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Dehydration and Hyponatremia in Weighing Sports

Year 2020, Volume: 4 Issue: 2, 103 - 115, 31.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.30769/usbd.782358

Abstract

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of fluid balance on performance in sports and health problems that may be caused by insufficient or excessive water consumption. It is an important fact that athletes can maintain their weight and maintain their performances optimally in sports branches organized with reference to a certain kilogram range such as kickboxing, boxing and wrestling. In such weight sports, the application of weight loss is observed quite frequently. In these cases, the decrease of the fat mass in athletes appears to be the first object. However, if there is still excess weight in athletes when the weighing day approaches, the first method used by the athletes is to lose weight with fluid loss. This fluid loss is carried out by methods such as long-term exercise, physical activity in hot environments, sauna, laxative drug use. However, as a result of these applications, serious levels of dehydration can be seen in the body. As a result of this dehydration, electrolyte and mineral losses are inevitable in athletes. Such losses can cause both physiological and psychological problems in athletes, such as muscle cramps or aggressive behavior. In such sports branches, since the competitions start on the day of the official weighing or at the latest one day after the official weighing, even if the athlete consumes enough liquid after the weighing, his or her physiological demands may not be fully met. At the same time, after official weighing, the athlete may consume excessive water in order to fulfill his or her water need, and in this case, hyponatremia may occur in the athlete's body due to the serum sodium level falling below optimal values. Such situations can also decrease the competition performance of the athlete and even cause serious health problems. For these reasons, the subjects of hydration, dehydration and hyponatremia should be known by athletes, and coaches and the necessary concern should be shown to fluid consumption.

