Research Article
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The Effect of Sensation Seeking on Flow State in Ski and Snowboard: Moderator Role of Gender

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 30 - 45, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.30769/usbd.1114296

Abstract

Various models and theories based on psychology have been developed. Flow Theory, which is among these models, has been studied by many researchers. In this context, the moderating role of gender in the effect of sensation-seeking on the flow of skiers and snowboarders was investigated. The research was carried out on 622 participants who ski and snowboard in winter tourism regions in Turkey. The Contextual Sensation Seeking Questionnaire for Skiing and Snowboarding-CSSQ-S and The Dispositional Flow Scale Sort Form (DFS-2) measurement tools were used in the research. As a result of the analysis, it was determined that there is a causal relationship between CSSQ-S (Novelty) and DFS-2. As a result of the regulatory impact analysis, it was determined that there were significant differences in terms of women and men in the relationship between CSSQ-S (Novelty) and DFS-2. As a result, it was determined that there is a causal relationship between CSSQ-S (Novelty) and DFS-2. According to this result, the effect of women's pursuit of excitement about skiing and snowboarding on the flow state is higher than that of men, which puts women in a more intense flow state during the experience.

References

  • Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411- 423. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411
  • Alpizar, F., Carlsson, F., & Johansson-Stenman, O. (2008). Does context matter more for hypothetical than for actual contributions? Evidence from a natural field experiment. Experimental Economics, 11(3), 299-314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10683-007-9194-9
  • Aşçı, F. H., Çağlar, E., Eklund, R. C., Altıntaş, A., & Jackson, S. (2007). Durumluk ve sürekli optimal performans duygu durum-2 ölçekleri'nin uyarlama çalışması. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 18(4), 182-196.
  • Bouter, L. M., Knipschild, P. G., Feij, J. A., & Volovics, A. (1988). Sensation seeking and injury risk in downhill skiing. Personality and Individual Differences, 9(3), 667-673. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(88)90164-X
  • Burnik, S., Jug, S., & Kajtna, T. (2008). Sensation seeking in Slovenian female and male mountain climbers. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis, 38(3), 15019.
  • Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modelling with AMOS; Basic concepts applications. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Brymer, E., & Oades, L. G. (2009). Extreme sports a positive transformation in courage and humility. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 49(1), 114–126. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167808326199
  • Castanier, C., Le Scanff, C. and Woodman, T. (2010). Who takes risks in high-risk sports? A typological personality approach. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81(4), 478–484.
  • Cusimano, M.D., Kwok, J., (2010). The effectiveness of helmet wear in skiers and snowboarders: a systematic review. Br. J. Sports Med., 44(11), 781–786.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990a). Flow: The Psychology of optimal experiencing flow in work and play. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990b). Flow: The Psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, Inc
  • Cross, C. P., Copping, L. T., & Campbell, A. (2011). Sex differences in impulsivity: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 137(1), 97-130. doi: 10.1037/a0021591
  • Cherpitel, C. J., Meyers, A. R., & Perrine, M. W. (1998). Alcohol consumption, sensation seeking and ski injury: A case-control study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(2), 216-221.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. In Jackson, S. A., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (Ed.). Flow in sports. Human Kinetics.
  • Cusimano, M. D., & Kwok, J. (2010). The effectiveness of helmet wear in skiers and snowboarders: A systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(11), 781-786.
  • Çivitci, N., & Arıcıoğlu, A. (2012). Beş faktör kuramına dayalı kişilik özellikleri. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(23), 78–96.
  • Diehm, R., & Armatas, C. (2004). Surfing: An avenue for socially acceptable risk-taking, satisfying needs for sensation seeking and experience seeking. Personality an Individual Differences, 36(3), 663-677. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(03)00124-7
  • Dinç, S. C., & Demircan, M. (2019). The contextual sensation seeking questionnaire for skiing and snowboarding (cssq-s): The study of validity and reliability in Turkish. International Journal of Sport, Exercise and Training Sciences, 5(3), 107-118.
  • Djasfar, T. D. (2018). Hubungan antara sensation seeking dengan flow pada komunitas parkour di sumatera barat. Jurnal Riset Psikologi, 18(3),17. http://dx.doi.org/10.24036/jrp.v2018i3.3987
  • Eysenck, H. J., Nias, D. K. B., & Cox, D. N. (1982). Sport and personality. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 4(1), 1-56.
  • Fjell, A. M., Aker, M., Bang, K. H., Bardal, J., Frogner, H., Gangås, O. S., & Walhovd, K. B. (2007). Habituation of P3a and P3b brain potentials in men engaged in extreme sports. Biological Psychology, 75(1), 87-94. Galloway, G., & Lopez, K. (1999). Sensation seeking and attitudes to aspects of national parks: A preliminary empirical investigation. Tourism Management, 20(6), 665-671.
  • Gomà-i-Freixanet, M., Martha, C. and Muro, A. (2012) Does the sensation-seeking trait differ among participants engaged in sports with different levels of physical risk? Anales de Psicología, 28(1), 223–232.
  • Gözmen, A., & Aşçı, F. H. (2016). Sporcularda optimal performans duygu durumunun yordanmasında beş faktörlü kişilik özelliklerinin ve mükemmeliyetçiliğin rolü. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 27(1), 40–48. https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.251312
  • Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2001). Happiness, introversion extra version and happy introverts. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(4), 595–608. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00058-1
