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UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN STRATEGIC CULTURE AND FOREIGN POLICY THROUGH ROBERT KAGAN: A REVIEW

Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 1, 1 - 17, 21.04.2021
https://doi.org/10.51763/uid.868169

Abstract

This paper aims to understand how the American strategic culture and perception of security have been shaped over time and what its main features are. American strategic culture has been nourished from the historical, geographical, and political realities of the country. Being a country founded by immigrants, making a great America was also part of the nation-building process. Moreover, the continent's geographical conditions have led the United States of America to be a more powerful state to intervene in political and military issues worldwide. According to Robert Kagan, the interventionist character, the role of security provider, and disfavoring the international law and organizations are the American foreign policy's main features. In this respect, this paper focuses on these three aspects and evaluate them in its limitation. Although there are many studies upon American foreign policy, this study diverges itself from the existing literature by putting Robert Kagan’s interpretations to its center.

References

  • Aaronson, M. (2014). Interventionism in US foreign policy from Bush to Obama. In M. Bentley & J. Holland (Eds.), Obama’s Foreign Policy: Ending the War on Terror (pp. 124–138). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315888545-13
  • Anthony, C. G. (2008). American Democratic Interventionism: Romancing the Iconic Woodrow Wilson. International Studies Perspectives, 9(3), 239–253. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-3585.2008.00331.x
  • Bağcı, H. (1992). Bosna-Hersek “Soğuk Savaş Sonrası Anlaşmazlıklara Giriş.” Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi, 16(27), 257–279.
  • Bağcı, H. (2019). Türk Dış Politikasında 1950’li Yıllar (5th ed.). Orion Kitabevi.
  • Bağcı, H., & Kürkçü, B. (Eds.). (2020). Terörizm: Müdahaleden Mücadeleye Devletler ve Radikal Örgütler (1st ed.). Orion Kitabevi.
  • Bağcı, H., & Sinkaya, B. (2006). Büyük Ortadoğu Projesi ve Türkiye: AK Parti’nin Perspektifi. Akademik Orta Doğu, 1(1), 21–37.
  • Baker, W. D., & Oneal, J. R. (2001). Patriotism or Opinion Leadership?: The Nature and Origins of the “Rally 'Round the Flag” Effect. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 45(5), 661–687. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002701045005006
  • Baum, M. A. (2002). The Constituent Foundations of the Rally-Round-the-Flag Phenomenon. International Studies Quarterly, 46(2), 263–298.
  • Blum, W. (2003). Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II. Zed Books. Braumoeller, B. F. (2010). The Myth of American Isolationism. Foreign Policy Analysis, 6(4), 349–371. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-8594.2010.00117.x
  • Clark, W. K. (2001). Waging Modern War: Bosnia, Kosovo, and the Future of Conflict. PublicAffairs.
  • DiPrizio, R. C. (2002). Armed Humanitarians: U.S. Interventions from Northern Iraq to Kosovo. JHU Press.
  • Duzcu, M. (2018). Soğuk Savaş’tan 11 Eylül’e Ortadoğu’da Amerikan Müdahaleciliğinin Çelişkileri. Route Education and Social Science Journal, 5(14), 572–582.
  • Egeli, S., & Mevlütoğlu, A. (2020). Uzay Güvenliği Stratejisi. In A. L. Karaosmanoğlu & E. Aydınlı (Eds.), Strateji Düşüncesi: Kuram, Paradoks, Uygulama (1st ed.). İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Erdurmaz, A. S. (2020). Terörizmin Tipleri ve Stratejileri. In H. Bağcı & B. Kürkçü (Eds.), Terörizm: Müdahaleden Mücadeleye Devletler ve Radikal Örgütler (1st ed., pp. 13–59). Orion Kitabevi.
  • Ertem, B. (2009). Türkiye-ABD İlişkilerinde Truman Doktrini ve Marshall Planı. Balıkesir Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 12(21), 377–397.
  • Fabbrini, S. (2004). Layers of anti-Americanism: Americanization, American unilateralism and anti-Americanism in a European perspective. European Journal of American Culture, 23(2), 79–94. https://doi.org/10.1386/ejac.23.2.79/0
