Research Article
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Online listening strategy instruction in teaching Turkish as an L2

Year 2022, Volume 11, Issue 4, 201 - 221, 31.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.19128/turje.1032406

Abstract

Listening strategies are enacted plans that one can use to better understand, learn, remember, and comprehend a target language. The present study aims to examine how the process of listening strategy instruction may be implemented in the teaching of Turkish to L2 learners. The study was a qualitative one, conducted with the action research method on an online platform, Zoom. Five Turkish L2 learners participated in the study. The results show that students used the listening strategies in various frequencies and combinations during the implementation process. Throughout the implementation process, the least used strategies were relating with prior information, performance evaluation, monitoring, and inferencing, while the most frequently used strategies were note-taking, determining keywords, translating, and prediction. The students stated that prediction, note-taking, and planning were the most useful strategies for them during the implementation process. Also, the use of authentic videos in online listening strategy instruction lessons contributed to students' learning in diverse areas of interest, particularly learning new vocabulary, and thus motivate them.

References

  • Amirian, T. & Farahian, M. (2014). The impact of explicit teaching of listening strategies on Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Scientific Emerging Research, 3(2), 975-978.
  • Altunkaya, H., & Uyan, Ö. (2020). The effect of listening metacognition strategy teaching on Turkish learner's listening comprehension skills. Cumhuriyet International Journal of Education, 9(1), 68-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.30703/cije.536924
  • Alyılmaz, S. & Şengül, K. (2017). In teaching Turkish as a foreign language, the effects of the activities based on language learning strategies on success and permanency in relation to grammar. Ankara Üniversitesi Tömer Dil Dergisi, 169(1), 67-110.
  • Bacon, S. M. (1992). The relationship between gender, comprehension, processing strategies, and cognitive and affective response in foreign language listening. The Modern Language Journal, 76(2), 160-178. https://doi.org/10.2307/329769
  • Bloomberg, L. D. & Volpe, F. M. (2019). Completing your qualitative dissertation: a road map from beginning to end. SAGE.
  • Boylu, E. (2015). Level of use of language learning strategies by learners of Turkish language as a foreign language. Route Educational and Social Science Journal, 2(3), 67-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.17121/ressjournal.347
  • Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Pearson Education.
  • Brown, S. (2006). Teaching listening. Cambridge University Press.
  • Burns, A. (2010). Doing action research in English language teaching. Routledge.
  • Can, T. (2011). The use of strategies in English language learning coursebooks in the context of life-long learning. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Istanbul University.
  • Carrier, K. A. (2003). Improving high school English language learners’ second language listening through strategy instruction. Bilingual Research Journal, 27(3), 383-408. https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2003.10162600
  • Chamot, A. U. (2005). Language learning strategy instruction: Current issues and research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 112-130.
  • Chen, A. (2009). Listening strategy instruction: Exploring Taiwanese college students’ strategy development. Asian EFL Journal, 11(2), 54-85.
  • Chen, A. (2013). EFL listener’s strategy development and listening problems: A process-based study. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 10(3), 81-101.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Pearson.
  • Dick, B. (1993). Action research theses. http://www.aral.com.au/DLitt/DLitt_P50arth.pdf Retrieved on 12.09.2021.
  • Duman, G. B. & Yurdakul, Y. (2021). Educators’ attitude and perspectives towards their usage of materials and the technological infrastructure in distance education of teaching Turkish as a foreign language. Journal of World of Turks, 13(1), 419-438. https://doi.org/10.46291/ZfWT/130121
  • Eftekhary, A. A. & Gharib, T. (2013). The effect of metacognitive strategy training on the listening performance of Iranian EFL beginner learners. Interational Electronic Journal for the Teachers of English, 3(1), 113-127.
  • Elemen, B. (2014). Turkish as a second language learning foreign students graduate level in listening strategies used. [Unpublished master’s dissertation]. Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University.
  • Field, J. (1998). Skills and strategies: Towards a new methodology for listening. ELT Journal, 52(2), 110-118.
  • Field, J. (2008). Listening in the language classroom. Cambridge University Press.
  • Goh, C. (1998). How ESL learners with different listening abilities use comprehension strategies and tactics. Language Teaching Research, 2(2), 124-147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/136216889800200203
  • Goh, C. (2000). A cognitive perspective on language learners’ listening comprehension problems. System, 28, 55-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(99)00060-3
  • Goh, C. (2008). Metacognitive instruction for second language listening development: Theory, practice and research implications. Regional Language Centre Journal, 39(2), 188-213. https://doi.org/10.1177/00336882080921
  • Goh, C. C. M. (2010). Listening as process: Learning activities for self-appraisal and self-regulation. In Harwood, N. (Ed.), English language teaching materials: Theory and practice (pp. 179–206). Cambridge University Press.
  • Goh, C. C. M. (2017). Cognition, metacognition, and L2 listening. In Hinkel, E. (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 214–228). Routledge.
  • Graham, S. (2006). Listening comprehension: The learner’s perspective. System. 34, 165-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2005.11.001
  • Graham, S. & Macaro, E. (2008). Strategy instruction in listening for lower-intermediate learners of French. Language Learning, 58(4), 747-783. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00478.x
  • Graham, S., Santos, D. & Vanderplank, R. (2011). Exploring the relationship between listening development and strategy use. Language Teaching Research, 15(4), 435-456.
  • Graham, S. (2017). Research into practice: Listening strategies in an instructed classroom setting. Language Teaching, 50(1), 107-119.
