Research Article
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Year 2016, Volume 5, Issue 2, 24 - 52, 31.12.2016

Abstract

References

  • Albrecht J, Bjorklund A, and Vroman S (2003) Is there a glass ceiling in Sweden? Journal of Labor Economics 21: 145–177.
  • Altonji JG, and Blank RM (1999) Race and gender in the labor market. In: Ashenfelter O, Card D (eds.) Handbook of Labor Economics. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 3143-3259.
  • Anker R and Hein C (1986) Sex inequalities in urban employment in the third world. New York: St. Martin's press.
  • Assaad R (1997) The effect of public sector hiring and compensation policies on the Egyptian labor market. World Bank Economic Review 11(1): 85-118.
  • Becker GS (1971) The economics of discrimination. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Blau FD and Lawrence MK (2007) Gender differences in pay. Journal of Economic Perspectives 14 :( 4). 75-99.
  • Bozdogan S and Kasaba R (1997) Rethinking modernity and national identity in Turkey. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Çolak Ö and Kilic C (2001) Yeni sanayileşen bölgelerde kadın işgücü arzı: Şanlıurfa orneği, Ankara: TISK Yayınları.
  • Cotter DA, Hermsen JM and Vanneman R (2004) Gender inequality at work. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Directorate General on the Status and Problems of Women (2000) New Perspectives on Women’s Employment and Possible Demand for Female Labor. Ankara: DGSPW.
  • Dustman C and Soest A (1998) Public and private sector wages of male workers in Germany. European Economic Review 42: 1417-1441.
  • Ecevit Y (1986) Gender and wage work: A case study of Turkish women in manufacturing industry. Ph.D. Thesis in Sociology and Social Anthropology, England: University of Kent.
  • Ginther DK and Hayes KJ (2003) Gender differences in salary and promotion for faculty in the humanities. Journal of Human Resources 38 (1): 34-73.
  • Goldin G (2006) The economic analysis of labor market discrimination: a survey. In: Ashenfelter O, Layard R (eds.) Handbook of Labor Economics 1(4).
  • Gorman EH (2005) Gender stereotypes, same-gender preferences and organizational variation in the hiring of women: Evidence from law firms. American Sociological Review 70: 702-728.
  • Gunluk-Senesen G and Özar Ş (2001) Gender-based occupational segregation in the Turkish banking sector. In Çınar M (eds.) The economics of women and work in the Middle East and North Africa. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 247-267.
  • Gunderson M (1979) Earnings differentials between the public and private sectors. Canadian Journal of Economics 12: 228-242.
  • Gündüz-Hosgör A and Smits J (2008) Variation in labor market participation of married women in Turkey. Women's Studies International Forum 31(2):104-117
  • Heckman J (1979) Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica 47(1): 153-61.
  • Idson T and Feaster D (1990) A selectivity model of employer-size wage differentials. Journal of Labor Economics 8(1): 99-122.
  • Ilkkaracan P (2000) Exploring the context of women’s sexuality in eastern Turkey. In Ilkkaracan P (eds.) women and sexuality in Muslim countries, Istanbul: KIHP.
  • Kandiyoti D (1991) Women, Islam and the State. London: Macmillan.
  • Kasnakoğlu Z and Dayıoğlu M (2000) Women’s labor force participation and earnings differentials between genders in Turkey. METU Studies 24(3): 329-361.
  • King JE (1992) Labour economics, London: Macmillan.
  • Kocak S (1999) Gender discrimination in the Turkish labor market, PhD Thesis in Social Sciences, England: De Montfort University.
  • Madden JF (1973) The economics of sex discrimination, Lexington: D.C Heath and Co.
  • Meurs D and Ponthieux S (2005) The gender wage gap in Europe: women, men and the public sector, INSEE: Direction des Statistiques D ́emographiques et Sociales.
  • Oaxaca R (1973) Male-female age differentials in urban labour markets. International Economic Review 14(3): 693-709.
  • Power M (1975) Women’s work is never done by men: A socio-economic model of sex typing in occupations. Journal of Industrial Relations 17: 225-239.
  • Reich M, Gordon DM and Edwards RC (1973) A theory of labor market segmentation. American Economic Review 63(2): 359-365.
  • Rica S, Dolado J and Llorens V (2005) Ceilings or floors? gender wage gaps by education in Spain. Journal of Population Economics 21(3): 751– 776
  • State Institute for Statistics (1996) Women in Turkey of the 1990’s. Ankara: SIS.
  • State Planning Institute (2000) Work life, income, poverty and women: the development plan, report of the special expertise commission. Anka- ra: SPI.
  • Terrell K (1993) Public-private wage differentials in Haiti: do public servants earn a rent?” Journal of Development Economics 42(2): 293- 314.
  • TÜSİAD (2000), The walk towards the equality of women and men. İstanbul: TÜSİAD.
  • Tzannatos Z (1989) the long run effects of the sex integration of the British labor market", Journal of Economic Studies 14(1): 5-18.
  • World Bank (2006) Turkey Labor Market Study Report No. 33254-TR. Washington DC: World Bank Group.