  • Fabbrini, S. (2006). US Unilateralism and American Conservative Nationalism. In The United States Contested: American Unilateralism and European Discontent (pp. 3–30). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203965085
  • Fensterwald, B. (1958). The anatomy of American “isolationism” and expansionism. Part I. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2(2), 111–139. https://doi.org/10.1177/002200275800200201
  • Friedmann, W. (1968). Interventionism, Liberalism, and Power-Politics: The Unfinished Revolution in International Thinking. Political Science Quarterly, 83(2), 169–189. https://doi.org/10.2307/2147088
  • Fukuyama, F. (1992). The End of History and the Last Man. Free Press.
  • Gaddis, J. L. (1974). Was the Truman Doctrine a Real Turning Point? Foreign Affairs, 52(2), 386–402. https://doi.org/10.2307/20038055
  • Gibbs, D. N. (2001). Washington’s New Interventionism: U.S. Hegemony and Inter-Imperialist Rivalries. Monthly Review, 53(4), 15–37. Scopus. https://doi.org/10.14452/mr-053-04-2001-08_2
  • Malone, D., & Khong, Y. F. (2003). Unilateralism and U.S. Foreign Policy: International Perspectives. Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Harvey, F. P. (2004). Addicted to Security: Globalized Terrorism and the Inevitability of American Unilateralism. International Journal, 59(1), 27–57. https://doi.org/10.1177/002070200405900102
  • Kagan, R. (2004). Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe in the New World Order. Vintage Books.
  • Kagan, R. (2008). The Return of History and the End of Dreams. Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Kagan, R. (2018). The Jungle Grows Back: America and Our Imperiled World (1st ed.). Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Kalyon, L. (2010). Truman Doktrini Üzerine Bir Analiz. Güvenlik Stratejileri Dergisi, 06(11), 7–26.
  • Karaosmanoğlu, A. L. (2020). “Büyük Strateji”nin Anlamı ve İşleyişi. In A. L. Karaosmanoğlu & E. Aydınlı (Eds.), Strateji Düşüncesi: Kuram, Paradoks, Uygulama (1st ed.). İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Martinot, S. (2003). The Cultural Roots of Interventionism in the U.S. Social Justice, 30(1 (91)), 112–137.
  • Merrill, D. (2006). The Truman Doctrine: Containing Communism and Modernity. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36(1), 27–37. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-5705.2006.00284.x
  • Mueller, J. E. (1970). Presidential Popularity from Truman to Johnson. The American Political Science Review, 64(1), 18–34. https://doi.org/10.2307/1955610
  • Oneal, J. R., & Bryan, A. L. (1995). The Rally ’Round the Flag Effect in U. S. Foreign Policy Crises, 1950-1985. Political Behavior, 17(4), 379–401.
  • Reality Check Team. (2020, June 30). Trump: What does the US contribute to Nato in Europe? [News]. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-44717074
  • Rhodes, E. (2003). The imperial logic of Bush’s liberal agenda. Survival, 45(1), 131–154. https://doi.org/10.1080/00396330312331343356
  • Sauer, T. (2002). American Unilateralism. Security Dialogue, 33(1), 114–116.
  • Segell, G. (2005). Axis of Evil and Rogue States: The Bush Administration, 2000-2004. Glen Segell Publishers.
  • SIPRI. (2021). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Military Expenditure Database. https://www.sipri.org/databases/milex
  • Skidmore, D. (2005). Understanding the Unilateralist Turn in U.S. Foreign Policy. Foreign Policy Analysis, 1(2), 207–228.
  • Statler, K. (2007). Replacing France: The Origins of American Intervention in Vietnam. University Press of Kentucky.
  • Tang, S., & Long, S. R. J. (2012). America’s military interventionism: A social evolutionary interpretation. European Journal of International Relations, 18(3), 509–538. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354066110396763
  • Waging modern war‐An Interview with General Wesley K. Clark USA (Ret.). (2001). The RUSI Journal, 146(6), 5–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/03071840108446711
  • Yalçın, H. B. (2018). Ulusal Güvenlik Stratejisi: ABD, İngiltere, Fransa, Rusya, Çin (3rd ed.). SETA.