  • Graham, S. & Santos, D. (2015). Strategies for second language listening-Current scenarios and improved pedagogy. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Guan, Y. (2014). The effects of explicit listening strategy instruction on the listening comprehension of English as a second language (ESL) community college students. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. The University of San Francisco.
  • Güngör, H., Çangal, Ö. & Demir, T. (2020). The views of learners and instructors as to distant teaching Turkish as a foreign language. Gazi University Gazi Education Faculty Journal. 40(3), 1163-1191. https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.756612
  • Hasan, A. S. (2000). Learners’ perceptions of listening classroom. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 2(2), 113-155.
  • İskender, M. E. (2021). Experiences of distance learning courses in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. RumeliDE Journal of Language and Literature Studies, (22), 96-117. https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.885523
  • Johnson, A. (2011). A short guide to action research. Pearson Education.
  • Kaldırım, A. & Degeç, H. (2017). Türkçeyi yabanci dil olarak öğrenen öğrencilerin dinleme esnasında karşılaştıkları sorunlar. Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 7(1), 19-36.
  • Karagöl, E. (2019). Yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretiminde dinleme becerisi [Listening skill in teaching Turkish as a foreign language]. Pegem Akademi.
  • Looi-Chin, C., Unin, N. & Johari, A. (2017). Metacognitive awareness strategies for listening comprehension. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Teaching and Learning of Languages (ICTLL), 99-106.
  • Mendelsohn, D. (1994). Learning to listen: a strategy-based approach for the second language learner. Dominie Press.
  • Mercadal-Sabbagh, T. & Purdy, M. (n.d.). Listening: The “Lost” communication skill. https://www.academia.edu/5612011/Listening_The_lost_communication_skill Retrieved on 30.07.2019.
  • Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research a guide to design and implementation. Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint.
  • Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (1994). An Expanded Sourcebook Qualitative Data Analysis. Sage Publications.
  • Mills, G. E. (2003). Action research. A guide for the teacher researcher. Pearson Education.
  • Moradi, K. (2012). The impact of listening strategy instruction on academic lecture comprehension: A case of Iranian EFL learners. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 406-416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.078
  • Ngo, N. T. H. (2016). The impact of listening strategy instruction on listening comprehension: A study in an English as a foreign language context. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 13(2), 245-259.
  • Ngo, N. (2019). Understanding the impact of listening strategy instruction on listening strategy use from a socio-cultural perspective. System, 81, 63-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2019.01.002
  • Norris, R. N. (2011). Using authentic videos to enhance language and culture instruction in a formal English language learning setting: Ten videos and accompanying lessons. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. University of Arkansas.
  • O’Malley, J. M. & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge University Press.
  • Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies-what every teacher should know. Heinle&Heinle Publishers.
  • Oxford, R. L., Cho, Y., Leung, S., Kim, H. (2004). Effect of the presence and difficulty of task on strategy use: An exploratory study. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 42(1), 1-48.
  • Özpınar, İ. & Aydoğan Yenmez A. (2014). Eylem araştırması [Action research]. M. Metin (Eds.), Eğitimde bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods in education] (pp. 441-467). Pegem Akademi.
  • Rahimirad, M. (2014). The impact of metacognitive strategy instruction on the listening performance of university students. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1485-1491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.569
  • Rost, M. (2011). Teaching and researching listening. Pearson Education Limited.
  • Sobouti, F. & Amiri, M. (2014). The impact of listening strategy instruction on the improvement of Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ comprehension of news videotexts. Academic Research International, 5(2), 334-344. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.7n.3p.188
  • Sefer, A. & Benzer, A. (2020). Listening skill with a holistic approach in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. IJLA, 8(3), 123-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.29228/ijla.42254
  • Simasangyaporn, N. (2016). The effect of listening strategy instruction on Thai learners’ self-efficacy, English listening comprehension and reported use of listening strategies. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Reading.
  • Tanman, N. B. & Özgenel, M. (2021). Examining the factors affecting the Turkish learning levels of foreigners studying face-to-face and online: Ankara University TÖMER example. Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University (IZU) Journal of Education. 3 (6), 128-148. https://doi.org/10.46423/izujed.1006011
  • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education. (2012). Just write! guide. https://lincs.ed.gov/sites/default/files/TEAL_JustWriteGuide.pdf Retrieved on 30.09.2020.
  • Vandergrift, L. (2004). Listening to learn or learning to listen? Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 3-25. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190504000017
  • Vandergrift, L. & Goh, C. (2012). Teaching and learning second language listening. Routledge.
  • Wilson, J.J. (2008). How to teach listening. Pearson Education Limited.
  • Yıldırım, A., Şimşek, H. (2013). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri [Qualitative research methods in the social sciences] (9th ed.). Seçkin.
  • Zarrabi, F. (2017). How explicit listening strategy instruction affects listening comprehension of different learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 8(4), 655-662. http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0804.03
  • Zobler, A. C. (2010). Effects of listening strategies instruction on listening comprehension, oral proficiency and metacognition on second language learners. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Western Connecticut State University.

