Year 2020, Volume 2 , Issue 2, Pages 71 - 82 2020-10-29

Augmented Product Perception and Attribution Theory in Tourism

Mehmet ŞİMŞEK [1] , Göknil Nur KOÇAK [2]

This study investigates the functioning of augmented product perception and attribution theory in the tourism sector conceptually and operationally. The reason for this is that these two concepts, which are extremely important in terms of consumer behavior, have not been examined sufficiently. Since the research is essentially exploratory, it aims to test the factual relationships in theory and to examine and test the relationships in the model rather than generalize the findings. For this reason; it was preferred to collect data from different groups at different times via convenience sampling technique and high reliability and validity were obtained in each of field studies. The results indicated that augmented product perception was comprised of two dimensions as staff and atmosphere perceptions, and the impact of staff perception on attribution was found to be higher compared to the impact of atmosphere perception. In addition, it was found that the proposition put forward in the attribution theory cannot be generalized in tourism within the context of this study. The study revealed that consumers made external, permanent and controllable attributions.
Attribution theory, augmented product, augmented product perception, tourism industry
  • Babbie, E. (1989). The practice of social research (Fifth Ed.). California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
  • Badovick, G.J. (1990). Emotional reactions and salesperson motivation: an attributional approach following inadequate sales performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 18-2, 123-130.
  • Bilgin, N. (2006). Sosyal psikolojiye giriş [Introduction to social psychology]. İzmir: Ege Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Yayınları 48.
  • Bitner, M.J. (1990). Evaluating service encounters: the effects of physical surroundings and employee responses. Journal of Marketing, 54, 69-82.
  • Bitner, M.J., Booms, B.H., and Mohr, L.A. (1994). Critical service encounters: The employee’s viewpoint. Journal of Marketing, 58, 95-106.
  • Browning, V., FungSo, K.K., and Sparks, B. (2013). The influence of online reviews on consumers’ attributions of service quality and control for service standards in hotels. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30, 23-40.
  • Bower, A.B., and Maxham III, J.G. (2012). Return shipping policies of online retailers: normative assumptions and the long-term consequences of fee and free returns. Journal of Marketing, 76, 110-124.
  • Chan, F., Mcmahon, B.T., Cheing, G., Rosenthal, D.A., and Bezyak, J. (2005). Drivers of workplace discrimination against people with disabilities: the utility of attribution theory. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25, 77-88.
  • Chaudhuri, A., and Holbrook, M.B. (2001). The chain effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: The Role of Brand Loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 65(4), 81-93.
  • Choi, S., and Cai, L.A. (2016). Tourist Causal Attribution: Does Loyalty Matter? Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 33, 1337–1347
  • Chung, J.Y., and Petrick, J.F. (2012). Price fairness of airline ancillary fees: an attributional approach. Journal of Travel Research, 52(2), 168-181.
  • Cronin, J.J., and Taylor, S.A. (1992). Measuring service quality: a reexamination and extension. Journal of Marketing, 56, 55-68.
  • Cronin, J.J., and Taylor, S.A. (1994). Servperf versus servqual: reconciling performance-based and perceptions-minus-expectations measurement of service quality. Journal of Marketing, 58, 125-131.
  • Dutta, S., Bijwas, A., and Grewal, D. (2007). Low price signal default: an empirical investigation of its consequences. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35, 76-88.
  • Ellen, P.S., Mohr, L.A., and Webb, D.J. (2000). Charitable programs and the retailer: do they mix? Journal of Retailing, 76(3), 393-406.
  • Erkuş, A. (2014). Psikolojide ölçme ve ölçek geliştirme–1 temel kavramlar ve işlemler [Measurement and scale development in psychology - 1 basic concepts and operations] (2nd Ed.). Ankara: Pegem Yayınları.