AMERİKAN STRATEJİK KÜLTÜRÜ VE DIŞ POLİTİKASINI ROBERT KAGAN ÜZERİNDEN ANLAMAK: BİR İNCELEME

Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 1, 1 - 17, 21.04.2021
https://doi.org/10.51763/uid.868169

Abstract

ÖZ Bu çalışma, Amerikan stratejik kültürü ve güvenlik algısının zamanla nasıl şekillendiğini ve temel özelliklerinin neler olduğunu anlamayı amaçlamaktadır. Amerikan stratejik kültürü, ülkenin tarihsel, coğrafi ve siyasal gerçekliklerinden beslenmektedir. Göçmenler tarafından kurulmuş bir ülke olarak Amerika’nın güçlü bir ülke yapılması aynı zamanda ulus inşası sürecinin de bir parçasıydı. Dahası, kıtanın coğrafi koşulları Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’ni dünya çapında siyasal ve askeri olaylara müdahale etmek için daha da güçlü bir devlet yapmaya itmiştir. Robert Kagan’a göre, müdahalecilik, güvenlik sağlayıcılık ve uluslararası hukuku ve organizasyonları ikinci plana atmak Amerikan dış politikasının temel özellikleridir. Bu bağlamda çalışma, bu üç boyuta odaklanmakta ve bunları değerlendirerek kısıtlanmıştır. Amerikan dış politikası üzerine yazılmış birçok çalışma olsa da bu çalışma Robert Kagan’ın yaklaşımlarını merkeze alarak kendini mevcut literatürden farklılaştırmaktadır.

