Research Article
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HOW DO HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS OFFER ONLINE COURSES FOR ON-CAMPUS STUDENTS? PULL AND PUSH FACTORS INFLUENCING THEIR DECISIONS

Year 2024, Volume: 25 Issue: 1, 95 - 117, 01.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1175726

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to reveal the pull and push factors that influence the decisions of administrators and practitioners about online courses offered to students on campus in terms of teaching-learning, course content procurement, and assessment-evaluation dimensions. The study was carried out using nested multi-case studies as a qualitative research method. The sample of the study consisted of four Distance Education Centers (DEC) with at least five years of experience, selected by the snowball and maximum variation sampling methods. The data were obtained using individual semi-structured interviews, institution documents, and Learning Management Systems (LMS), with 24 people working as administrators, content development specialists, program coordinators, and IT specialists at these institutions. It was found that factors like the interaction between students and teachers, legislation, budget, human resources, and organized structuring helped the DECs decide which models to use in the teaching-learning, course content procurement, and assessment-evaluation dimensions.

Supporting Institution

No supporting institution

References

  • Araç, M., & Akçadağ, T. (2022). Evaluatıon of dıstance educatıon management processes in higher education instıtutıons in İstanbul. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 21(82), 603–627. https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.1022620
  • Aydın, C. H. (2019). Uzaktan Eğitim Çalıştayı. Uzaktan Eğitimin Tasarımı ve Güncel Sorunlar, 49.
  • Aydın, S., & Öztürk, A. (2017). Anadolu Üniversitesi Açıköğretim Sistemindeki öğrenenlerin sınav ve büro hizmetlerine yönelik görüşlerinin değerlendirilmesi. Açıköğretim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3(3), 64–79.
  • Balta, Y. (2014). Online course providers views towards online measurement and evaluation methods in Turkey [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Fırat University
  • Basir, H. M., Ahmad, A., & Noor, N. L. M. (2010). Institutional Strategy for Effective Blended E-Learning. International Conference on User Science Engineering (i-USEr), 71–76. https://doi.org/10.1109/IUSER.2010.5716726
  • Bokolo, A., Kamaludin, A., Romli, A., Mat Raffei, A. F., A/L Eh Phon, D. N., Abdullah, A., Leong Ming, G., A. Shukor, N., Shukri Nordin, M., & Baba, S. (2020). A managerial perspective on institutions' administration readiness to diffuse blended learning in higher education: Concept and evidence. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 52(1), 37–64. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2019.1675203
  • Bokolo, A. (2022). An exploratory study on academic staff perception towards blended learning in higher education. Education and Information Technologies, 27, 3107–3133. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10705-x
  • Bozkurt, A., & Uçar, H. (2018). E-learning and e-exams: examination of learners’ perspectives concerning the authentication methods in online assessment processes. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 14(2), 745–755. https://doi.org/10.17860/mersinefd.357339
  • CHE (2020). Procedures and Principles Regarding Distance Education in Higher Education Institutions.https://www.yok.gov.tr/Documents/Kurumsal/egitim_ogretim_dairesi/Uzaktan_ogretim/yuksekogretim_kurumlarinda_uzaktan_ogretime_iliskin_usul_ve_esaslar.pdf
  • Christensen, C. M., Horn, M. B., & Staker, H. (2013). Is K-12 blended learning disruptive? An introduction to the theory of hybrids. Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation, 1-48.
  • Dakduk, S., Santalla-Banderali, Z., & van der Woude, D. (2018). Acceptance of blended learning in executive education. SAGE Open, 8(3), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018800647
