Research Article
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UYUŞTURUCU MADDE BAĞIMLILIĞINDA AİLENİN ETKİSİ VE BAĞIMLI SAYISININ AZALTILMASINDA JANDARMANIN ETKİNLİĞİ: İSTANBUL’DA BİR UYGULAMA

Year 2020, Volume , Issue 4, 576 - 619, 22.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.47994/usbad.785932

Abstract

Günümüzde uyuşturucu madde bağımlılığı ile ilgili tartışmalar gerek yazılı gerekse görsel basında çok sık yer almaya başlamıştır. Bunun en önemli nedeni, özellikle henüz 20-25 yaşındaki gençlerin birer birer uyuşturucu madde kullanımından dolayı yaşamlarını kaybetmesidir. Aslında bu tür vakalara Türk toplumunda fazla rastlanılmamaktadır. Nitekim gelişmiş batı toplumlarına göre uyuşturucu madde bağımlı miktarı oldukça düşüktür. Bu araştırmanın amacı, uyuşturucu madde bağımlılığında ailenin etkisini incelemektir. Çalışmanın örneklemi 15-25 yaş aralığında, herhangi bir uyuşturucu madde kullanan ve İstanbul AMATEM’de tedavi almakta olan 103 gençten oluşmaktadır. Uyuşturucu madde bağımlılığının toplumlardan büyük tepki görmesi nedeniyle, bağımlı miktarlarını tespit etmek çok güç olmaktadır. Bu nedenle, uyuşturucu madde bağımlısı olup tedaviye karar veren kitlelere ulaşmak için hastanelerden istifade edilmiştir. Yapılan analiz sonuçlarından; anne-genç ilişkisi, anne-genç arasındaki sorunlar, anne-baba arasındaki geçimsizlik ve ailedeki alkol kullanımının gencin uyuşturucu madde kullanımı üzerinde etkili olduğu saptanmıştır. Bununla birlikte kardeş-genç ilişkisi ile gencin madde tedavi kararı arasında anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu bulgulanmıştır. Buna karşın gençlerin uyuşturucu madde tedavisine karar verme nedeni ile diğer aile değişkenleri arasında anlamlı bir ilişki tespit edilememiştir. Bu veriler doğrultusunda, uyuşturucu madde bağımlılığı ile mücadelede koordinatör görevi bulunan Jandarma Genel Komutanlığına bağımlı sayısının azaltılmasında faydalı olabilecek bazı sosyal önlemler önerilmiştir.