References

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  • Adolph, E. F. (1933). The metabolism and distribution of water in body and tissues. Physiological Reviews, 13(3), 336-371.
  • Adrogué, H. J., & Madias, N. E. (2000). Hyponatremia. New England Journal of Medicine, 342(21), 1581-1589.
  • Akın, M., & Akın, G. (2007). Suyun önemi, Türkiye’de su potansiyeli, su havzaları ve su kirliliği. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih - Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi, 47(2), 105-118.
  • Appel, L. J., Baker, D., Bar-Or, O., Minaker, K., Morris, R., Resnick, L., Sawka, M., Volpe, S., Weinberger, M., & Whelton, P. (2005). Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine.
  • Arieff, A. I., & Guisado, R. (1976). Effects on the central nervous system of hypernatremic and hyponatremic states. Kidney international, 10(1), 104-116.
  • Arieff, A. I., Llach, F., & Massry, S. G. (1976). Neurological manifestations and morbidity of hyponatremia: correlation with brain water and electrolytes. Medicine, 55(2), 121-129.
  • Ashraf, N., Locksley, R., & Arieff, A. I. (1981). Thiazide-induced hyponatremia associated with death or neurologic damage in outpatients. The American journal of medicine, 70(6), 1163-1168.
  • Aydos, L. (1991). Güreşçilerde Kısa Süreli Kilo Kaybının Kuvvet ve Dayanıklılık Üzerine Etkilerinin İncelenmesi. Gazi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(4), 17-26.
  • Ballauff, A., Kersting, M., & Manz, F. (1988). Do children have an adequate fluid intake? Water balance studies carried out at home. Annals of nutrition and metabolism, 32(5-6), 332-339.
  • Barr, S. I., Costill, D. L., & Fink, W. J. (1991). Fluid replacement during prolonged exercise: effects of water, saline, or no fluid. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23(7), 811-817.
  • Başaklar, C. (1998). Çocuklarda Sıvı ve Elektrolit Homeostazı. Türk Plastik, Rekonstrüktif ve Estetik Cerrahi Dergisi (Turk J Plast Surg), 6(3), 181-191.
  • Baysal, A. (1989). Genel beslenme bilgisi. 5. Baskı. Ankara: Hatipoğlu Yayınevi, 189s.
  • Baysal, A. (1999). Beslenme. Ankara: Hatiboğlu Basım ve Yayım.
  • Burke, L., Eichner, E., Maughan, R., Montain, S., Sawka, M., & Stachenfeld, N. (2007). Exercise and fluid replacement. American College of Sports Medicine, 39(2), 377-390.
  • Casa, D. J., Armstrong, L. E., Hillman, S. K., Montain, S. J., Reiff, R. V., Rich, B. S., Roberts, W. O., & Stone, J. A. (2000). National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: fluid replacement for athletes. Journal of athletic training, 35(2), 212.
  • Cian, C., Koulmann, N., Barraud, P., Raphel, C., Jimenez, C., & Melin, B. (2000). Influences of variations in body hydration on cognitive function: Effect of hyperhydration, heat stress, and exercise-induced dehydration. Journal of Psychophysiology, 14(1), 29.
  • Colakoglu, F. F., Cayci, B., Yaman, M., Karacan, S., Gonulateş, S., Ipekoglu, G., & Er, F. (2016). The effects of the intake of an isotonic sports drink before orienteering competitions on skeletal muscle damage. Journal of physical therapy science, 28(11), 3200-3204.
  • Çipil, H., & Demircioğlu, S. (2016). Hiponatremi ve Uygunsuz ADH Sendromu. Turkiye Klinikleri Hematology-Special Topics, 9(3), 16-20.
  • Demirkan, E., Kutlu, M., Koz, M., Ünver, R., & Bulut, E. (2012). Elit güreşçilerde vücut kompozisyonu ve hidrasyon değişimlerinin incelenmesi. Selçuk Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 14(2), 179-183.
  • Edwards, A. M., & Noakes, T. D. (2009). Dehydration. Sports Medicine, 39(1), 1-13.
  • Ersoy, G. (2010). Egzersiz ve spor performansı için beslenme. Ankara: Betik Kitap Yayın Dağıtım.
  • Ersoy, G. (2014). Aktif kişiler ve sporcular için sıvı desteğinin hidrasyonun önemi. Ankara: 7. Punto Tasarım Matbaacılık.
  • Ertaş, D. B., Yıldıran, İ., & Koz, M. (2010). Yüzmenin neden olduğu vücut sıvı dengesindeki değişimlerin yüzme performansına etkisi. SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 12(2), 89-104.
  • Fadel, S., Karmali, R., & Cogan, E. (2009). Safety of furosemide administration in an elderly woman recovered from thiazide-induced hyponatremia. European journal of internal medicine, 20(1), 30-34.
  • Falk, B., Bar-Or, O., & MacDougall, J. D. (1992). Thermoregulatory responses of pre-, mid-, and late-pubertal boys to exercise in dry heat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24(6), 688-694.
  • Galloway, S. D. (1999). Dehydration, rehydration, and exercise in the heat: rehydration strategies for athletic competition. Canadian journal of applied physiology, 24(2), 188-200.
  • Gençoğlu, C., & Akkuş, E. (2020). Egzersize Tiroid Hormon Yanıtları. Medical Sciences, 15(3), 71-80.
  • Geraldini, S., Cruz, I. d. F., Romero, A., Fonseca, F. L. A., & Campos, M. P. d. (2017). Isotonic sports drink promotes rehydration and decreases proteinuria following karate training. Brazilian Journal of Nephrology, 39(4), 362-369.
  • Goellner, M. H., Ziegler, E. E., & Fomon, S. J. (1981). Urination during the first three years of life. Nephron, 28(4), 174-178.
  • Gopinathan, P., Pichan, G., & Sharma, V. (1988). Role of dehydration in heat stress-induced variations in mental performance. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 43(1), 15-17.
  • Greenleaf, J., Bernauer, E., Juhos, L., Young, H., Morse, J., & Staley, R. (1977). Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest. Journal of Applied Physiology, 43(1), 126-132.
  • Gropper, S. S., & Smith, J. L. (2012). Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Boston, Massachusetts, ABD: Cengage Learning.
  • Gunga, H., Maillet, A., Kirsch, K., Röcker, L., Gharib, C., & Vaernes, R. (1993). Water and salt turnover. In Advances in space biology and medicine (Vol. 3, pp. 185-200). Elsevier.
  • Heil, D. P. (2010). Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7(29), 1-12
  • Himes, J. H. (1991). Anthropometric assessment of nutritional status. Wiley-Liss.
  • İnan, M. (2019). Kick boks sporcularında dehidrasyonun fizyolojik ve biyokimyasal değerlere etkisinin araştırılması İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü].
  • Ince, I., & Ulupinar, S. (2020). Prediction of competition performance via selected strength-power tests in junior weightlifters. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 60(2), 236-243.
  • Kleiner, S. M. (1999). Water: an essential but overlooked nutrient. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99(2), 200-206.
  • McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2012). Sports and Exercise Nutrition (4 ed.). LWW; Fourth North American edition.
  • Montain, S. J., Sawka, M. N., & Wenger, C. B. (2001). Hyponatremia associated with exercise: risk factors and pathogenesis. Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 29(3), 113-117.
  • Moreno, I. L., Pastre, C. M., Ferreira, C., de Abreu, L. C., Valenti, V. E., & Vanderlei, L. C. M. (2013). Effects of an isotonic beverage on autonomic regulation during and after exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 10(1), 2.
  • Oppliger, R. A., & Bartok, C. (2002). Hydration testing of athletes. Sports Medicine, 32(15), 959-971.
  • Ozan, M., Buzdagli, Y., Siktar, E., & Ucan, I. (2020). The Effect of Protein and Carbohydrate Consumption during 10-Week Strength Training on Maximal Strength and Body Composition. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, 9(6), 149-159.
  • Ozkan, I., & Ibrahim, C. H. (2016). Dehydration, skeletal muscle damage and inflammation before the competitions among the elite wrestlers. Journal of physical therapy science, 28(1), 162-168.
  • Özbay, S., & Ulupınar, S. (2018). Oruç tutan ve tutmayan antrenmanlı sporcularda düzenli egzersizin vücut kompozisyonuna etkileri farklı mıdır? Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 20(4), 60-68.
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Siklet Sporlarında Dehidrasyon ve Hiponatremi