İkinci dil olarak Türkçe öğretiminde çevrim içi dinleme stratejileri öğretimi

Year 2022, Volume 11, Issue 4, 201 - 221, 31.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.19128/turje.1032406

Abstract

Dinleme stratejileri, öğrencilerin bir hedef dili daha iyi anlamak, öğrenmek, hatırlamak ve kavramak için kullanabilecekleri uygulanabilir planlardır. Bu çalışma, dinleme stratejileri öğretim sürecinin Türkçe ikinci dil öğrencileri üzerinde nasıl uygulanabileceğini incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Araştırma nitel desenlerden eylem araştırması yöntemiyle çevrim içi bir platform olan Zoom üzerinden gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmaya ikinci dil olarak Türkçe öğrenmekte olan beş öğrenci katılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre öğrenciler uygulama sürecinde öğrendikleri dinleme stratejilerini çeşitli sıklık ve kombinasyonlarda kullanmışlardır. Bu çalışmanın uygulama sürecinde en az kullanılan stratejiler ön bilgi ile ilişkilendirme, performans değerlendirme, izleme ve çıkarım yapma iken en sık kullanılan stratejiler sırasıyla not alma, anahtar kelime belirleme, çeviri yapma ve tahmin etme olmuştur. Öğrenciler tahmin etme, not alma ve planlamanın uygulama sürecinde kendileri için en faydalı stratejiler olduğunu belirtmişlerdir. Ayrıca çevrim içi derslerde strateji eğitiminde otantik videoların kullanılmasının, öğrencilerin farklı ilgi alanlarında, özellikle yeni kelimeler öğrenmelerine katkı sağladığını ve dolayısıyla onları motive ettiğini göstermektedir.