References

  • Akers, R. (1999). Criminological Theories: Introduction and Evaluation (2nd edition). Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.
  • Amaro, H. (1995). Love, Sex, and Power. American Psychologist 50(6), 437–447.
  • Arman, T. (1993). Uçucu Madde Bağımlılarının Sosyo-Demografik Özelliklerinin ve Ailelerinin Çocuk Yetiştirme Tutumlarının İncelenmesi. (Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Marmara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, İstanbul.
  • Bachman, J. G., Johnston, L. D. & O’Malley, P. M. (1981). Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire responses from the nation’s high school seniors, 1980. (pp. 265). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.
  • Bahr, J., Marcos, C. & Maughan, L. (1995). Family, Educational and Peer Influences on the Alcohol Use of Female and Male Adolescents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 56, 457-469.
  • Baumrind, D. (1991). The Influence of Parenting Style on Adolescent Competence and Substance Use. Journal of Early Adolescence 11, 56-95.
  • Burcu, E. (2002). Alcohol and Drug Use in Young Apprentices: Effect of Social Control in the Family. Journal of Youth Adolescence 32(4), 291-299.
  • Brook, J., Whiteman, M., Gordon, S. & Brook, D. W. (1984). Paternal Determinants of Female Adolescents Marijuana Use. Developmental Psychology 20, 1032-1043.
  • Brook, J., Brook, W., Gordon, S., Whiteman, M. & Cohen, P. (1990). The Psychosocial Etiology of Adolescent Drug Use: A Family Interactional Approach. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs 116, 111-267.
  • Cairns, R. B., Leung, M. C., & Cairns, B. D. (1995). Social Networks Over time and Space in Adolescence. In L. J. Crockett & A. C. Crouter (Ed.). Pathways through adolescence: Individual Development in Relation to Social Contexts. The Penn State Series on Child and Adolescent Development (pp. 35–56). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Califano, J. (1990). Poor Child-Father Relationship is Major Factor in Teen Drug Use. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Capaldi, D. & Clark, S. (1997). Prospective Family Predictors of Aggression Toward Female Partners for at-Risk. Developmental Psychology 34, 1175-1188.
  • Challier, B. (2000). Associations of Family Environment and Individual Factors with Tobacco, Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemilogy 16, 33-42.
  • Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. American Journal of Sociology 94, 94-120.
  • Çakıcı, M. (1997). Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti Lise Gençliğinde Psiko Aktif Madde Kullanımının Yaygınlığı. (Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi). Yakındoğu Üniversitesi Psikoloji Bölümü, Lefkoşa.
  • Downey, D. B. (1995). Understanding Academic Achievement Among Children in Step Households: The Role of Parental Resources, Sex of Stepparent and Sex of Child. Social Forces 73, 875-894.
  • Emcdda. (2002). National Prevalence Estimates of Problem Drug Use in the European Union. 2002 EMCDDA Project Final Report I, Results.
  • Faupel, C. (1991). Shooting Dope: Career Patterns of Hard-Core Heroin Users. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.
  • Gold, M. (1993). Drugs of Abuse. A Comprehensive Series for Clinicians. New York: Plenum Publishing.
  • Gottfredson, M. & Hirschi, T. (1990). A General Theory of Crime. Stanford/California: Stanford University Press.
  • Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Hoffman, J. & Johnson, R. J. (1998). A National Portrait of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use. Journal of Marriage and the Family 60, 633.
  • Hoffmann, J. & Su, S. (1998). Parental Substance Use Disorder, Mediating Variables and Adolescent Drug Use: A Non-Recursive Model. Addiction 93, 1351.
  • Hoffman, J. & Johnson, R. J. (2002). The Community Context of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use. Minneapolis 64, 314.
  • Huba, G. (1980). Longitudinal Analysis of the Role of Peer Support, Adult Models and Peer Subcultures in Beginning Adolescents Drug Use. Multivariate Behavioral Research 15, 259-280.
  • İçli, T. (2001). Kriminoloji. Ankara: Semih Ofset Matbaacılık ve Yayıncılık.
  • İstanbul Emniyet Müdürlüğü. (1999). Uyuşturucu Madde Kaçakçılığı ve Bağımlılık Açısından Uyuşturucu Sorunu. İstanbul: Barış Yayınevi.
  • Jessor, R. & Jessor, S. L. (1977). Problem Behavior and Psychological Development. New York: Academic Press.
  • Kandel, D. B. & Wu, P. (1995). The Contributions of Mothers and Fathers to the Intergenerational Transmission of Cigarette Smoking in Adolescence. Journal of Research of Adolescents 5, 225-252.
  • Katz, S., Duncan, R. & Zimmerman, A. (1997). Adolescence Family Structure Versus Parental Attachment in Controlling Adolescent Deviant Behavior: A Social Control Model. Adolescence 32(125), 199-215.
  • Kelly, J. (2002). Parent-Child Communication, Perceived Sanctions Against Drugs Use and Youth Drug Involvement Adolescence. Roslyn Heights 37, 775.
  • Krohn, M., Lizotte J. & Perez, C. (1997). Early Substance Use and School Achievement: An Examination of Latino, White and African American Youth. Journal of Drug Issues 32, 921.
  • Lamborn, S. (1991). Pattern of Competence and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent and Neglectful Families. Child Development 62, 1049-1065.
  • Merikangas, K. R., Stolar M. & Rounsaville, B. J. (1998). Familial Transmission of Substance Use Disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55, 973-979.
  • Miller, K. (2003). Early Drug Use Associated with Later Mental Disorder. American Family Physician 67, 1354.
  • Newcomb, M. D. & Rickards, S. (1995). Parent Drug-Use Problems and Adult Intimate Relations: Associations Among Community Samples of Young Adult Women and Men. Journal of Counseling Psychology 42, 141-152.
  • Ögel, K. & Tamar, D. (1996). Uyuşturucu Maddeler ve Bağımlılık. Okul Eğitim Paketi. AMATEM / Özel Okullar Derneği Gençlik Anketi.
  • Ögel, K. (1997). Uyuşturucu Maddeler ve Bağımlılık. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Patterson, G. R., Reid J. B. & Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial Boys. Eugene: Castalia.
  • Sampson, R. J. & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points Through Life. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Selnow, G. (1987). Parent-Child Relationships and Single and Two Parent Families: Implications for Substance Usage. Journal of Drug Education 17, 315-326
  • Sowder, B. J. & Burt, M. R. (1980). Children of Heroin Addicts: An Assessment of Health. Learning, Behavioral and Adjustment Problems. New York: Praeger.
  • Steinberg, L., Dornbusch, S. M. & Brown, B. B. (1992). Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Achievement: An Ecological Perspective American Psychology 47, 723-729.
  • Thomas, G. & Farrell, M. (1996). The Effects of Single-Mother Families and Nonresident Fathers on Delinquency and Substance Abuse in Black and White Adolescents. Journal of Marriage and The Family 58, 884.
  • Thornberry, T. P. (1987). Towards an Interactional Theory of Delinquency. Criminology 25, 863-892.
  • UNODC. (2002). World Drug Report 2, Statistics.
  • Van Der Bree, M. (1998). Genetic and Environmental Influences on Drug Use and Abuse / Dependence in Male and Female Twins. Drug Alcohol Depend 52, 231-242.
  • Wade, J. & Brannigan, A. (1996). The Genesis of Adolescent Risk-Taking: Pathways Through Family, School and Peers. Canadian Journal of Sociology 23, 1-19.
  • Yavuzer, H. (1982). Çocuk ve Suç. İstanbul: İstanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Yayınları.
  • Yazman, Ü. (1995). Lise Gençliğinin Psiko Aktif Maddelere Bakış ve Kullanım Oranlarının Türkiye ve İstanbul Örneği ile İncelenmesi. (Yayımlanmamış Tıpta Uzmanlık Tezi). Bakırköy Ruh ve Sinir Hastalıkları Hastanesi, İstanbul.
  • Zakharov, I. A. (2001). Adolescents of the Risk Group. Russian Education and Society 43(11), 39–45.
  • Zuckerman, B. & K. Bresnahn. (1991). Developmental and Behavioral Consequences of Prenatal Drug and Alcohol Exposure. Pediatric Clinics of North America 38, 1387-1406.