Year 2020, Volume: 4 Issue: 2, 103 - 115, 31.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.30769/usbd.782358

Abstract

Bu çalışmanın amacı siklet sporlarında sıvı dengesinin performans üzerindeki etkilerini ve yetersiz ya da aşırı su tüketiminin sebep olabileceği sağlık problemlerini incelemektir. Kickboks, boks, güreş, gibi belirli kilogram aralığı referans alınarak düzenlenen spor branşlarında sporcuların müsabakaya çıkacakları vücut ağırlıklarını koruyabilmeleri, aynı zamanda performanslarını üst düzeyde sürdürebilmeleri hassas ve önemli bir olgu olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Siklet sporlarında kilo düşme uygulaması sık rastlanan bir durumdur. Bu durumlarda sporcularda yağ kütlesinin azaltılması ilk hedef olarak karşımıza çıkarken, tartı günü yaklaştığında hala kilo fazlası bulunan sporcuların ilk başvurduğu yöntem sıvı kaybı yolu ile kilo düşmektir. Sıvı kaybetmek için ise sporcular uzun süreli egzersiz, sıcak ortamlarda fiziksel aktivite, sauna, laksatif ilaç kullanımı gibi yöntemleri tercih etmektedirler. Fakat bu uygulamalar sonucunda vücutta ciddi düzeylerde dehidrasyon görülebilir. Bu dehidrasyon sonucunda sporcularda elektrolit ve mineral dengesizliklerinin oluşması kaçınılmazdır. Elektrolit ve mineral dengesinin bozulması sporcularda kas krampları veya agresif bir tutum sergileme gibi hem fizyolojik hem de psikolojik sıkıntılar doğurabilir. Bu spor branşlarında müsabakalar, resmi kontrol tartısının yapıldığı gün veya en geç resmi kontrol tartısından bir gün sonra başladığı için, sporcu kontrol tartısı sonrasında bol miktarda sıvı tüketse bile vücudun fizyolojik talepleri tam olarak karşılanmamış olabilir. Aynı zamanda tartı sonrasında sıvı ihtiyacını karşılamak için aşırı su tüketilmesi, sporcularda serum sodyum düzeyinin normal değerlerin altına düşmesinden dolayı hiponatremiye sebep olabilir. Dolayısıyla suyun hem yetersiz hem de aşırı tüketilmesi, sporcunun müsabaka performansını düşürebilir ve dahi ciddi sağlık problemlerine yol açabilir. Bu sebeplerden dolayı sporcular ve antrenörler tarafından hidrasyon, dehidrasyon ve hiponatremi kavramlarının iyi bilinmesi ve sıvı dengesinin korunmasına gereken hassasiyetin gösterilmesi gerekmektedir. 