References

  • Aaronson, M. (2014). Interventionism in US foreign policy from Bush to Obama. In M. Bentley & J. Holland (Eds.), Obama’s Foreign Policy: Ending the War on Terror (pp. 124–138). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315888545-13
  • Anthony, C. G. (2008). American Democratic Interventionism: Romancing the Iconic Woodrow Wilson. International Studies Perspectives, 9(3), 239–253. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-3585.2008.00331.x
  • Bağcı, H. (1992). Bosna-Hersek “Soğuk Savaş Sonrası Anlaşmazlıklara Giriş.” Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi, 16(27), 257–279.
  • Bağcı, H. (2019). Türk Dış Politikasında 1950’li Yıllar (5th ed.). Orion Kitabevi.
  • Bağcı, H., & Kürkçü, B. (Eds.). (2020). Terörizm: Müdahaleden Mücadeleye Devletler ve Radikal Örgütler (1st ed.). Orion Kitabevi.
  • Bağcı, H., & Sinkaya, B. (2006). Büyük Ortadoğu Projesi ve Türkiye: AK Parti’nin Perspektifi. Akademik Orta Doğu, 1(1), 21–37.
  • Baker, W. D., & Oneal, J. R. (2001). Patriotism or Opinion Leadership?: The Nature and Origins of the “Rally 'Round the Flag” Effect. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 45(5), 661–687. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002701045005006
  • Baum, M. A. (2002). The Constituent Foundations of the Rally-Round-the-Flag Phenomenon. International Studies Quarterly, 46(2), 263–298.
  • Blum, W. (2003). Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II. Zed Books. Braumoeller, B. F. (2010). The Myth of American Isolationism. Foreign Policy Analysis, 6(4), 349–371. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-8594.2010.00117.x
  • Clark, W. K. (2001). Waging Modern War: Bosnia, Kosovo, and the Future of Conflict. PublicAffairs.
  • DiPrizio, R. C. (2002). Armed Humanitarians: U.S. Interventions from Northern Iraq to Kosovo. JHU Press.
  • Duzcu, M. (2018). Soğuk Savaş’tan 11 Eylül’e Ortadoğu’da Amerikan Müdahaleciliğinin Çelişkileri. Route Education and Social Science Journal, 5(14), 572–582.
  • Egeli, S., & Mevlütoğlu, A. (2020). Uzay Güvenliği Stratejisi. In A. L. Karaosmanoğlu & E. Aydınlı (Eds.), Strateji Düşüncesi: Kuram, Paradoks, Uygulama (1st ed.). İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Erdurmaz, A. S. (2020). Terörizmin Tipleri ve Stratejileri. In H. Bağcı & B. Kürkçü (Eds.), Terörizm: Müdahaleden Mücadeleye Devletler ve Radikal Örgütler (1st ed., pp. 13–59). Orion Kitabevi.
  • Ertem, B. (2009). Türkiye-ABD İlişkilerinde Truman Doktrini ve Marshall Planı. Balıkesir Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 12(21), 377–397.
  • Fabbrini, S. (2004). Layers of anti-Americanism: Americanization, American unilateralism and anti-Americanism in a European perspective. European Journal of American Culture, 23(2), 79–94. https://doi.org/10.1386/ejac.23.2.79/0
  • Fabbrini, S. (2006). US Unilateralism and American Conservative Nationalism. In The United States Contested: American Unilateralism and European Discontent (pp. 3–30). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203965085
  • Fensterwald, B. (1958). The anatomy of American “isolationism” and expansionism. Part I. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2(2), 111–139. https://doi.org/10.1177/002200275800200201
  • Friedmann, W. (1968). Interventionism, Liberalism, and Power-Politics: The Unfinished Revolution in International Thinking. Political Science Quarterly, 83(2), 169–189. https://doi.org/10.2307/2147088
  • Fukuyama, F. (1992). The End of History and the Last Man. Free Press.
  • Gaddis, J. L. (1974). Was the Truman Doctrine a Real Turning Point? Foreign Affairs, 52(2), 386–402. https://doi.org/10.2307/20038055
  • Gibbs, D. N. (2001). Washington’s New Interventionism: U.S. Hegemony and Inter-Imperialist Rivalries. Monthly Review, 53(4), 15–37. Scopus. https://doi.org/10.14452/mr-053-04-2001-08_2
  • Malone, D., & Khong, Y. F. (2003). Unilateralism and U.S. Foreign Policy: International Perspectives. Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Harvey, F. P. (2004). Addicted to Security: Globalized Terrorism and the Inevitability of American Unilateralism. International Journal, 59(1), 27–57. https://doi.org/10.1177/002070200405900102
  • Kagan, R. (2004). Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe in the New World Order. Vintage Books.
  • Kagan, R. (2008). The Return of History and the End of Dreams. Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Kagan, R. (2018). The Jungle Grows Back: America and Our Imperiled World (1st ed.). Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Kalyon, L. (2010). Truman Doktrini Üzerine Bir Analiz. Güvenlik Stratejileri Dergisi, 06(11), 7–26.
  • Karaosmanoğlu, A. L. (2020). “Büyük Strateji”nin Anlamı ve İşleyişi. In A. L. Karaosmanoğlu & E. Aydınlı (Eds.), Strateji Düşüncesi: Kuram, Paradoks, Uygulama (1st ed.). İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Martinot, S. (2003). The Cultural Roots of Interventionism in the U.S. Social Justice, 30(1 (91)), 112–137.
  • Merrill, D. (2006). The Truman Doctrine: Containing Communism and Modernity. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36(1), 27–37. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-5705.2006.00284.x
  • Mueller, J. E. (1970). Presidential Popularity from Truman to Johnson. The American Political Science Review, 64(1), 18–34. https://doi.org/10.2307/1955610
  • Oneal, J. R., & Bryan, A. L. (1995). The Rally ’Round the Flag Effect in U. S. Foreign Policy Crises, 1950-1985. Political Behavior, 17(4), 379–401.
  • Reality Check Team. (2020, June 30). Trump: What does the US contribute to Nato in Europe? [News]. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-44717074
  • Rhodes, E. (2003). The imperial logic of Bush’s liberal agenda. Survival, 45(1), 131–154. https://doi.org/10.1080/00396330312331343356
  • Sauer, T. (2002). American Unilateralism. Security Dialogue, 33(1), 114–116.
  • Segell, G. (2005). Axis of Evil and Rogue States: The Bush Administration, 2000-2004. Glen Segell Publishers.
  • SIPRI. (2021). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Military Expenditure Database. https://www.sipri.org/databases/milex
  • Skidmore, D. (2005). Understanding the Unilateralist Turn in U.S. Foreign Policy. Foreign Policy Analysis, 1(2), 207–228.
  • Statler, K. (2007). Replacing France: The Origins of American Intervention in Vietnam. University Press of Kentucky.
  • Tang, S., & Long, S. R. J. (2012). America’s military interventionism: A social evolutionary interpretation. European Journal of International Relations, 18(3), 509–538. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354066110396763
  • Waging modern war‐An Interview with General Wesley K. Clark USA (Ret.). (2001). The RUSI Journal, 146(6), 5–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/03071840108446711
  • Yalçın, H. B. (2018). Ulusal Güvenlik Stratejisi: ABD, İngiltere, Fransa, Rusya, Çin (3rd ed.). SETA.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Atahan DEMİRKOL (Primary Author)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi
0000-0002-7185-5781
Türkiye