  • Jackson, S. A. (1992). Athletes in flow: A qualitative investigation of flow states in elite figure skaters. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 4, 161–180. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413209208406459
  • Jackson, S. A., & Eklund, R. C. (2004). The flow scales manual. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology, Inc.
  • Jackson, S. A., & Wrigley, W. J. (2004). Optimal experience in sport: current issues and future directions. In T. Morris, & J. Summers, Sport Psychology: theory, applications and issues. Milton: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
  • Jackson, S. A., Thomas, P. R., Marsh, H. W., & Smethurst, C. S. (2001). Relationships between flow, self-concept, psychological skills and performance, Journal of Applıed Sport Psychology, 13(2), 129–153.
  • Kerr, J., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2012). Multiple motives for participating in adventure sports. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(5), 649-657. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.04.002
  • Kopp, M., Wolf, M., Ruedl, G., & Burtscher, M. (2016). Differences in sensation seeking between alpine skiers, snowboarders and ski tourers. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 15(1), 11-16.
  • Llewellyn, D. J., & Sanchez, X. (2008). Individual differences and risk taking in rock climbing. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9(4), 413-426. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.07.003
  • Moneta, G. B. (2004). The flow experience across cultures. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being, 5(2), 115 121. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOHS.0000035913.65762.b5
  • Martin, P., & Priest, S. (1986). Understanding the adventure experience. Journal of Adventure Education, 3(1), 18-21.
  • Moneta, G. B., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). The effect of perceived challenges and skills on the quality of subjective experience. Journal of Personality, 64(2), 275-310.
  • Pain, M. T. & Pain, MA (2005). Risk taking in sport. Lancet, 366, 33-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67838-5
  • Pizam, A., Reichel, A., & Uriely, N. (2001). Sensation seeking and tourist behavior. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 9(3-4), 17-33.
  • Priest, S., & Bunting, C. (1993). Changes in perceived risk and competence during whitewater canoeing. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 18(4), 265-280.
  • Swarbrooke, J., Beard, C., Leckie, S., & Pomfret, G. (2012). Adventure tourism: The new frontier. London: Routledge.
  • Priest, S., & Gass, M. (2017). Effective leadership in adventure programming. Human Kinetics.
  • Ruedl, G., Abart, M., Ledochowski, L., Burtscher, M., & Kopp, M. (2012). Self reported risk taking and risk compensation in skiers and snowboarders are associated with sensation seeking. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 292-296.
  • Ruedl, G., Pocecco, E., Sommersacher, R., Gatterer, H., Kopp, M., Nachbauer, W. and Burtscher, M. (2010) Factors associated with self-reported risk-taking behaviour on ski slopes. British Journal of Sports Medicine 44(3), 204–206.
  • Russel, K., Christie, J., Brent E., Hagel, B.E., (2010) The effects of helmets on the risk of head and neck injuries among skiers and snowboarders: a meta-analysis. CMAJ, 82(4), 333–340.
  • Swann, C., Keegan, R. J., Piggott, D., & Crust, L. (2012). A systematic review of the experience, occurrence, and controllability of flow states in elite sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(6), 807–819. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.05. 006.
  • Schumacher, R. E., Lomax, R. G. (1996). A Beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
  • Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74.
  • Slanger, E., & Rudestam, K. E. (1997). Motivation and disinhibition in high risk sports: Sensation seeking and self-efficacy. Journal of Research in Personality, 31(3), 355-374. doi: 10.1006/jrpe.1997.2193
  • Thomson, C. J., Morton, K. L., Carlson, S. R., & Rupert, J. (2012). The contextual sensation seeking questionnaire for skiing and snowboarding (CSSQ-S). Note to Contributors, 43, 503-521.
  • Thomson, C. J. (2013). Seeking sensations through sport: an interdisciplinary investigation of personality and genetics associated with high-risk sport (Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia)
  • Thomson, C.J. and Carlson, S.R. (2014). Personality and risky downhill sports: Associations with impulsivity dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences 60, 67–72.
  • Tomlinson, J., & Leigh, E. (2004). Extreme Sports: In search of the ultimate thrill. Firefly: Books Ltd.
  • Puchan, H. (2004). Living ‘Extreme’: Adventure sports, media and commercialisation. Journal of Communication Management, 9(2), 171–178. https://doi.org/10.1108/13632540510621588.
  • Vaske, J., Dyar, R. and Timmons, N. (2004). Skill level and recreation conflict among skiers and snowboarders. Leisure Sciences 26(2), 215–225
  • Warda, L. J., & Yanchar, N. L. (2012). Skiing and snowboarding injury prevention. Injury Prevention Committee (Vol. 17). Ottawa: Canadian Paediatric Society
  • Willig, C. (2008). A Phenomenological investigation of the experience of taking part in ‘extreme sports’. Journal of Health Psychology, 13(5), 690–702. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105307082459
  • Whiteside, S. P., & Lynam, D. R. (2001). The Five Factor Model and impulsivity: Using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(4), 669-689. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00064-7
  • Zuckerman, M. (1983) Sensation seeking and sports. Personality and Individual Differences 4(3), 285–292.
  • Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioral Expressions and Biosocial Bases of Sensation Seeking. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Zuckerman, M., & Kuhlman, D. M. (2000). Personality and risk-taking: Common biosocial factors. Journal of Personality, 68(6), 999-1029. doi: 10.1111/1467-6494.00124
  • Zuckerman, M., Kuhlman, D. M., Joireman, J., Teta, P., & Kraft, M. (1993). A comparison of three structural models for personality: the big three, the big five, and the alternative five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(4), 757-768.
  • Zuckerman, M. (2007). Sensation Seeking. Sensation seeking and risky behavior (pp. 3-49). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Kayak ve Snowboarda İlişkin Heyecan Arayışının Akış Durumuna Etkisi: Cinsiyetin Düzenleyici Rolü