THE EFFECT OF FAMILY IN DRUG ADDICTION AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GENDARMERIE IN REDUCING THE NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS: A PRACTICE IN ISTANBUL

Year 2020, Volume , Issue 4, 576 - 619, 22.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.47994/usbad.785932

Abstract

Today, the discussions about drug addiction appears very frequently in both the written and visual press. The most important reason for this interest is that young people, especially those 20-25 years old, are losing their lives due to drug use. In fact, such cases are not very common in Turkish society. Indeed, compared to developed Western societies, the amount of drug addicts is quite low. The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of family on drug addiction. The sample of the study consisted of 103 young people aged 15-25 years who used any drugs and were receiving treatment in Istanbul AMATEM. Because drug addiction has a great reaction from the community, it is very difficult to determine the number of addicted invidivuals. For this reason, hospitals were where addicted people were treated utilized to recruit participants. The analysis results suggested thatthe relationship between mother and adolescent, problems between mother and adolescent, conflict between parents and the use of alcohol in the family have an effect on the teen's drug use. However, it was observed that there was a significant relationship between the sibling-teen relationship and the teen's substance treatment decision. However, there was no significant relationship between young people's decision on drug treatment and other family variables. Based on the results of this study, to enhance the effectiveness of the combat against the drug use, some suggestion were proposed to the Gendarmerie General Command which acts as a coodinator in fight against drug addiction.