  • Erkuş, A. (2009). Davranış bilimleri için bilimsel araştırma süreci [Scientific research process for behavioral sciences] (2nd Ed.). Ankara: Seçkin Yayınları.
  • Fang, E., Evens, K.R., and Landry, T.D. (2005). Control systems’ effect on attributional processes and sales outcomes: a cybernetic information-processing perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33 (4), 553-574.
  • Fuchs, M., and Weiermair, K. (2004). Destination benchmarking: an indicator-system’s potential for exploring guest satisfaction. Journal of Travel Research, 42, 212-225.
  • Green, P.E., and Krieger, A.M. (1995). Attribute importance weights modification in assessing a brand’s competitive potential. Marketing Science, 14(3), 253-270.
  • Guha, A., Biswas, A., Grewal, D., Bhowmmick, S., and Nordfalt, J. (2018). An Empirical Analysis of the Joint Effects of Shoppers’ Goals and Attribute Display on Shoppers’ Evaluations. Journal of Marketing, 82, 142-156
  • Gürses, İ. (2008). Yükleme teorisi ve din ilişkisi üzerine bir değerlendirme [An evaluation of attribution theory and the relationship between religion]. Uludağ Üniversitesi İlâhiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 17(2), 359-377.
  • Habel, J., Schons, L.M., Alavi, S., and Wieseke, J. (2016). Warm Glow or Extra Charge? The Ambivalent Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility Activities on Customers’ Perceived Price Fairness. Journal of Marketing. 80, 84-105.
  • Herpen, E.V., and Pieters, R. (2002). The variety of an assortment: an extension to the attribute-based approach. Marketing Science, 21(3), 331-341.
  • Hogg, M.A., and Vaughan, G.M. (2005). Sosyal psikoloji [Social psychology] (4th Ed.) (Trans. İ. Yıldız and A. Gelmez, 1st Ed.). Ankara: Ütopya Yayınları.
  • Jackson, M. (2019). Utilizing attribution theory to develop new insights into tourism experiences. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 38, 176–183.
  • Jacson, M.S., White, G.N., and Schmierer, C.M. (1996). Tourism experiences within an attributional framework. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(4), 798-810.
  • Janakiraman, N., Meyer, R.J., and Morales, A.C. (2006). Spillover effects: how consumers respond to unexpected changes in price and quality. Journal of Consumer Research, 33, 361-369. Janiszewski, C., and Meyvis, T. (2001). Effects of brand logo complexity, repetition and spacing on processing fluency and judgment. Journal of Consumer Research, 28, 18-32.
  • Johnston, W.J., and Kim, K. (1994). Performance, attribution, and expectancy linkages in personal selling. Journal of Marketing, 58, 68-81.
  • Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç. (1999). Sosyal psikolojiye giriş [Introduction to social psychology] (10th Ed.). İstanbul: Evrim Yayınevi.
  • Kalaycı, Ş. (2010). Spss uygulamalı çok değişkenli istatistik teknikleri [Multivariate statistical techniques with spss application] (5th Ed.). Ankara: Asil Yayın Dağıtım.
  • Karasar, N. (2003). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemi [Scientific Research Method] (12th Ed.). Ankara: Nobel Yayınevi.
  • Karatepe, O.M., and Avcı, T. (2002). Measuring service quality in the hotel industry: evidences from Northern Cyprus. Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 13(1), 19 -32.
  • Khan, M. (2003). Ecoserv ecotourists’ quality expectations. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(1), 109-124.
  • Khan, M. (2006). Behaviour and advertising management. New Delhi: New Age International Limited Publishers.
  • Khan, U., and Dhar, R. (2006). Licensing effect in consumer choice. Journal of Marketing Research, 43, 259-266.
  • Kim, A.K., and Brown, G. (2012). Understanding the relationships between perceived travel experiences, overall satisfaction, and destination loyalty. Anatolia : An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 23(3), 328-347.
  • Kim, S., Blanchard, S.J., Desarbo, W.S., and Fong, D.K.H. (2013). Implementing managerial constraints in model-based segmentation: Extensions of Kim, Fong, and Desarbo (2012) with an application to heterogeneous perceptions of service quality. Journal of Marketing Research, 50, 664-673.
  • Koç, E. (2008). Tüketici davranışı ve pazarlama stratejileri; global ve yerel yaklaşım [Consumer behavior and marketing strategies: global and local approach] (2nd Ed.). Ankara: Seçkin yayınları.