  • Dündar, S., Candemir, Ö., Demiray, Genç Kumtepe, E., Öztürk, S., Sağlık, M. & Ulutak, İ. (2017). Anadolu Üniversitesi çalışanlarının açık ve uzaktan öğretime ilişkin tutumları. Açıköğretim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3 (4), 187-227.
  • Garrison, D. R., & Vaughan, N. D. (2013). Institutional change and leadership associated with blended learning innovation: Two case studies. Internet and Higher Education, 18, 24–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2012.09.001
  • Ghazal, S., Al-Samarraie, H., & Aldowah, H. (2018). "i am still learning": Modeling LMS critical success factors for promoting students' experience and satisfaction in a blended learning environment. IEEE Access, 6, 77179–77201. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2879677
  • Gonzalez, A., & Roig, H. (2018). Regulations for distance education for the Argentine university: Pending advances and challenges. Virtualidad Educacion Y Ciencia, 9(16), 152-157.
  • Gunduz, M. E., Kursun, E., Karaman, S., & Demırel, T. (2020). Problems, expectations, and amendments regarding distance education legislation in higher education institutions in Turkey. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 21(4), 173-194. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.803402
  • Gürer, M. D., Tekinarslan, E., & Yavuzalp, N. (2016). Opinions of instructors who give lectures online about distance education. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 7(1), 47. https://doi.org/10.17569/tojqi.74876
  • Heilporn, G., Lakhal, S., & Bélisle, M. (2021). An examination of teachers' strategies to foster student engagement in blended learning in higher education. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 18(1), 2–25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-021-00260-3
  • Hrastinski, S. (2008). What is online learner participation? A literature review. Computers & Education, 51(4), 1755-1765. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.05.005
  • Hung, M. L., & Chou, C. (2015). Students' perceptions of instructors' roles in blended and online learning environments: A comparative study. Computers and Education, 81, 315–325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.10.022
  • IHEP (2000). Quality on the line: Benchmarks for success in ınternet based distance education. http://www.ihep.org/sites/default/files/uploads/docs/pubs/qualityontheline.pdf (27.02.2022'de alınmıştır).
  • İbicioğlu, H., & Antalyalı, U. Ö. L. (2005). Uzaktan eğitimin başarısında imkân algı motivasyon ve etkileşim faktörlerinin etkileri: Karşılaştırmalı bir uygulama. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 14(2), 325-338.
  • Kapucu, N. K., & Adnan, M. (2018). Assessment of e-tutor success in online professional development. HAYEF Journal of Education, 15(1), 7-20.
  • Karapınar, D. Ç., Güler, M., Kurşun, E., & Karaman, S. (2018). Atatürk Üniversitesi kampüs tabanlı dersler modeli bileşenlerine yönelik öğrenci görüşleri. Açıköğretim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4(2), 90–111.
  • Kayabaş, B.K. (2020). E-sertifika programlarında sınav uygulamaları: Sorunlar ve çözüm önerileri. Açıköğretim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi (AUAd), 6(4), 81-96.
  • Kayaduman, H., & Demirel, T. (2019). International review of research in open and distributed learning different distance education courses. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 20(5), 84–103.
  • Kırmacı, Ö., & Acar, S. (2018). The problems of campus students in simultaneous online distance education. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 14(3), 276–291. https://doi.org/10.17244/eku.378138
  • Mete, G., & Demir, T. (2021). Field experts'vıews on turkısh course digital content development process. The Journal of Academic Social Science, 9 (116), 202-224.
  • Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). California: SAGE Publications.
  • Özdemir, S. (2002). Eğitimde toplam kalite yönetimi. Kırgızistan-Türkiye Manas Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 2, 253–270.
  • Özmen, A., & Ediz, İ. G. (2002). Uzaktan eğitim ve Dumlupınar Üniversitesi modeli. Açık ve Uzaktan Eğitim Sempozyumu, 25.
