishing.net. https://doi.org/10.14705/rpnet.2011.000004
  • LaPointe, L., & Reisetter, M. (2008). Belonging Online: Students’ Perceptions of the Value and Efficacy of an Online Learning Community. International Journal on E-Learning, 7(4), 641–665.
  • Laurillard, D. (2012). Teaching as a Design Science: Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology. 2012. £22.99 (pbk). ISBN-10: 041580387X. London: Routledge.
  • Laurillard, D. (2016). Introduction to the six learning types [Video]. https://mediacentral.ucl.ac.uk/Play/4358 McCarthy, M. (2016). Experiential Learning Theory: From Theory To Practice. Journal of Business & Economics Research (JBER), 14(3), 91–100. https://doi.org/10.19030/jber.v14i3.9749
  • McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. J. W. (2007). Social software and participatory learning: Pedagogical choices with technology affordances in the Web 2.0 era. Proceedings of ASCILITE - Australian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education Annual Conference 2007, 664–675. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/46128/
  • McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. J. W. (2008). The Three P’s of Pedagogy for the Networked Society: Personalization, Participation, and Productivity. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(1), 10–27.
  • Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. (2007). Interactive Multimodal Learning Environments: Special Issue on Interactive Learning Environments: Contemporary Issues and Trends. Educational Psychology Review, 19(3), 309–326. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-007-9047-2
  • Paskevicius, M., Veletsianos, G., & Kimmons, R. (2018). Content is King: An Analysis of How the Twitter Discourse Surrounding Open Education Unfolded From 2009 to 2016. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v19i1.3267
  • Price, K. (2013, November 7). Multimodal interfaces: Blending gaze, gesture, movement and speech to overcome the limitations of keyboard, mouse & touchscreen. WordCALL, Glasgow.
  • Puentedura, R. R. (2006). Transformation, Technology, and Education. http://hippasus.com/resources/tte/puentedura_tte.pdf
  • Sankey, M., Birch, D., & Gardiner, M. (2010). Engaging students through multimodal learning environments: The journey continues. In C. H. Steel, M. J. Keppell, P. Gerbic, & S. Housego (Eds.), Proceedings ascilite Sydney 2010 (pp. 852–863).
  • Schwartzman, R. (2007). Refining the Question: How Can Online Instruction Maximize Opportunities for All Students? Communication Education, 56(1), 113–117. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634520601009728
  • Siemens, G. (2008). New structures and spaces of learning: The systemic impact of connective knowledge, connectivism, and networked learning. http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/systemic_impact.htm
  • Toohey, S. (1999). Beliefs, values and ideologies in course design. In Designing courses for higher education (pp. 44–69). Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.
  • Trust, T., Krutka, D. G., & Carpenter, J. P. (2016). “Together we are better”: Professional learning networks for teachers. Computers & Education, 102, 15–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.06.007
  • Weller, M. (2012). The openness-creativity cycle in education. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2012(1), 2. https://doi.org/10.5334/2012-02

A PARTICIPATORY PEDAGOGICAL MODEL FOR ONLINE DISTANCE LEARNING: IDEATION AND IMPLEMENTATION

Year 2023, Volume 24, Issue 1, 145 - 161, 01.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1082978

Abstract

In spite of its increasing popularity, distance education faces challenges – levels of digital literacy, access to technology, workload and time management, students’ feelings of isolation and disconnection – that can have a significant impact on the experience of the learners. In addressing these issues, we propose a pedagogical model for distance learning which promotes the synergy of eight ingredients – Community, Openness, Multimodality, Participation, Personalisation, Learning, Experience, Technological-Enhancement, with their initial letters generating the acronym COMP-PLETE – for the shaping of a highly participatory online learning experience and the creation of an active and cohesive community characterised by a strong sense of commitment towards the learning of the individuals and that of the group. This paper presents the theoretical rationale for and implementation of COMP-PLETE. It also provides recommendations for researchers and practitioners interested in cultivating an online learning community which responds well to the aforementioned challenges posed by distance education.