THE IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL GENDER SEGREGATION TO THE GENDER WAGE GAP IN TURKISH LABOUR MARKET

Year 2016, Volume 5, Issue 2, 24 - 52, 31.12.2016

Abstract

Labor market gender segregation can be defined as an occurring which takes place when group of workers with similar abilities, training, education and experience are faced with inferior treatment in hiring, occupational access, promotion or wage rates compared to the other gender with no relation to their productivity. The paper aims to find out the underlying causes of gender occupational segregation such as human capital endowments, industrial and occupational segregation as well as institutional factors like private/public sector, firm size and social security. The prevailing theoretical and observed literature of gender discrimination is also examined and significance of gender discrimination in Turkey, where traditional, cultural beliefs and norms are still dominant, has been assessed. The level of gender-based industry and occupational segregation within the confines of data set is also studied and the segregation index is computed. It is found that a large percentage of the gender wage gap is related to gender based occupational, industrial segregation and also differences in institutional factors that is pub- lic/private sector. It can also be determined that huge unexplained portion of the segregation prevails due to discriminatory workings of the labor market.

References

  • Albrecht J, Bjorklund A, and Vroman S (2003) Is there a glass ceiling in Sweden? Journal of Labor Economics 21: 145–177.
  • Altonji JG, and Blank RM (1999) Race and gender in the labor market. In: Ashenfelter O, Card D (eds.) Handbook of Labor Economics. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 3143-3259.
  • Anker R and Hein C (1986) Sex inequalities in urban employment in the third world. New York: St. Martin's press.
  • Assaad R (1997) The effect of public sector hiring and compensation policies on the Egyptian labor market. World Bank Economic Review 11(1): 85-118.
  • Becker GS (1971) The economics of discrimination. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Blau FD and Lawrence MK (2007) Gender differences in pay. Journal of Economic Perspectives 14 :( 4). 75-99.
  • Bozdogan S and Kasaba R (1997) Rethinking modernity and national identity in Turkey. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Çolak Ö and Kilic C (2001) Yeni sanayileşen bölgelerde kadın işgücü arzı: Şanlıurfa orneği, Ankara: TISK Yayınları.
  • Cotter DA, Hermsen JM and Vanneman R (2004) Gender inequality at work. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Directorate General on the Status and Problems of Women (2000) New Perspectives on Women’s Employment and Possible Demand for Female Labor. Ankara: DGSPW.
  • Dustman C and Soest A (1998) Public and private sector wages of male workers in Germany. European Economic Review 42: 1417-1441.
  • Ecevit Y (1986) Gender and wage work: A case study of Turkish women in manufacturing industry. Ph.D. Thesis in Sociology and Social Anthropology, England: University of Kent.
  • Ginther DK and Hayes KJ (2003) Gender differences in salary and promotion for faculty in the humanities. Journal of Human Resources 38 (1): 34-73.
  • Goldin G (2006) The economic analysis of labor market discrimination: a survey. In: Ashenfelter O, Layard R (eds.) Handbook of Labor Economics 1(4).
  • Gorman EH (2005) Gender stereotypes, same-gender preferences and organizational variation in the hiring of women: Evidence from law firms. American Sociological Review 70: 702-728.