References

  • Amirian, T. & Farahian, M. (2014). The impact of explicit teaching of listening strategies on Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Scientific Emerging Research, 3(2), 975-978.
  • Altunkaya, H., & Uyan, Ö. (2020). The effect of listening metacognition strategy teaching on Turkish learner's listening comprehension skills. Cumhuriyet International Journal of Education, 9(1), 68-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.30703/cije.536924
  • Alyılmaz, S. & Şengül, K. (2017). In teaching Turkish as a foreign language, the effects of the activities based on language learning strategies on success and permanency in relation to grammar. Ankara Üniversitesi Tömer Dil Dergisi, 169(1), 67-110.
  • Bacon, S. M. (1992). The relationship between gender, comprehension, processing strategies, and cognitive and affective response in foreign language listening. The Modern Language Journal, 76(2), 160-178. https://doi.org/10.2307/329769
  • Bloomberg, L. D. & Volpe, F. M. (2019). Completing your qualitative dissertation: a road map from beginning to end. SAGE.
  • Boylu, E. (2015). Level of use of language learning strategies by learners of Turkish language as a foreign language. Route Educational and Social Science Journal, 2(3), 67-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.17121/ressjournal.347
  • Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Pearson Education.
  • Brown, S. (2006). Teaching listening. Cambridge University Press.
  • Burns, A. (2010). Doing action research in English language teaching. Routledge.
  • Can, T. (2011). The use of strategies in English language learning coursebooks in the context of life-long learning. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Istanbul University.
  • Carrier, K. A. (2003). Improving high school English language learners’ second language listening through strategy instruction. Bilingual Research Journal, 27(3), 383-408. https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2003.10162600
  • Chamot, A. U. (2005). Language learning strategy instruction: Current issues and research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 112-130.
  • Chen, A. (2009). Listening strategy instruction: Exploring Taiwanese college students’ strategy development. Asian EFL Journal, 11(2), 54-85.
  • Chen, A. (2013). EFL listener’s strategy development and listening problems: A process-based study. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 10(3), 81-101.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Pearson.
  • Dick, B. (1993). Action research theses. http://www.aral.com.au/DLitt/DLitt_P50arth.pdf Retrieved on 12.09.2021.
  • Duman, G. B. & Yurdakul, Y. (2021). Educators’ attitude and perspectives towards their usage of materials and the technological infrastructure in distance education of teaching Turkish as a foreign language. Journal of World of Turks, 13(1), 419-438. https://doi.org/10.46291/ZfWT/130121
  • Eftekhary, A. A. & Gharib, T. (2013). The effect of metacognitive strategy training on the listening performance of Iranian EFL beginner learners. Interational Electronic Journal for the Teachers of English, 3(1), 113-127.
  • Elemen, B. (2014). Turkish as a second language learning foreign students graduate level in listening strategies used. [Unpublished master’s dissertation]. Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University.
  • Field, J. (1998). Skills and strategies: Towards a new methodology for listening. ELT Journal, 52(2), 110-118.
  • Field, J. (2008). Listening in the language classroom. Cambridge University Press.
  • Goh, C. (1998). How ESL learners with different listening abilities use comprehension strategies and tactics. Language Teaching Research, 2(2), 124-147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/136216889800200203
  • Goh, C. (2000). A cognitive perspective on language learners’ listening comprehension problems. System, 28, 55-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(99)00060-3
  • Goh, C. (2008). Metacognitive instruction for second language listening development: Theory, practice and research implications. Regional Language Centre Journal, 39(2), 188-213. https://doi.org/10.1177/00336882080921
  • Goh, C. C. M. (2010). Listening as process: Learning activities for self-appraisal and self-regulation. In Harwood, N. (Ed.), English language teaching materials: Theory and practice (pp. 179–206). Cambridge University Press.
  • Goh, C. C. M. (2017). Cognition, metacognition, and L2 listening. In Hinkel, E. (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 214–228). Routledge.
  • Graham, S. (2006). Listening comprehension: The learner’s perspective. System. 34, 165-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2005.11.001
  • Graham, S. & Macaro, E. (2008). Strategy instruction in listening for lower-intermediate learners of French. Language Learning, 58(4), 747-783. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00478.x
  • Graham, S., Santos, D. & Vanderplank, R. (2011). Exploring the relationship between listening development and strategy use. Language Teaching Research, 15(4), 435-456.
  • Graham, S. (2017). Research into practice: Listening strategies in an instructed classroom setting. Language Teaching, 50(1), 107-119.
  • Graham, S. & Santos, D. (2015). Strategies for second language listening-Current scenarios and improved pedagogy. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Guan, Y. (2014). The effects of explicit listening strategy instruction on the listening comprehension of English as a second language (ESL) community college students. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. The University of San Francisco.
  • Güngör, H., Çangal, Ö. & Demir, T. (2020). The views of learners and instructors as to distant teaching Turkish as a foreign language. Gazi University Gazi Education Faculty Journal. 40(3), 1163-1191. https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.756612
  • Hasan, A. S. (2000). Learners’ perceptions of listening classroom. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 2(2), 113-155.
  • İskender, M. E. (2021). Experiences of distance learning courses in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. RumeliDE Journal of Language and Literature Studies, (22), 96-117. https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.885523