  • Kotler, P., Bowen, J., and Makens, J. (2003). Marketing for hospitality and tourism (3rd Ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.
  • Kozak, N. (2006). Turizm Pazarlaması [Tourism Marketing](1st Ed.). Ankara: Detay yayıncılık.
  • Leug, E., Paolacci, G., and Puntoni, S. (2018). Man Versus Machine: Resisting Automation in Identity-Based Consumer Behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, 55(6), 818-831.
  • Middleton, V.T.C., and Clarke, J. (2001). Marketing in travel and tourism (Third Edition). Great Britain: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  • Miller, E.G., and Khan, B.G. (2005). Shades of meaning: the effect of color and flavor names on consumer choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 32, 86-92.
  • Mizerski, R.W., Golden, L.L., and Kernan, J.B. (1979). The attribution process in consumer decision making. Journal of Consumer Research, 6, 123-140.
  • Nowlis, S.M., and Simonson, I. (1997). Attribute-task compatibility as a determinant of consumer preference reversals. Journal of Marketing Research, 34, 205-218.
  • Odabaşı, Y., Barış, G. (2002). Tüketici davranışı [Consumer behavior] (1st Ed). İstanbul: Mediacat Akademi.
  • Parasuraman, V. A., Zeithaml, V.A., and Berry, L.L. (1994). Reassessment of expectations as a comparison standard in measuring service quality: implications for further research. Journal of Marketing, 58, 111-124.
  • Pham, M.T., Goukens, C., Lehmann, D.R., and Stuart, C.A. (2010). Shaping customer satisfaction through self-awareness cues. Journal of Marketing Research, 47, 920–932.
  • Saez, C.A.A., Fuentes, M.M.F., and Montes, F.J.L. (2007). Service quality measurement in rural accommodation. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(1), 45–65.
  • Sinha, A., Inman, J.J., Wang, Y., and Park, J. (2005). Attribute drivers: a factor analytic choice map approach for understanding choices among Skus. Marketing Science, 24(3), 351-359.
  • Steward, M.D., and Levis, B.R. (2010). A comprehensive analysis of marketing journal rankings. Journal of Marketing Education, 32(1), 75-92.
  • Su, L., Lian, Q., and Huang, Y. (2020). How do tourists’ attribution of destination social responsibility motives impact trust and intention to visit? The moderating role of destination reputation. Tourism Management, 77, 1-13.
  • Tomlinson, E.C., and Mayer, R.C. (2009). The role of causal attribution dimensions in trust repair. Academy of Management Review, 34(1), 85-104.
  • Troye, S.V., and Supphellen, M. (2012). consumer participation in coproduction: “I made it myself” effects on consumers’ sensory perceptions and evaluations of outcome and input product. Journal of Marketing, 76, 33-46.
  • Tsang, N.K.F., and Prideaux, B., Lee, L. (2015). Attribution of Inappropriate Visitor Behavior in a Theme Park Setting – A Conceptual Model. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 33, 1088-1105.
  • Tsiros, M., Mittal, V., and Ross, W.T. (2004). The role of attributions in customer satisfaction: a reexamination. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(2), 476-483.
  • Meydan Uygur, S. (2007). Turizm pazarlaması [Tourism marketing] (1st Ed.). Ankara: Nobel Yayınları.
  • Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92(4), 548-573.
  • Weiner, B. (2000). Attributional thoughts about consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 27, 382-387.
  • Yağcı, M.İ., and Çabuk, S. (2014). Pazarlama teorileri (Marketing theories). İstanbul: MediaCat Kitapları.
  • Yıldırım, A., and Şimşek, H. (2000). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri [Qualitative Research Methods in Social Sciences] (2nd Ed.). Ankara: Seçkin Yayınları.
Primary Language en
Subjects Hospitality Leisure Sport and Tourism
Journal Section Peer-reviewed Research Articles

Orcid: 0000-0002-7558-5010
Author: Mehmet ŞİMŞEK (Primary Author)
Country: Turkey

Orcid: 0000-0002-1574-4403
Author: Göknil Nur KOÇAK
Country: Turkey


Application Date : June 21, 2020
Acceptance Date : September 30, 2020
Publication Date : October 29, 2020

APA Şimşek, M , Koçak, G . (2020). Augmented Product Perception and Attribution Theory in Tourism . Journal of Tourism Leisure and Hospitality , 2 (2) , 71-82 . Retrieved from