References

  • ACSM, & ADA. (2000). Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(12), 2130.
  • Adolph, E. F. (1933). The metabolism and distribution of water in body and tissues. Physiological Reviews, 13(3), 336-371.
  • Adrogué, H. J., & Madias, N. E. (2000). Hyponatremia. New England Journal of Medicine, 342(21), 1581-1589.
  • Akın, M., & Akın, G. (2007). Suyun önemi, Türkiye’de su potansiyeli, su havzaları ve su kirliliği. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih - Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi, 47(2), 105-118.
  • Appel, L. J., Baker, D., Bar-Or, O., Minaker, K., Morris, R., Resnick, L., Sawka, M., Volpe, S., Weinberger, M., & Whelton, P. (2005). Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine.
  • Arieff, A. I., & Guisado, R. (1976). Effects on the central nervous system of hypernatremic and hyponatremic states. Kidney international, 10(1), 104-116.
  • Arieff, A. I., Llach, F., & Massry, S. G. (1976). Neurological manifestations and morbidity of hyponatremia: correlation with brain water and electrolytes. Medicine, 55(2), 121-129.
  • Ashraf, N., Locksley, R., & Arieff, A. I. (1981). Thiazide-induced hyponatremia associated with death or neurologic damage in outpatients. The American journal of medicine, 70(6), 1163-1168.
  • Aydos, L. (1991). Güreşçilerde Kısa Süreli Kilo Kaybının Kuvvet ve Dayanıklılık Üzerine Etkilerinin İncelenmesi. Gazi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(4), 17-26.
  • Ballauff, A., Kersting, M., & Manz, F. (1988). Do children have an adequate fluid intake? Water balance studies carried out at home. Annals of nutrition and metabolism, 32(5-6), 332-339.
  • Barr, S. I., Costill, D. L., & Fink, W. J. (1991). Fluid replacement during prolonged exercise: effects of water, saline, or no fluid. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23(7), 811-817.
  • Başaklar, C. (1998). Çocuklarda Sıvı ve Elektrolit Homeostazı. Türk Plastik, Rekonstrüktif ve Estetik Cerrahi Dergisi (Turk J Plast Surg), 6(3), 181-191.
  • Baysal, A. (1989). Genel beslenme bilgisi. 5. Baskı. Ankara: Hatipoğlu Yayınevi, 189s.
  • Baysal, A. (1999). Beslenme. Ankara: Hatiboğlu Basım ve Yayım.
  • Burke, L., Eichner, E., Maughan, R., Montain, S., Sawka, M., & Stachenfeld, N. (2007). Exercise and fluid replacement. American College of Sports Medicine, 39(2), 377-390.
  • Casa, D. J., Armstrong, L. E., Hillman, S. K., Montain, S. J., Reiff, R. V., Rich, B. S., Roberts, W. O., & Stone, J. A. (2000). National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: fluid replacement for athletes. Journal of athletic training, 35(2), 212.
  • Cian, C., Koulmann, N., Barraud, P., Raphel, C., Jimenez, C., & Melin, B. (2000). Influences of variations in body hydration on cognitive function: Effect of hyperhydration, heat stress, and exercise-induced dehydration. Journal of Psychophysiology, 14(1), 29.
  • Colakoglu, F. F., Cayci, B., Yaman, M., Karacan, S., Gonulateş, S., Ipekoglu, G., & Er, F. (2016). The effects of the intake of an isotonic sports drink before orienteering competitions on skeletal muscle damage. Journal of physical therapy science, 28(11), 3200-3204.
  • Çipil, H., & Demircioğlu, S. (2016). Hiponatremi ve Uygunsuz ADH Sendromu. Turkiye Klinikleri Hematology-Special Topics, 9(3), 16-20.
  • Demirkan, E., Kutlu, M., Koz, M., Ünver, R., & Bulut, E. (2012). Elit güreşçilerde vücut kompozisyonu ve hidrasyon değişimlerinin incelenmesi. Selçuk Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 14(2), 179-183.
  • Edwards, A. M., & Noakes, T. D. (2009). Dehydration. Sports Medicine, 39(1), 1-13.
  • Ersoy, G. (2010). Egzersiz ve spor performansı için beslenme. Ankara: Betik Kitap Yayın Dağıtım.
  • Ersoy, G. (2014). Aktif kişiler ve sporcular için sıvı desteğinin hidrasyonun önemi. Ankara: 7. Punto Tasarım Matbaacılık.
  • Ertaş, D. B., Yıldıran, İ., & Koz, M. (2010). Yüzmenin neden olduğu vücut sıvı dengesindeki değişimlerin yüzme performansına etkisi. SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 12(2), 89-104.