References

  • An, Y.-J., & Frick, T. (2006). Student Perceptions of Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication in Face-to-Face Courses. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(2), 485–499. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00023.x
  • Andersen, R., & Ponti, M. (2014). Participatory pedagogy in an open educational course: Challenges and opportunities. Distance Education, 35(2), 234–249. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2014.917703
  • Armellini, A., & De Stefani, M. (2016). Social presence in the 21st century: An adjustment to the Community of Inquiry framework: Social presence and the Community of Inquiry framework. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(6), 1202–1216. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12302
  • Attwell, G. (2007). Personal Learning Environments – the future of eLearning? ELearning Papers, 2(1), 1–8.
  • Bichsel, J. (2013). The State of E-Learning in Higher Education: An Eye Toward Growth and Increased Access. EDUCAUSE Center for Analysis and Research. http://rgdoi.net/10.13140/RG.2.1.3686.0644
  • Biggs, J. (2003). Aligning Teaching and Assessment to Curriculum Objectives. Imaginative Curriculum Project, LTSN Generic Centre.
  • Boud, D. (2000). Sustainable Assessment: Rethinking assessment for the learning society. Studies in Continuing Education, 22(2), 151–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/713695728
  • Carless, D. (2007). Learning‐oriented assessment: Conceptual bases and practical implications. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(1), 57–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703290601081332
  • Cormier, D. (2008). Rhizomatic Education: Community as Curriculum. Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 4(5), Article 2.
  • Cormier, D., & Siemens, G. (2010). Through the Open Door: Open Courses as Research, Learning, and Engagement. EDUCAUSE Review, 45(4), 30–39.
  • Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2012). Personal Learning Environments, social media, and self-regulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 15(1), 3–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.06.002
  • Dalsgaard, C., & Thestrup, K. (2015). Dimensions of Openness: Beyond the Course as an Open Format in Online Education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(6). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v16i6.2146
  • Downes, S. (2007). Learning networks in practice. In Emerging technologies for learning (Vol. 2, pp. 19–27). Becta.
  • Gaebel, M., Kupriyanova, V., Morais, R., & Colucci, E. (2014). E-Learning in European Higher Education Institutions: Results of a Mapping Survey Conducted in October-December 2013. European University Association.
  • Galley, R., Conole, G., & Alevizou, P. (2014). Community indicators: A framework for observing and supporting community activity on Cloudworks. Interactive Learning Environments, 22(3), 373–395. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2012.680965
  • Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (1999). Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2–3), 87–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1096-7516(00)00016-6
  • Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2010). The first decade of the community of inquiry framework: A retrospective. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(1–2), 5–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2009.10.003
  • Garrison, D. R., & Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review, issues, and future directions. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(3), 157–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2007.04.001
  • Gee, J. P. (2012). Situated Language and Learning: A Critique of Traditional Schooling (1st ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203594216
  • Gilakjani, A. P., Ismail, H. N., & Ahmadi, S. M. (2011). The Effect of Multimodal Learning Models on Language Teaching and Learning. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1(10), 1321–1327. https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.1.10.1321-1327
  • Girvan, C., Conneely, C., & Tangney, B. (2016). Extending experiential learning in teacher professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 58, 129–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.04.009
  • Goria, C. (2018, October). A COMP-PLETE experience for Distance Learning. International Conference on Distance Learning Education, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Goria, C., & Hanford, S. (2019). Using Teams for a COMP-PLETE distance learning experience. ICERI 2019 Conference, Seville, Spain.
  • Goria, C., & Konstantinidis, A. (2017, August). Implementing openness in a private online course: Theory, practice, and reflections. EUROCALL 2017 - CALL in a climate of change: adapting to turbulent global conditions, Southampton, UK.
  • Goria, C., Konstantinidis, A., Kilvinski, B., & Dogan, B. E. (2019). Personal learning environments and personal learning networks for language teachers’ professional development. In C. N. Giannikas, E. Kakoulli Constantinou, & S. Papadima-Sophocleous, Professional development in CALL: a selection of papers (pp. 87–99). Research-publishing.net. https://research-publishing.net/manuscript?10.14705/rpnet.2019.28.872
  • Guichon, N., & McLornan, S. (2008). The effects of multimodality on L2 learners: Implications for CALL resource design. System, 36(1), 85–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2007.11.005
  • Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020, March 27). The Difference Between Emergency Remote Teaching and Online Learning. EDUCAUSE Review. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/the-difference-between-emergency-remote-teaching-and-online-learning
  • Horspool, A., & Yang, S. S. (2010). A Comparison of University Student Perceptions and Success Learning Music Online and Face-to-face. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 15–29.
