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RE-EXAMINING THE FUTURE PROSPECTS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN EDUCATION IN LIGHT OF THE GDPR AND ChatGPT

Year 2024, Volume: 25 Issue: 1, 20 - 32, 01.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1248901

Abstract

Artificial intelligence in education (AIEd) is a fast-growing field of research. In previous work, we described efforts to explore the possible futures of AIEd by identifying key variables and their future prospects. This paper re-examines our discussions on the governance of data and the role of students and teachers by considering the implications of 1) a recent case related to the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and 2) the release of ChatGPT, a generative AI model capable to producing ‘human-like’ text. These events raise questions for the future of AIEd and the underlying function of assessment, and highlight the importance of active student participation in the integration of AI in education.

Supporting Institution

Volkswagen Foundation and the Ministry of Science and Culture in Lower Saxony

Thanks

We thank the team of international researchers at the Center for Open Education Research (COER) for insightful discussions that shaped the elements in Table 1; particular thanks to Victoria I. Marín, Cengiz Hakan Aydin, Aras Bozkurt, Insung Jung, Junhong Xiao, and Patricia Slagter van Tryon for their active collaboration. We also thank Sreekari Vogeti and Laura N. Peters for their valuable comments on early drafts of this paper.

References

  • AlgorithmWatch. (2020). Automating society report 2020. https://automatingsociety.algorithmwatch.org
  • Bai, J. Y. H., Zawacki-Richter, O., Bozkurt, A., Lee, K., Fanguy, M., Cefa Sari, B., & Marin, V. I. (2022). Automated essay scoring (AES) systems: Opportunities and challenges for open and distance education. In Proceedings of The Tenth Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning (PCF10). https://doi.org/10.56059/pcf10.8339
  • Bai, J. Y. H., Zawacki-Richter, O., & Müskens, W. (2022). Developing strategic scenarios for artificial intelligence applications in higher education. In 5th International Open and Distance Learning Conference Proceedings Book (pp. 47-70). Eskişehir, Turkey. https://iodl.anadolu.edu.tr/proceedings-iodl-2022
  • Bender, E. M., Gebru, T., McMillan-Major, A., & Shmitchell, S. (2021). On the dangers of stochastic parrots: Can language models be too big?. In Proceedings of the 2021 ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (pp. 610-623). https://doi.org/10.1145/3442188.3445922
  • Bennett, R. (2005). Factors associated with student plagiarism in a post‐1992 university. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30, 137-162. https://doi.org/10.1080/0260293042000264244Bincoletto, G. (2021). E-proctoring during students' exams: emergency remote teaching at stake. European Data Protection Law Review, 7, 586-591. https://doi.org/10.21552/edpl/2021/4/15
  • Bommarito II, M., & Katz, D. M. (2022). GPT takes the Bar Exam. arXiv preprint. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2212.14402
Year 2024, Volume: 25 Issue: 1, 20 - 32, 01.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1248901

Abstract

References

  • AlgorithmWatch. (2020). Automating society report 2020. https://automatingsociety.algorithmwatch.org
  • Bai, J. Y. H., Zawacki-Richter, O., Bozkurt, A., Lee, K., Fanguy, M., Cefa Sari, B., & Marin, V. I. (2022). Automated essay scoring (AES) systems: Opportunities and challenges for open and distance education. In Proceedings of The Tenth Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning (PCF10). https://doi.org/10.56059/pcf10.8339
  • Bai, J. Y. H., Zawacki-Richter, O., & Müskens, W. (2022). Developing strategic scenarios for artificial intelligence applications in higher education. In 5th International Open and Distance Learning Conference Proceedings Book (pp. 47-70). Eskişehir, Turkey. https://iodl.anadolu.edu.tr/proceedings-iodl-2022
  • Bender, E. M., Gebru, T., McMillan-Major, A., & Shmitchell, S. (2021). On the dangers of stochastic parrots: Can language models be too big?. In Proceedings of the 2021 ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (pp. 610-623). https://doi.org/10.1145/3442188.3445922
  • Bennett, R. (2005). Factors associated with student plagiarism in a post‐1992 university. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30, 137-162. https://doi.org/10.1080/0260293042000264244Bincoletto, G. (2021). E-proctoring during students' exams: emergency remote teaching at stake. European Data Protection Law Review, 7, 586-591. https://doi.org/10.21552/edpl/2021/4/15
  • Bommarito II, M., & Katz, D. M. (2022). GPT takes the Bar Exam. arXiv preprint. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2212.14402

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Lifelong learning
Journal Section Articles
Authors

John Y. H. BAI 0000-0001-6688-7837

Olaf ZAWACKI-RICHTER 0000-0003-1482-8303

Wolfgang MUSKENS 0000-0002-5515-8302

Project Number 2N3743
Publication Date January 1, 2024
Submission Date February 8, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2024 Volume: 25 Issue: 1

Cite

APA BAI, J. Y. H., ZAWACKI-RICHTER, O., & MUSKENS, W. (2024). RE-EXAMINING THE FUTURE PROSPECTS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN EDUCATION IN LIGHT OF THE GDPR AND ChatGPT. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 25(1), 20-32. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1248901