  • Fadel, S., Karmali, R., & Cogan, E. (2009). Safety of furosemide administration in an elderly woman recovered from thiazide-induced hyponatremia. European journal of internal medicine, 20(1), 30-34.
  • Falk, B., Bar-Or, O., & MacDougall, J. D. (1992). Thermoregulatory responses of pre-, mid-, and late-pubertal boys to exercise in dry heat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24(6), 688-694.
  • Galloway, S. D. (1999). Dehydration, rehydration, and exercise in the heat: rehydration strategies for athletic competition. Canadian journal of applied physiology, 24(2), 188-200.
  • Gençoğlu, C., & Akkuş, E. (2020). Egzersize Tiroid Hormon Yanıtları. Medical Sciences, 15(3), 71-80.
  • Geraldini, S., Cruz, I. d. F., Romero, A., Fonseca, F. L. A., & Campos, M. P. d. (2017). Isotonic sports drink promotes rehydration and decreases proteinuria following karate training. Brazilian Journal of Nephrology, 39(4), 362-369.
  • Goellner, M. H., Ziegler, E. E., & Fomon, S. J. (1981). Urination during the first three years of life. Nephron, 28(4), 174-178.
  • Gopinathan, P., Pichan, G., & Sharma, V. (1988). Role of dehydration in heat stress-induced variations in mental performance. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 43(1), 15-17.
  • Greenleaf, J., Bernauer, E., Juhos, L., Young, H., Morse, J., & Staley, R. (1977). Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest. Journal of Applied Physiology, 43(1), 126-132.
  • Gropper, S. S., & Smith, J. L. (2012). Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Boston, Massachusetts, ABD: Cengage Learning.
  • Gunga, H., Maillet, A., Kirsch, K., Röcker, L., Gharib, C., & Vaernes, R. (1993). Water and salt turnover. In Advances in space biology and medicine (Vol. 3, pp. 185-200). Elsevier.
  • Heil, D. P. (2010). Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7(29), 1-12
  • Himes, J. H. (1991). Anthropometric assessment of nutritional status. Wiley-Liss.
  • İnan, M. (2019). Kick boks sporcularında dehidrasyonun fizyolojik ve biyokimyasal değerlere etkisinin araştırılması İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü].
  • Ince, I., & Ulupinar, S. (2020). Prediction of competition performance via selected strength-power tests in junior weightlifters. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 60(2), 236-243.
  • Kleiner, S. M. (1999). Water: an essential but overlooked nutrient. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99(2), 200-206.
  • McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2012). Sports and Exercise Nutrition (4 ed.). LWW; Fourth North American edition.
  • Montain, S. J., Sawka, M. N., & Wenger, C. B. (2001). Hyponatremia associated with exercise: risk factors and pathogenesis. Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 29(3), 113-117.
  • Moreno, I. L., Pastre, C. M., Ferreira, C., de Abreu, L. C., Valenti, V. E., & Vanderlei, L. C. M. (2013). Effects of an isotonic beverage on autonomic regulation during and after exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 10(1), 2.
  • Oppliger, R. A., & Bartok, C. (2002). Hydration testing of athletes. Sports Medicine, 32(15), 959-971.
  • Ozan, M., Buzdagli, Y., Siktar, E., & Ucan, I. (2020). The Effect of Protein and Carbohydrate Consumption during 10-Week Strength Training on Maximal Strength and Body Composition. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, 9(6), 149-159.
  • Ozkan, I., & Ibrahim, C. H. (2016). Dehydration, skeletal muscle damage and inflammation before the competitions among the elite wrestlers. Journal of physical therapy science, 28(1), 162-168.
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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Sports Medicine
Journal Section Review
Authors

Süleyman ULUPINAR 0000-0002-9466-5278

Serhat ÖZBAY 0000-0001-6424-8871

Cebrail GENÇOĞLU 0000-0002-0990-9224

Publication Date December 31, 2020
Submission Date August 18, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020 Volume: 4 Issue: 2

Cite

APA ULUPINAR, S., ÖZBAY, S., & GENÇOĞLU, C. (2020). Siklet Sporlarında Dehidrasyon ve Hiponatremi. Ulusal Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 4(2), 103-115. https://doi.org/10.30769/usbd.782358