Publication Date April 21, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { uid868169, journal = {Uluslararası İlişkiler ve Diplomasi}, issn = {2651-4729}, address = {jird@bandirma.edu.tr}, publisher = {Bandirma Onyedi Eylul University}, year = {2021}, volume = {4}, pages = {1 - 17}, doi = {10.51763/uid.868169}, title = {UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN STRATEGIC CULTURE AND FOREIGN POLICY THROUGH ROBERT KAGAN: A REVIEW}, key = {cite}, author = {Demirkol, Atahan} }
APA Demirkol, A. (2021). UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN STRATEGIC CULTURE AND FOREIGN POLICY THROUGH ROBERT KAGAN: A REVIEW . Uluslararası İlişkiler ve Diplomasi , 4 (1) , 1-17 . DOI: 10.51763/uid.868169
MLA Demirkol, A. "UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN STRATEGIC CULTURE AND FOREIGN POLICY THROUGH ROBERT KAGAN: A REVIEW" . Uluslararası İlişkiler ve Diplomasi 4 (2021 ): 1-17 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/uid/issue/61785/868169>
Chicago Demirkol, A. "UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN STRATEGIC CULTURE AND FOREIGN POLICY THROUGH ROBERT KAGAN: A REVIEW". Uluslararası İlişkiler ve Diplomasi 4 (2021 ): 1-17
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN STRATEGIC CULTURE AND FOREIGN POLICY THROUGH ROBERT KAGAN: A REVIEW AU - Atahan Demirkol Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.51763/uid.868169 DO - 10.51763/uid.868169 T2 - Uluslararası İlişkiler ve Diplomasi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 17 VL - 4 IS - 1 SN - 2651-4729- M3 - doi: 10.51763/uid.868169 UR - https://doi.org/10.51763/uid.868169 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of International Relations and Diplomacy UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN STRATEGIC CULTURE AND FOREIGN POLICY THROUGH ROBERT KAGAN: A REVIEW %A Atahan Demirkol %T UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN STRATEGIC CULTURE AND FOREIGN POLICY THROUGH ROBERT KAGAN: A REVIEW %D 2021 %J Uluslararası İlişkiler ve Diplomasi %P 2651-4729- %V 4 %N 1 %R doi: 10.51763/uid.868169 %U 10.51763/uid.868169
ISNAD Demirkol, Atahan . "UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN STRATEGIC CULTURE AND FOREIGN POLICY THROUGH ROBERT KAGAN: A REVIEW". Uluslararası İlişkiler ve Diplomasi 4 / 1 (April 2021): 1-17 . https://doi.org/10.51763/uid.868169
AMA Demirkol A. UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN STRATEGIC CULTURE AND FOREIGN POLICY THROUGH ROBERT KAGAN: A REVIEW. Uluslararası İlişkiler ve Diplomasi. 2021; 4(1): 1-17.
Vancouver Demirkol A. UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN STRATEGIC CULTURE AND FOREIGN POLICY THROUGH ROBERT KAGAN: A REVIEW. Uluslararası İlişkiler ve Diplomasi. 2021; 4(1): 1-17.
IEEE A. Demirkol , "UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN STRATEGIC CULTURE AND FOREIGN POLICY THROUGH ROBERT KAGAN: A REVIEW", Uluslararası İlişkiler ve Diplomasi, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-17, Apr. 2021, doi:10.51763/uid.868169