  • Öztaş, S., & Kılıç, B. (2017). The evaluation of university students' opinions of teaching the Atatürk’s Principles and History of Revolution course with distance education (Kırklareli University sample). Turkish History Education Journal, 6(2), 268–293. Rasheed, R. A., Kamsin, A., & Abdullah, N. A. (2020). Challenges in the online component of blended learning: A systematic review. Computers and Education, 144, 103701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103701
  • Saltan, F. (2016). Blended learning experience of students participating pedagogical formation program: Advantages and limitation of blended education. International Journal of Higher Education, 6(1), 63. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v6n1p63
  • Siraj, K. K., & Maskari, A. Al. (2019). Student engagement in blended learning instructional design: an analytical study. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, 15(2), 61–79. https://doi.org/10.18538/lthe.v15.n2.283
  • Şimşek, N. (2012). Quality indicators in distant education and the assessment of technology- based distant education according to these indicators. Journal of Educational Sciences & Practices, 11(21), 1-24.
  • Tamim, R. M. (2018). Blended learning for learner empowerment: Voices from the Middle East. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 50(1), 70–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2017.1405757
  • Tonbuloğlu, B., & Aydın, H. (2015). Quality standards in distance education. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 4(4), 369–377.
  • Toprak, E., & Sakar, A. N. (2021). Need for accreditation agencies as stakeholders in open and distance learning: Case of "audak" in Turkish Higher Education System. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 21, 29–48. https://doi.org/10.17718/TOJDE.770904
  • Turnbull, D., Chugh, R. & Luck, J. (2021). Transitioning to E Learning during the COVID 19 pandemic: How have Higher Education Institutions responded to the challenge? Education and Information Technologies, 26, 6401–6419. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10633-w
  • Uysal, Ö., & Kuzu, A. (2011). Quality standards in online education: samples from America. Anadolu Journal of Educational Sciences International, 1(1), 49–74. https://doi.org/10.18039/ajesi.01561
  • Üstün, A.G. (2020). Examination of campus-based online courses' processes grounded on distance education centers' experiences [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Atatürk University
  • Wang, H. (2011). Creditable learning assessment in internet-based distance education: a protocol for online supervised examination with authentication, The International Conference on E-Learning, E-Business, Enterprise Information Systems, & EGovernment, Proceedings Book, 471-477.
  • Wang, Y., Han, X., & Yang, J. (2015). Revisiting the blended learning literature: using a complex adaptive systems framework. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(2), 380–393.
  • Warren, L., Reilly, D., Herdan, A., & Lin, Y. (2021). Self-efficacy, performance and the role of blended learning. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 13(1), 98–111. https://doi.org/10.1108/JARHE-08-2019-0210
  • Williams, P. E. (2003). Roles and competencies for distance education programs in higher education institutions. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 21(1), 45–57. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15389286AJDE1701_4
  • Yazgan, Ç. Ü. (2022). Attitudes and interaction practices towards distance education during the pandemic. Education and Information Technologies, 27, 5349–5364. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10843-2
  • Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2013). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri (9. Baskı). Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Yin, R.K. (2003). Case study research (2nd ed.). Sage Publications.
  • Zhang, J. F., Zheng, S. H., & Yu, D. (2012). Thoughts about legislation of modern long-distance education. Adult Education, 3.
Year 2024, Volume: 25 Issue: 1, 95 - 117, 01.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1175726