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 30 - 45, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.30769/usbd.1114296

Abstract

Psikolojiyi temel alan çeşitli model ve kuramlar geliştirilmiştir. Bu modeller içerisinde yer alan Akış Kuramı birçok araştırmacı tarafından incelenmiştir. Bu kapsamda araştırmada, kayak ve snowboardçularda heyecan arayışının akış durumu üzerindeki etkisinde cinsiyetin düzenleyici rolü incelenmiştir. Araştırma, Türkiye’de kış turizmi bölgelerinde kayak ve snowboard yapan 622 katılımcı üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada, Kayak ve Snowboarda İlişkin Heyecan Arama Ölçeği (KSİHAÖ) ile Sürekli Etkinlik Tecrübe Ölçeği-2 (SETÖ-2) kullanılmıştır. Analiz sonucunda KSİHAÖ (yenilik) ile SETÖ-2 arasında nedensel ilişkinin olduğu belirlenmiştir. Düzenleyici etki analizi sonucunda KSİHAÖ (yenilik) ile SETÖ-2 ilişkisinde kadınlar ve erkekler açısından anlamlı farklılıkların olduğu belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak KSİHAÖ (yenilik) ile SETÖ-2 arasında nedensel ilişkinin olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu sonuca göre kadınların erkeklere göre kayak ve snowboarda ilişkin heyecan arayışlarının akış durumu üzerindeki etkisinin daha yüksek olması kadınları deneyim sırasında daha yoğun akış durumuna geçirmektedir.