References

  • Akers, R. (1999). Criminological Theories: Introduction and Evaluation (2nd edition). Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.
  • Amaro, H. (1995). Love, Sex, and Power. American Psychologist 50(6), 437–447.
  • Arman, T. (1993). Uçucu Madde Bağımlılarının Sosyo-Demografik Özelliklerinin ve Ailelerinin Çocuk Yetiştirme Tutumlarının İncelenmesi. (Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Marmara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi, İstanbul.
  • Bachman, J. G., Johnston, L. D. & O’Malley, P. M. (1981). Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire responses from the nation’s high school seniors, 1980. (pp. 265). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.
  • Bahr, J., Marcos, C. & Maughan, L. (1995). Family, Educational and Peer Influences on the Alcohol Use of Female and Male Adolescents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 56, 457-469.
  • Baumrind, D. (1991). The Influence of Parenting Style on Adolescent Competence and Substance Use. Journal of Early Adolescence 11, 56-95.
  • Burcu, E. (2002). Alcohol and Drug Use in Young Apprentices: Effect of Social Control in the Family. Journal of Youth Adolescence 32(4), 291-299.
  • Brook, J., Whiteman, M., Gordon, S. & Brook, D. W. (1984). Paternal Determinants of Female Adolescents Marijuana Use. Developmental Psychology 20, 1032-1043.
  • Brook, J., Brook, W., Gordon, S., Whiteman, M. & Cohen, P. (1990). The Psychosocial Etiology of Adolescent Drug Use: A Family Interactional Approach. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs 116, 111-267.
  • Cairns, R. B., Leung, M. C., & Cairns, B. D. (1995). Social Networks Over time and Space in Adolescence. In L. J. Crockett & A. C. Crouter (Ed.). Pathways through adolescence: Individual Development in Relation to Social Contexts. The Penn State Series on Child and Adolescent Development (pp. 35–56). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Califano, J. (1990). Poor Child-Father Relationship is Major Factor in Teen Drug Use. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Capaldi, D. & Clark, S. (1997). Prospective Family Predictors of Aggression Toward Female Partners for at-Risk. Developmental Psychology 34, 1175-1188.
  • Challier, B. (2000). Associations of Family Environment and Individual Factors with Tobacco, Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemilogy 16, 33-42.
  • Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. American Journal of Sociology 94, 94-120.
  • Çakıcı, M. (1997). Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti Lise Gençliğinde Psiko Aktif Madde Kullanımının Yaygınlığı. (Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi). Yakındoğu Üniversitesi Psikoloji Bölümü, Lefkoşa.
  • Downey, D. B. (1995). Understanding Academic Achievement Among Children in Step Households: The Role of Parental Resources, Sex of Stepparent and Sex of Child. Social Forces 73, 875-894.
  • Emcdda. (2002). National Prevalence Estimates of Problem Drug Use in the European Union. 2002 EMCDDA Project Final Report I, Results.
  • Faupel, C. (1991). Shooting Dope: Career Patterns of Hard-Core Heroin Users. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.
  • Gold, M. (1993). Drugs of Abuse. A Comprehensive Series for Clinicians. New York: Plenum Publishing.
  • Gottfredson, M. & Hirschi, T. (1990). A General Theory of Crime. Stanford/California: Stanford University Press.
  • Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Hoffman, J. & Johnson, R. J. (1998). A National Portrait of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use. Journal of Marriage and the Family 60, 633.
  • Hoffmann, J. & Su, S. (1998). Parental Substance Use Disorder, Mediating Variables and Adolescent Drug Use: A Non-Recursive Model. Addiction 93, 1351.
  • Hoffman, J. & Johnson, R. J. (2002). The Community Context of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use. Minneapolis 64, 314.
  • Huba, G. (1980). Longitudinal Analysis of the Role of Peer Support, Adult Models and Peer Subcultures in Beginning Adolescents Drug Use. Multivariate Behavioral Research 15, 259-280.
  • İçli, T. (2001). Kriminoloji. Ankara: Semih Ofset Matbaacılık ve Yayıncılık.
  • İstanbul Emniyet Müdürlüğü. (1999). Uyuşturucu Madde Kaçakçılığı ve Bağımlılık Açısından Uyuşturucu Sorunu. İstanbul: Barış Yayınevi.