Abstract

References

  • Araç, M., & Akçadağ, T. (2022). Evaluatıon of dıstance educatıon management processes in higher education instıtutıons in İstanbul. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 21(82), 603–627. https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.1022620
  • Aydın, C. H. (2019). Uzaktan Eğitim Çalıştayı. Uzaktan Eğitimin Tasarımı ve Güncel Sorunlar, 49.
  • Aydın, S., & Öztürk, A. (2017). Anadolu Üniversitesi Açıköğretim Sistemindeki öğrenenlerin sınav ve büro hizmetlerine yönelik görüşlerinin değerlendirilmesi. Açıköğretim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3(3), 64–79.
  • Balta, Y. (2014). Online course providers views towards online measurement and evaluation methods in Turkey [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Fırat University
  • Basir, H. M., Ahmad, A., & Noor, N. L. M. (2010). Institutional Strategy for Effective Blended E-Learning. International Conference on User Science Engineering (i-USEr), 71–76. https://doi.org/10.1109/IUSER.2010.5716726
  • Bokolo, A., Kamaludin, A., Romli, A., Mat Raffei, A. F., A/L Eh Phon, D. N., Abdullah, A., Leong Ming, G., A. Shukor, N., Shukri Nordin, M., & Baba, S. (2020). A managerial perspective on institutions' administration readiness to diffuse blended learning in higher education: Concept and evidence. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 52(1), 37–64. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2019.1675203
  • Bokolo, A. (2022). An exploratory study on academic staff perception towards blended learning in higher education. Education and Information Technologies, 27, 3107–3133. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10705-x
  • Bozkurt, A., & Uçar, H. (2018). E-learning and e-exams: examination of learners’ perspectives concerning the authentication methods in online assessment processes. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 14(2), 745–755. https://doi.org/10.17860/mersinefd.357339
  • CHE (2020). Procedures and Principles Regarding Distance Education in Higher Education Institutions.https://www.yok.gov.tr/Documents/Kurumsal/egitim_ogretim_dairesi/Uzaktan_ogretim/yuksekogretim_kurumlarinda_uzaktan_ogretime_iliskin_usul_ve_esaslar.pdf
  • Christensen, C. M., Horn, M. B., & Staker, H. (2013). Is K-12 blended learning disruptive? An introduction to the theory of hybrids. Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation, 1-48.
  • Dakduk, S., Santalla-Banderali, Z., & van der Woude, D. (2018). Acceptance of blended learning in executive education. SAGE Open, 8(3), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018800647
  • Dündar, S., Candemir, Ö., Demiray, Genç Kumtepe, E., Öztürk, S., Sağlık, M. & Ulutak, İ. (2017). Anadolu Üniversitesi çalışanlarının açık ve uzaktan öğretime ilişkin tutumları. Açıköğretim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3 (4), 187-227.
  • Garrison, D. R., & Vaughan, N. D. (2013). Institutional change and leadership associated with blended learning innovation: Two case studies. Internet and Higher Education, 18, 24–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2012.09.001
  • Ghazal, S., Al-Samarraie, H., & Aldowah, H. (2018). "i am still learning": Modeling LMS critical success factors for promoting students' experience and satisfaction in a blended learning environment. IEEE Access, 6, 77179–77201. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2879677
  • Gonzalez, A., & Roig, H. (2018). Regulations for distance education for the Argentine university: Pending advances and challenges. Virtualidad Educacion Y Ciencia, 9(16), 152-157.
  • Gunduz, M. E., Kursun, E., Karaman, S., & Demırel, T. (2020). Problems, expectations, and amendments regarding distance education legislation in higher education institutions in Turkey. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 21(4), 173-194. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.803402
  • Gürer, M. D., Tekinarslan, E., & Yavuzalp, N. (2016). Opinions of instructors who give lectures online about distance education. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 7(1), 47. https://doi.org/10.17569/tojqi.74876
  • Heilporn, G., Lakhal, S., & Bélisle, M. (2021). An examination of teachers' strategies to foster student engagement in blended learning in higher education. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 18(1), 2–25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-021-00260-3
  • Hrastinski, S. (2008). What is online learner participation? A literature review. Computers & Education, 51(4), 1755-1765. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.05.005
  • Hung, M. L., & Chou, C. (2015). Students' perceptions of instructors' roles in blended and online learning environments: A comparative study. Computers and Education, 81, 315–325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.10.022
  • IHEP (2000). Quality on the line: Benchmarks for success in ınternet based distance education. http://www.ihep.org/sites/default/files/uploads/docs/pubs/qualityontheline.pdf (27.02.2022'de alınmıştır).
  • İbicioğlu, H., & Antalyalı, U. Ö. L. (2005). Uzaktan eğitimin başarısında imkân algı motivasyon ve etkileşim faktörlerinin etkileri: Karşılaştırmalı bir uygulama. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 14(2), 325-338.
  • Kapucu, N. K., & Adnan, M. (2018). Assessment of e-tutor success in online professional development. HAYEF Journal of Education, 15(1), 7-20.
  • Karapınar, D. Ç., Güler, M., Kurşun, E., & Karaman, S. (2018). Atatürk Üniversitesi kampüs tabanlı dersler modeli bileşenlerine yönelik öğrenci görüşleri. Açıköğretim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4(2), 90–111.
  • Kayabaş, B.K. (2020). E-sertifika programlarında sınav uygulamaları: Sorunlar ve çözüm önerileri. Açıköğretim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi (AUAd), 6(4), 81-96.
