Research Article
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Uluslararası ilişkilerde kuvvet kullanımı yasağının geçerliliği

Year 2022, Volume 11, Issue 1, 16 - 30, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.47934/tife.11.01.02

Abstract

Devletler sisteminin ortaya çıktığı 1648 Westphalia anlaşmasından bu yana savaş devletlerarasındaki uzlaşmazlık ve çatışmaların bir çözüm yöntemi olarak varlığını korumaktadır. Bununla birlikte uluslararası sorunlarda kuvvet kullanma, taraflar arasındaki problemi çözmekten ziyade ilişkileri zehirleyen bir başka sorun kaynağı olmuştur. Gelişen teknolojiye paralel olarak nükleer, biyolojik ve kimyasal kitlesel imha silahlarının öldürücü gücü sadece insan hayatıyla ilgili endişeleri değil tüm insanlığın ve medeniyetin yok olması tehlikesini ortaya çıkartmıştır. Bu nedenle tarihî süreç içinde gittikçe artan bir şekilde kuvvet kullanımının sınırlanması ve yasaklanması yönünde bir eğilim güçlenmiştir. İkinci Dünya Savaşı sonunda tüm devletlerce kuvvete başvurmayı yasaklayan bir uluslararası düzenleme kabul edilmiş ve bunun denetimi Birleşmiş Milletler (BM) örgütüne bırakılmıştı. Ancak 1945 senesinden bu yana, kuvvet kullanımı mutlak olarak yasaklanmış olmasına rağmen dünyamızda savaşsız geçen tek bir yıl bile yaşanmamıştır. Aksine, dünya genelinde savaş ve çatışmalar gittikçe artan bir yükseliş grafiği göstermektedir. Bu durum uluslararası ilişkilerde inkâr edilemez bir çelişkiyi ortaya koymaktadır. Makalede bu çelişkinin temelinde, devletlere tanınan meşru müdafaa hakkının geniş ve farklı yorumlanmasının yattığı vurgulanmaktadır.

References

  • Ackermann, A. (1999). Making peace prevail: preventing violent conflict in Macedonia. Syracuse University Press.
  • Batur, M. (2007). SilahlıÇatışmalardaSivillerinKorunması, ArıkanYayıncılık.
  • Bercovitch, J. Jackson, R. (2009). Conflict resolution in the 21 century, The University of Michigan Press.
  • Biden’s Interim National Security Strategic Guidance, March 2021.
  • BirleşmişMilletleranlaşmasıdoğrultusundadevletlerarasındadostçailişkilerveişbirliğikonularındauluslararasıhukukilkeleribildirgesi. (1970). Erişimadresi https://diabgm.adalet.gov.tr/arsiv/sozlesmeler/coktaraflisoz/bm/bm_17.pdf
  • Bozkurt, E. (2012). DevletlerHukuku, YetkinYayınları, Ankara.
  • Brown, M. E. Cote, O. R. Sean, M. L. Steven E. Miller, S.E. (Ed.). (1998). Theories of war and peace. London: The MIT press.
  • Clausewitz, C. (1975). SavaşÜzerine, May Yayınları, İstanbul.
  • Declaration on principles of international law concerning friendly relations and cooperation among states.
  • Evera, S. V. (1999). Causes of war: power and the roots of international conflict, Cornell University Press.
  • Finley, M.I. (Ed.). (1954). Thucydides: History of the Peloponnesian War. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Göktepe, O. (2017). United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Lebanon Case, CiniusYayınları.
  • Gündüz, A. (2000). Milletlerarasıhukuktemelbelgelerörnekkararlar. İstanbul: Beta Yayınları.
  • Heselhaus, S. (t.y.) International law and the use of force. International law and institution, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS). Erişimadresi https://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c14/E1-36-01-02.pdf
  • Lebow, R. N. (1981). Between peace and war: the nature of international crisis, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Levy, J. S. (2008). Preventive war and democratic politics, International Studies Quarterly Vol.52, issue:1, Chicago.
  • Luard, E. (1968). Conflict and peace in the modern international system, Boston: Little Brown and Company.
  • Lubell, N. (2015). The problem of imminence in an uncertain World, The oxford handbook of the use of force in international law. M. Weller (Ed.), Oxford University Press.
  • Morgenthau, H. (1978). Politics Among Nations: The Struggle For Power and Peace, (5.th ed.). New York: Knopf.
  • Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 16 September 2005. Erişimadresi https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/generalassembly/docs/globalcompact/A_RES_60_1.pdf
  • Seybolt, T.B. ve Aronson, J.D. (Ed). (2013). Counting Civilian Casualties,: an introduction to recording and estimating non military deaths in conflict, Oxford University Press.
  • Taylor, A.J.P. (1954). The struggle for mastery in Europe, 1848-1918, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • The use of non-violent coercion: a study in legality under article 2(4) of the charter of the United Nations, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Apr. 1974, Vol:122, No:4.
  • The use of non-violent coercion: a study in legality under Article 2(4) of the charter of the United Nations, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Apr. 1974, Vol:122, No:4, s.995-997.
  • Trapp, K.N. (2007). Back to basics; necessity, proportionality and the right of self defence against non-state terrorist actors, The international and comparative law quarterly, Vol.56, No:1, Cambridge University Press.
  • UN General Assembly, 14 December 1974, A/RES/3314 (XXIX), Article-3. Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP). Erişimadresi https://ucdp.uu.se/ Waldock, H.M. (1982). The regulation of the use of force by individual states in international law. Paris.
  • Waltz, K.N. (2001). Man, the state and war, a theoretical analysis. New York: Colombia University Press.
  • Wood, M. (t.y.) International law and the use of force: what happens in practice. Erişimadresi https://legal.un.org/avl/pdf/ls/Wood_article.pdf, Vol-53.