  • Jessor, R. & Jessor, S. L. (1977). Problem Behavior and Psychological Development. New York: Academic Press.
  • Kandel, D. B. & Wu, P. (1995). The Contributions of Mothers and Fathers to the Intergenerational Transmission of Cigarette Smoking in Adolescence. Journal of Research of Adolescents 5, 225-252.
  • Katz, S., Duncan, R. & Zimmerman, A. (1997). Adolescence Family Structure Versus Parental Attachment in Controlling Adolescent Deviant Behavior: A Social Control Model. Adolescence 32(125), 199-215.
  • Kelly, J. (2002). Parent-Child Communication, Perceived Sanctions Against Drugs Use and Youth Drug Involvement Adolescence. Roslyn Heights 37, 775.
  • Krohn, M., Lizotte J. & Perez, C. (1997). Early Substance Use and School Achievement: An Examination of Latino, White and African American Youth. Journal of Drug Issues 32, 921.
  • Lamborn, S. (1991). Pattern of Competence and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent and Neglectful Families. Child Development 62, 1049-1065.
  • Merikangas, K. R., Stolar M. & Rounsaville, B. J. (1998). Familial Transmission of Substance Use Disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55, 973-979.
  • Miller, K. (2003). Early Drug Use Associated with Later Mental Disorder. American Family Physician 67, 1354.
  • Newcomb, M. D. & Rickards, S. (1995). Parent Drug-Use Problems and Adult Intimate Relations: Associations Among Community Samples of Young Adult Women and Men. Journal of Counseling Psychology 42, 141-152.
  • Ögel, K. & Tamar, D. (1996). Uyuşturucu Maddeler ve Bağımlılık. Okul Eğitim Paketi. AMATEM / Özel Okullar Derneği Gençlik Anketi.
  • Ögel, K. (1997). Uyuşturucu Maddeler ve Bağımlılık. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Patterson, G. R., Reid J. B. & Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial Boys. Eugene: Castalia.
  • Sampson, R. J. & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points Through Life. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Selnow, G. (1987). Parent-Child Relationships and Single and Two Parent Families: Implications for Substance Usage. Journal of Drug Education 17, 315-326
  • Sowder, B. J. & Burt, M. R. (1980). Children of Heroin Addicts: An Assessment of Health. Learning, Behavioral and Adjustment Problems. New York: Praeger.
  • Steinberg, L., Dornbusch, S. M. & Brown, B. B. (1992). Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Achievement: An Ecological Perspective American Psychology 47, 723-729.
  • Thomas, G. & Farrell, M. (1996). The Effects of Single-Mother Families and Nonresident Fathers on Delinquency and Substance Abuse in Black and White Adolescents. Journal of Marriage and The Family 58, 884.
  • Thornberry, T. P. (1987). Towards an Interactional Theory of Delinquency. Criminology 25, 863-892.
  • UNODC. (2002). World Drug Report 2, Statistics.
  • Van Der Bree, M. (1998). Genetic and Environmental Influences on Drug Use and Abuse / Dependence in Male and Female Twins. Drug Alcohol Depend 52, 231-242.
  • Wade, J. & Brannigan, A. (1996). The Genesis of Adolescent Risk-Taking: Pathways Through Family, School and Peers. Canadian Journal of Sociology 23, 1-19.
  • Yavuzer, H. (1982). Çocuk ve Suç. İstanbul: İstanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Yayınları.
  • Yazman, Ü. (1995). Lise Gençliğinin Psiko Aktif Maddelere Bakış ve Kullanım Oranlarının Türkiye ve İstanbul Örneği ile İncelenmesi. (Yayımlanmamış Tıpta Uzmanlık Tezi). Bakırköy Ruh ve Sinir Hastalıkları Hastanesi, İstanbul.
  • Zakharov, I. A. (2001). Adolescents of the Risk Group. Russian Education and Society 43(11), 39–45.
  • Zuckerman, B. & K. Bresnahn. (1991). Developmental and Behavioral Consequences of Prenatal Drug and Alcohol Exposure. Pediatric Clinics of North America 38, 1387-1406.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Murat KOÇANLI (Primary Author)
JANDARMA VE SAHİL GÜVENLİK AKADEMİSİ
0000-0003-3571-7565
Türkiye

Publication Date December 22, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume , Issue 4

Cite

APA Koçanlı, M. (2020). UYUŞTURUCU MADDE BAĞIMLILIĞINDA AİLENİN ETKİSİ VE BAĞIMLI SAYISININ AZALTILMASINDA JANDARMANIN ETKİNLİĞİ: İSTANBUL’DA BİR UYGULAMA . Uluslararası Sosyal Bilimler Akademi Dergisi , (4) , 576-619 . DOI: 10.47994/usbad.785932

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