  • Kayaduman, H., & Demirel, T. (2019). International review of research in open and distributed learning different distance education courses. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 20(5), 84–103.
  • Kırmacı, Ö., & Acar, S. (2018). The problems of campus students in simultaneous online distance education. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 14(3), 276–291. https://doi.org/10.17244/eku.378138
  • Mete, G., & Demir, T. (2021). Field experts'vıews on turkısh course digital content development process. The Journal of Academic Social Science, 9 (116), 202-224.
  • Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). California: SAGE Publications.
  • Özdemir, S. (2002). Eğitimde toplam kalite yönetimi. Kırgızistan-Türkiye Manas Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 2, 253–270.
  • Özmen, A., & Ediz, İ. G. (2002). Uzaktan eğitim ve Dumlupınar Üniversitesi modeli. Açık ve Uzaktan Eğitim Sempozyumu, 25.
  • Öztaş, S., & Kılıç, B. (2017). The evaluation of university students' opinions of teaching the Atatürk’s Principles and History of Revolution course with distance education (Kırklareli University sample). Turkish History Education Journal, 6(2), 268–293. Rasheed, R. A., Kamsin, A., & Abdullah, N. A. (2020). Challenges in the online component of blended learning: A systematic review. Computers and Education, 144, 103701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103701
  • Saltan, F. (2016). Blended learning experience of students participating pedagogical formation program: Advantages and limitation of blended education. International Journal of Higher Education, 6(1), 63. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v6n1p63
  • Siraj, K. K., & Maskari, A. Al. (2019). Student engagement in blended learning instructional design: an analytical study. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, 15(2), 61–79. https://doi.org/10.18538/lthe.v15.n2.283
  • Şimşek, N. (2012). Quality indicators in distant education and the assessment of technology- based distant education according to these indicators. Journal of Educational Sciences & Practices, 11(21), 1-24.
  • Tamim, R. M. (2018). Blended learning for learner empowerment: Voices from the Middle East. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 50(1), 70–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2017.1405757
  • Tonbuloğlu, B., & Aydın, H. (2015). Quality standards in distance education. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 4(4), 369–377.
  • Toprak, E., & Sakar, A. N. (2021). Need for accreditation agencies as stakeholders in open and distance learning: Case of "audak" in Turkish Higher Education System. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 21, 29–48. https://doi.org/10.17718/TOJDE.770904
  • Turnbull, D., Chugh, R. & Luck, J. (2021). Transitioning to E Learning during the COVID 19 pandemic: How have Higher Education Institutions responded to the challenge? Education and Information Technologies, 26, 6401–6419. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10633-w
  • Uysal, Ö., & Kuzu, A. (2011). Quality standards in online education: samples from America. Anadolu Journal of Educational Sciences International, 1(1), 49–74. https://doi.org/10.18039/ajesi.01561
  • Üstün, A.G. (2020). Examination of campus-based online courses' processes grounded on distance education centers' experiences [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Atatürk University
  • Wang, H. (2011). Creditable learning assessment in internet-based distance education: a protocol for online supervised examination with authentication, The International Conference on E-Learning, E-Business, Enterprise Information Systems, & EGovernment, Proceedings Book, 471-477.
  • Wang, Y., Han, X., & Yang, J. (2015). Revisiting the blended learning literature: using a complex adaptive systems framework. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(2), 380–393.
  • Warren, L., Reilly, D., Herdan, A., & Lin, Y. (2021). Self-efficacy, performance and the role of blended learning. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 13(1), 98–111. https://doi.org/10.1108/JARHE-08-2019-0210
  • Williams, P. E. (2003). Roles and competencies for distance education programs in higher education institutions. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 21(1), 45–57. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15389286AJDE1701_4
  • Yazgan, Ç. Ü. (2022). Attitudes and interaction practices towards distance education during the pandemic. Education and Information Technologies, 27, 5349–5364. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10843-2
  • Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2013). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri (9. Baskı). Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Yin, R.K. (2003). Case study research (2nd ed.). Sage Publications.
  • Zhang, J. F., Zheng, S. H., & Yu, D. (2012). Thoughts about legislation of modern long-distance education. Adult Education, 3.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Lifelong learning
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Ayşin Gaye USTUN 0000-0001-9564-0761

Engin KURSUN 0000-0002-5649-8595

Halil KAYADUMAN 0000-0001-5316-1893

Project Number No project Number
Publication Date January 1, 2024
Submission Date September 15, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2024 Volume: 25 Issue: 1

Cite

APA USTUN, A. G., KURSUN, E., & KAYADUMAN, H. (2024). HOW DO HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS OFFER ONLINE COURSES FOR ON-CAMPUS STUDENTS? PULL AND PUSH FACTORS INFLUENCING THEIR DECISIONS. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 25(1), 95-117. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1175726