Validity of the prohibition on the use of force in international relations

Year 2022, Volume 11, Issue 1, 16 - 30, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.47934/tife.11.01.02

Abstract

Since the 1648 Westphalia agreement, war has been maintaining its existence as a method of conflicts resolution between states. In parallel with the developing technology, the lethal power of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction raises not only concerns about human life, but also the danger of extinction of all humanity and the civilization. At the end of the Second World War, a new international system has been established which absolutely prohibits the use of force among the states and UN has been tasked to supervise and implement this principle. Nevertheless, since 1945, despite the existence of prohibition of the use of force, there has not been a single year without a war in the world. On the contrary, wars and conflicts around the world show an increasing trend year by year. This article emphasizes that the basis of this contradiction lies in the broad and different interpretation of the right of self-defense granted to the states.

References

  • Ackermann, A. (1999). Making peace prevail: preventing violent conflict in Macedonia. Syracuse University Press.
  • Batur, M. (2007). SilahlıÇatışmalardaSivillerinKorunması, ArıkanYayıncılık.
  • Bercovitch, J. Jackson, R. (2009). Conflict resolution in the 21 century, The University of Michigan Press.
  • Biden’s Interim National Security Strategic Guidance, March 2021.
  • BirleşmişMilletleranlaşmasıdoğrultusundadevletlerarasındadostçailişkilerveişbirliğikonularındauluslararasıhukukilkeleribildirgesi. (1970). Erişimadresi https://diabgm.adalet.gov.tr/arsiv/sozlesmeler/coktaraflisoz/bm/bm_17.pdf
  • Bozkurt, E. (2012). DevletlerHukuku, YetkinYayınları, Ankara.
  • Brown, M. E. Cote, O. R. Sean, M. L. Steven E. Miller, S.E. (Ed.). (1998). Theories of war and peace. London: The MIT press.
  • Clausewitz, C. (1975). SavaşÜzerine, May Yayınları, İstanbul.
  • Declaration on principles of international law concerning friendly relations and cooperation among states.
  • Evera, S. V. (1999). Causes of war: power and the roots of international conflict, Cornell University Press.
  • Finley, M.I. (Ed.). (1954). Thucydides: History of the Peloponnesian War. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Göktepe, O. (2017). United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Lebanon Case, CiniusYayınları.
  • Gündüz, A. (2000). Milletlerarasıhukuktemelbelgelerörnekkararlar. İstanbul: Beta Yayınları.
  • Heselhaus, S. (t.y.) International law and the use of force. International law and institution, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS). Erişimadresi https://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c14/E1-36-01-02.pdf
  • Lebow, R. N. (1981). Between peace and war: the nature of international crisis, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Levy, J. S. (2008). Preventive war and democratic politics, International Studies Quarterly Vol.52, issue:1, Chicago.
  • Luard, E. (1968). Conflict and peace in the modern international system, Boston: Little Brown and Company.
  • Lubell, N. (2015). The problem of imminence in an uncertain World, The oxford handbook of the use of force in international law. M. Weller (Ed.), Oxford University Press.
  • Morgenthau, H. (1978). Politics Among Nations: The Struggle For Power and Peace, (5.th ed.). New York: Knopf.
  • Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 16 September 2005. Erişimadresi https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/generalassembly/docs/globalcompact/A_RES_60_1.pdf
  • Seybolt, T.B. ve Aronson, J.D. (Ed). (2013). Counting Civilian Casualties,: an introduction to recording and estimating non military deaths in conflict, Oxford University Press.
  • Taylor, A.J.P. (1954). The struggle for mastery in Europe, 1848-1918, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • The use of non-violent coercion: a study in legality under article 2(4) of the charter of the United Nations, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Apr. 1974, Vol:122, No:4.
  • The use of non-violent coercion: a study in legality under Article 2(4) of the charter of the United Nations, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Apr. 1974, Vol:122, No:4, s.995-997.
  • Trapp, K.N. (2007). Back to basics; necessity, proportionality and the right of self defence against non-state terrorist actors, The international and comparative law quarterly, Vol.56, No:1, Cambridge University Press.
  • UN General Assembly, 14 December 1974, A/RES/3314 (XXIX), Article-3. Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP). Erişimadresi https://ucdp.uu.se/ Waldock, H.M. (1982). The regulation of the use of force by individual states in international law. Paris.
  • Waltz, K.N. (2001). Man, the state and war, a theoretical analysis. New York: Colombia University Press.
  • Wood, M. (t.y.) International law and the use of force: what happens in practice. Erişimadresi https://legal.un.org/avl/pdf/ls/Wood_article.pdf, Vol-53.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Orhan GÖKTEPE> (Primary Author)
İSTANBUL YENİ YÜZYIL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7582-3736
Türkiye

Early Pub Date June 24, 2022
Publication Date June 30, 2022
Application Date April 1, 2022
Acceptance Date May 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 11, Issue 1

Cite

APA Göktepe, O. (2022). Uluslararası ilişkilerde kuvvet kullanımı yasağının geçerliliği . Trakya Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi E-Dergi , 11 (1) , 16-30 . DOI: 10.47934/tife.11.01.02