  • Jewitt, C. (2013). Multimodality and Digital Technologies in the Classroom. In I. de Saint-Georges & J.-J. Weber (Eds.), Multilingualism and Multimodality (pp. 141–152). SensePublishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6209-266-2_8
  • Johnson, M. W. (2016). The personal learning environment and the institution of education: Reflections on technological personalisation in iTEC schools. International Journal of Smart Technology and Learning, 1(1), 93. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJSMARTTL.2016.078164
  • Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Prentice-Hall.
  • Konstantinidis, A. (2017). Using SmallWorlds to Enhance Social Presence, Group Cohesion, and Group Identity in an Online Postgraduate Course. In G. Panconesi & M. Guida (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Collaborative Teaching Practice in Virtual Learning Environments: IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-2426-7
  • Konstantinidis, A., & Goria, C. (2016). Cultivating a community of learners in a distance learning postgraduate course for language professionals. In S. Papadima-Sophocleous, L. Bradley, & S. Thouësny (Eds.), CALL communities and culture – short papers from EUROCALL 2016 (pp. 230–236). Research-publishing.net. https://research-publishing.net/display_article.php?doi=10.14705/rpnet.2016.eurocall2016.567
  • Kravcik, M., & Klamma, R. (2012). Supporting Self-Regulation by Personal Learning Environments. 2012 IEEE 12th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, 710–711. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICALT.2012.192
  • Kress, G. (2012). What is multimodality? (B. Hendriksen, Interviewer) [Youtube]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nt5wPIhhDDU
  • Laakkonen, I. (2011). Personal learning environments in higher education language courses: An informal and learner-centred approach. In S. Thouësny & L. Bradley (Eds.), Second Language Teaching and Learning with Technology: Views of Emergent Researchers (pp. 9–28). Research-publishing.net. https://doi.org/10.14705/rpnet.2011.000004
  • LaPointe, L., & Reisetter, M. (2008). Belonging Online: Students’ Perceptions of the Value and Efficacy of an Online Learning Community. International Journal on E-Learning, 7(4), 641–665.
  • Laurillard, D. (2012). Teaching as a Design Science: Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology. 2012. £22.99 (pbk). ISBN-10: 041580387X. London: Routledge.
  • Laurillard, D. (2016). Introduction to the six learning types [Video]. https://mediacentral.ucl.ac.uk/Play/4358 McCarthy, M. (2016). Experiential Learning Theory: From Theory To Practice. Journal of Business & Economics Research (JBER), 14(3), 91–100. https://doi.org/10.19030/jber.v14i3.9749
  • McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. J. W. (2007). Social software and participatory learning: Pedagogical choices with technology affordances in the Web 2.0 era. Proceedings of ASCILITE - Australian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education Annual Conference 2007, 664–675. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/46128/
  • McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. J. W. (2008). The Three P’s of Pedagogy for the Networked Society: Personalization, Participation, and Productivity. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(1), 10–27.
  • Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. (2007). Interactive Multimodal Learning Environments: Special Issue on Interactive Learning Environments: Contemporary Issues and Trends. Educational Psychology Review, 19(3), 309–326. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-007-9047-2
  • Paskevicius, M., Veletsianos, G., & Kimmons, R. (2018). Content is King: An Analysis of How the Twitter Discourse Surrounding Open Education Unfolded From 2009 to 2016. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v19i1.3267
  • Price, K. (2013, November 7). Multimodal interfaces: Blending gaze, gesture, movement and speech to overcome the limitations of keyboard, mouse & touchscreen. WordCALL, Glasgow.
  • Puentedura, R. R. (2006). Transformation, Technology, and Education. http://hippasus.com/resources/tte/puentedura_tte.pdf
  • Sankey, M., Birch, D., & Gardiner, M. (2010). Engaging students through multimodal learning environments: The journey continues. In C. H. Steel, M. J. Keppell, P. Gerbic, & S. Housego (Eds.), Proceedings ascilite Sydney 2010 (pp. 852–863).
  • Schwartzman, R. (2007). Refining the Question: How Can Online Instruction Maximize Opportunities for All Students? Communication Education, 56(1), 113–117. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634520601009728
  • Siemens, G. (2008). New structures and spaces of learning: The systemic impact of connective knowledge, connectivism, and networked learning. http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/systemic_impact.htm
  • Toohey, S. (1999). Beliefs, values and ideologies in course design. In Designing courses for higher education (pp. 44–69). Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.
  • Trust, T., Krutka, D. G., & Carpenter, J. P. (2016). “Together we are better”: Professional learning networks for teachers. Computers & Education, 102, 15–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.06.007
  • Weller, M. (2012). The openness-creativity cycle in education. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2012(1), 2. https://doi.org/10.5334/2012-02

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Cecilia GORIA This is me
University of Nottingham
0000-0002-4530-4038
United Kingdom


Angelos KONSTANTINIDIS This is me
Educational Support and Innovation, Center for Information Technology
0000-0002-4342-4650
The Netherlands

Publication Date January 1, 2023
Submission Date March 5, 2022
Acceptance Date May 12, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2023, Volume 24, Issue 1

Cite

APA Gorıa, C. & Konstantınıdıs, A. (2023). A PARTICIPATORY PEDAGOGICAL MODEL FOR ONLINE DISTANCE LEARNING: IDEATION AND IMPLEMENTATION . Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 24 (1) , 145-161 . DOI: 10.17718/tojde.1082978