References

  • Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411- 423. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411
  • Alpizar, F., Carlsson, F., & Johansson-Stenman, O. (2008). Does context matter more for hypothetical than for actual contributions? Evidence from a natural field experiment. Experimental Economics, 11(3), 299-314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10683-007-9194-9
  • Aşçı, F. H., Çağlar, E., Eklund, R. C., Altıntaş, A., & Jackson, S. (2007). Durumluk ve sürekli optimal performans duygu durum-2 ölçekleri'nin uyarlama çalışması. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 18(4), 182-196.
  • Bouter, L. M., Knipschild, P. G., Feij, J. A., & Volovics, A. (1988). Sensation seeking and injury risk in downhill skiing. Personality and Individual Differences, 9(3), 667-673. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(88)90164-X
  • Burnik, S., Jug, S., & Kajtna, T. (2008). Sensation seeking in Slovenian female and male mountain climbers. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis, 38(3), 15019.
  • Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modelling with AMOS; Basic concepts applications. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Brymer, E., & Oades, L. G. (2009). Extreme sports a positive transformation in courage and humility. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 49(1), 114–126. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167808326199
  • Castanier, C., Le Scanff, C. and Woodman, T. (2010). Who takes risks in high-risk sports? A typological personality approach. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81(4), 478–484.
  • Cusimano, M.D., Kwok, J., (2010). The effectiveness of helmet wear in skiers and snowboarders: a systematic review. Br. J. Sports Med., 44(11), 781–786.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990a). Flow: The Psychology of optimal experiencing flow in work and play. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990b). Flow: The Psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, Inc
  • Cross, C. P., Copping, L. T., & Campbell, A. (2011). Sex differences in impulsivity: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 137(1), 97-130. doi: 10.1037/a0021591
  • Cherpitel, C. J., Meyers, A. R., & Perrine, M. W. (1998). Alcohol consumption, sensation seeking and ski injury: A case-control study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(2), 216-221.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. In Jackson, S. A., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (Ed.). Flow in sports. Human Kinetics.
  • Cusimano, M. D., & Kwok, J. (2010). The effectiveness of helmet wear in skiers and snowboarders: A systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(11), 781-786.
  • Çivitci, N., & Arıcıoğlu, A. (2012). Beş faktör kuramına dayalı kişilik özellikleri. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(23), 78–96.
  • Diehm, R., & Armatas, C. (2004). Surfing: An avenue for socially acceptable risk-taking, satisfying needs for sensation seeking and experience seeking. Personality an Individual Differences, 36(3), 663-677. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(03)00124-7
  • Dinç, S. C., & Demircan, M. (2019). The contextual sensation seeking questionnaire for skiing and snowboarding (cssq-s): The study of validity and reliability in Turkish. International Journal of Sport, Exercise and Training Sciences, 5(3), 107-118.
  • Djasfar, T. D. (2018). Hubungan antara sensation seeking dengan flow pada komunitas parkour di sumatera barat. Jurnal Riset Psikologi, 18(3),17. http://dx.doi.org/10.24036/jrp.v2018i3.3987
  • Eysenck, H. J., Nias, D. K. B., & Cox, D. N. (1982). Sport and personality. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 4(1), 1-56.
  • Fjell, A. M., Aker, M., Bang, K. H., Bardal, J., Frogner, H., Gangås, O. S., & Walhovd, K. B. (2007). Habituation of P3a and P3b brain potentials in men engaged in extreme sports. Biological Psychology, 75(1), 87-94. Galloway, G., & Lopez, K. (1999). Sensation seeking and attitudes to aspects of national parks: A preliminary empirical investigation. Tourism Management, 20(6), 665-671.
  • Gomà-i-Freixanet, M., Martha, C. and Muro, A. (2012) Does the sensation-seeking trait differ among participants engaged in sports with different levels of physical risk? Anales de Psicología, 28(1), 223–232.
  • Gözmen, A., & Aşçı, F. H. (2016). Sporcularda optimal performans duygu durumunun yordanmasında beş faktörlü kişilik özelliklerinin ve mükemmeliyetçiliğin rolü. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 27(1), 40–48. https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.251312
  • Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2001). Happiness, introversion extra version and happy introverts. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(4), 595–608. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00058-1