  • Johnson, A. (2011). A short guide to action research. Pearson Education.
  • Kaldırım, A. & Degeç, H. (2017). Türkçeyi yabanci dil olarak öğrenen öğrencilerin dinleme esnasında karşılaştıkları sorunlar. Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 7(1), 19-36.
  • Karagöl, E. (2019). Yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretiminde dinleme becerisi [Listening skill in teaching Turkish as a foreign language]. Pegem Akademi.
  • Looi-Chin, C., Unin, N. & Johari, A. (2017). Metacognitive awareness strategies for listening comprehension. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Teaching and Learning of Languages (ICTLL), 99-106.
  • Mendelsohn, D. (1994). Learning to listen: a strategy-based approach for the second language learner. Dominie Press.
  • Mercadal-Sabbagh, T. & Purdy, M. (n.d.). Listening: The “Lost” communication skill. https://www.academia.edu/5612011/Listening_The_lost_communication_skill Retrieved on 30.07.2019.
  • Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research a guide to design and implementation. Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint.
  • Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (1994). An Expanded Sourcebook Qualitative Data Analysis. Sage Publications.
  • Mills, G. E. (2003). Action research. A guide for the teacher researcher. Pearson Education.
  • Moradi, K. (2012). The impact of listening strategy instruction on academic lecture comprehension: A case of Iranian EFL learners. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 406-416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.078
  • Ngo, N. T. H. (2016). The impact of listening strategy instruction on listening comprehension: A study in an English as a foreign language context. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 13(2), 245-259.
  • Ngo, N. (2019). Understanding the impact of listening strategy instruction on listening strategy use from a socio-cultural perspective. System, 81, 63-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2019.01.002
  • Norris, R. N. (2011). Using authentic videos to enhance language and culture instruction in a formal English language learning setting: Ten videos and accompanying lessons. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. University of Arkansas.
  • O’Malley, J. M. & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge University Press.
  • Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies-what every teacher should know. Heinle&Heinle Publishers.
  • Oxford, R. L., Cho, Y., Leung, S., Kim, H. (2004). Effect of the presence and difficulty of task on strategy use: An exploratory study. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 42(1), 1-48.
  • Özpınar, İ. & Aydoğan Yenmez A. (2014). Eylem araştırması [Action research]. M. Metin (Eds.), Eğitimde bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods in education] (pp. 441-467). Pegem Akademi.
  • Rahimirad, M. (2014). The impact of metacognitive strategy instruction on the listening performance of university students. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1485-1491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.569
  • Rost, M. (2011). Teaching and researching listening. Pearson Education Limited.
  • Sobouti, F. & Amiri, M. (2014). The impact of listening strategy instruction on the improvement of Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ comprehension of news videotexts. Academic Research International, 5(2), 334-344. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.7n.3p.188
  • Sefer, A. & Benzer, A. (2020). Listening skill with a holistic approach in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. IJLA, 8(3), 123-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.29228/ijla.42254
  • Simasangyaporn, N. (2016). The effect of listening strategy instruction on Thai learners’ self-efficacy, English listening comprehension and reported use of listening strategies. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Reading.
  • Tanman, N. B. & Özgenel, M. (2021). Examining the factors affecting the Turkish learning levels of foreigners studying face-to-face and online: Ankara University TÖMER example. Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University (IZU) Journal of Education. 3 (6), 128-148. https://doi.org/10.46423/izujed.1006011
  • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education. (2012). Just write! guide. https://lincs.ed.gov/sites/default/files/TEAL_JustWriteGuide.pdf Retrieved on 30.09.2020.
  • Vandergrift, L. (2004). Listening to learn or learning to listen? Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 3-25. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190504000017
  • Vandergrift, L. & Goh, C. (2012). Teaching and learning second language listening. Routledge.
  • Wilson, J.J. (2008). How to teach listening. Pearson Education Limited.
  • Yıldırım, A., Şimşek, H. (2013). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri [Qualitative research methods in the social sciences] (9th ed.). Seçkin.
  • Zarrabi, F. (2017). How explicit listening strategy instruction affects listening comprehension of different learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 8(4), 655-662. http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0804.03
  • Zobler, A. C. (2010). Effects of listening strategies instruction on listening comprehension, oral proficiency and metacognition on second language learners. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Western Connecticut State University.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education, Scientific Disciplines
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Ayşegül SEFER> (Primary Author)
YOZGAT BOZOK ÜNİVERSİTESİ, EĞİTİM FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-7876-2481
Türkiye


Ahmet BENZER>
MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-3579-3699
Türkiye

Publication Date October 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 11, Issue 4

Cite

APA Sefer, A. & Benzer, A. (2022). Online listening strategy instruction in teaching Turkish as an L2 . Turkish Journal of Education , 11 (4) , 201-221 . DOI: 10.19128/turje.1032406

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