  • Gunluk-Senesen G and Özar Ş (2001) Gender-based occupational segregation in the Turkish banking sector. In Çınar M (eds.) The economics of women and work in the Middle East and North Africa. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 247-267.
  • Gunderson M (1979) Earnings differentials between the public and private sectors. Canadian Journal of Economics 12: 228-242.
  • Gündüz-Hosgör A and Smits J (2008) Variation in labor market participation of married women in Turkey. Women's Studies International Forum 31(2):104-117
  • Heckman J (1979) Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica 47(1): 153-61.
  • Idson T and Feaster D (1990) A selectivity model of employer-size wage differentials. Journal of Labor Economics 8(1): 99-122.
  • Ilkkaracan P (2000) Exploring the context of women’s sexuality in eastern Turkey. In Ilkkaracan P (eds.) women and sexuality in Muslim countries, Istanbul: KIHP.
  • Kandiyoti D (1991) Women, Islam and the State. London: Macmillan.
  • Kasnakoğlu Z and Dayıoğlu M (2000) Women’s labor force participation and earnings differentials between genders in Turkey. METU Studies 24(3): 329-361.
  • King JE (1992) Labour economics, London: Macmillan.
  • Kocak S (1999) Gender discrimination in the Turkish labor market, PhD Thesis in Social Sciences, England: De Montfort University.
  • Madden JF (1973) The economics of sex discrimination, Lexington: D.C Heath and Co.
  • Meurs D and Ponthieux S (2005) The gender wage gap in Europe: women, men and the public sector, INSEE: Direction des Statistiques D ́emographiques et Sociales.
  • Oaxaca R (1973) Male-female age differentials in urban labour markets. International Economic Review 14(3): 693-709.
  • Power M (1975) Women’s work is never done by men: A socio-economic model of sex typing in occupations. Journal of Industrial Relations 17: 225-239.
  • Reich M, Gordon DM and Edwards RC (1973) A theory of labor market segmentation. American Economic Review 63(2): 359-365.
  • Rica S, Dolado J and Llorens V (2005) Ceilings or floors? gender wage gaps by education in Spain. Journal of Population Economics 21(3): 751– 776
  • State Institute for Statistics (1996) Women in Turkey of the 1990’s. Ankara: SIS.
  • State Planning Institute (2000) Work life, income, poverty and women: the development plan, report of the special expertise commission. Anka- ra: SPI.
  • Terrell K (1993) Public-private wage differentials in Haiti: do public servants earn a rent?” Journal of Development Economics 42(2): 293- 314.
  • TÜSİAD (2000), The walk towards the equality of women and men. İstanbul: TÜSİAD.
  • Tzannatos Z (1989) the long run effects of the sex integration of the British labor market", Journal of Economic Studies 14(1): 5-18.
  • World Bank (2006) Turkey Labor Market Study Report No. 33254-TR. Washington DC: World Bank Group.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Meltem İnce YENİLMEZ This is me
YAŞAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Can KARABIYIK This is me
MANİSA CELÂL BAYAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Publication Date December 31, 2016
Application Date July 1, 2016
Acceptance Date
Published in Issue Year 2016, Volume 5, Issue 2

Cite

APA Yenilmez, M. İ. & Karabıyık, C. (2016). THE IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL GENDER SEGREGATION TO THE GENDER WAGE GAP IN TURKISH LABOUR MARKET . Trakya Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi E-Dergi , 5 (2) , 24-52 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/trakyaiibf/issue/57832/829902