  • Jackson, S. A. (1992). Athletes in flow: A qualitative investigation of flow states in elite figure skaters. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 4, 161–180. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413209208406459
  • Jackson, S. A., & Eklund, R. C. (2004). The flow scales manual. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology, Inc.
  • Jackson, S. A., & Wrigley, W. J. (2004). Optimal experience in sport: current issues and future directions. In T. Morris, & J. Summers, Sport Psychology: theory, applications and issues. Milton: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
  • Jackson, S. A., Thomas, P. R., Marsh, H. W., & Smethurst, C. S. (2001). Relationships between flow, self-concept, psychological skills and performance, Journal of Applıed Sport Psychology, 13(2), 129–153.
  • Kerr, J., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2012). Multiple motives for participating in adventure sports. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(5), 649-657. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.04.002
  • Kopp, M., Wolf, M., Ruedl, G., & Burtscher, M. (2016). Differences in sensation seeking between alpine skiers, snowboarders and ski tourers. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 15(1), 11-16.
  • Llewellyn, D. J., & Sanchez, X. (2008). Individual differences and risk taking in rock climbing. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9(4), 413-426. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.07.003
  • Moneta, G. B. (2004). The flow experience across cultures. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being, 5(2), 115 121. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOHS.0000035913.65762.b5
  • Martin, P., & Priest, S. (1986). Understanding the adventure experience. Journal of Adventure Education, 3(1), 18-21.
  • Moneta, G. B., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). The effect of perceived challenges and skills on the quality of subjective experience. Journal of Personality, 64(2), 275-310.
  • Pain, M. T. & Pain, MA (2005). Risk taking in sport. Lancet, 366, 33-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67838-5
  • Pizam, A., Reichel, A., & Uriely, N. (2001). Sensation seeking and tourist behavior. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 9(3-4), 17-33.
  • Priest, S., & Bunting, C. (1993). Changes in perceived risk and competence during whitewater canoeing. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 18(4), 265-280.
  • Swarbrooke, J., Beard, C., Leckie, S., & Pomfret, G. (2012). Adventure tourism: The new frontier. London: Routledge.
  • Priest, S., & Gass, M. (2017). Effective leadership in adventure programming. Human Kinetics.
  • Ruedl, G., Abart, M., Ledochowski, L., Burtscher, M., & Kopp, M. (2012). Self reported risk taking and risk compensation in skiers and snowboarders are associated with sensation seeking. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 292-296.
  • Ruedl, G., Pocecco, E., Sommersacher, R., Gatterer, H., Kopp, M., Nachbauer, W. and Burtscher, M. (2010) Factors associated with self-reported risk-taking behaviour on ski slopes. British Journal of Sports Medicine 44(3), 204–206.
  • Russel, K., Christie, J., Brent E., Hagel, B.E., (2010) The effects of helmets on the risk of head and neck injuries among skiers and snowboarders: a meta-analysis. CMAJ, 82(4), 333–340.
  • Swann, C., Keegan, R. J., Piggott, D., & Crust, L. (2012). A systematic review of the experience, occurrence, and controllability of flow states in elite sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(6), 807–819. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.05. 006.
  • Schumacher, R. E., Lomax, R. G. (1996). A Beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
  • Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74.
  • Slanger, E., & Rudestam, K. E. (1997). Motivation and disinhibition in high risk sports: Sensation seeking and self-efficacy. Journal of Research in Personality, 31(3), 355-374. doi: 10.1006/jrpe.1997.2193
  • Thomson, C. J., Morton, K. L., Carlson, S. R., & Rupert, J. (2012). The contextual sensation seeking questionnaire for skiing and snowboarding (CSSQ-S). Note to Contributors, 43, 503-521.
  • Thomson, C. J. (2013). Seeking sensations through sport: an interdisciplinary investigation of personality and genetics associated with high-risk sport (Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia)
  • Thomson, C.J. and Carlson, S.R. (2014). Personality and risky downhill sports: Associations with impulsivity dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences 60, 67–72.
  • Tomlinson, J., & Leigh, E. (2004). Extreme Sports: In search of the ultimate thrill. Firefly: Books Ltd.
  • Puchan, H. (2004). Living ‘Extreme’: Adventure sports, media and commercialisation. Journal of Communication Management, 9(2), 171–178. https://doi.org/10.1108/13632540510621588.
  • Vaske, J., Dyar, R. and Timmons, N. (2004). Skill level and recreation conflict among skiers and snowboarders. Leisure Sciences 26(2), 215–225
  • Warda, L. J., & Yanchar, N. L. (2012). Skiing and snowboarding injury prevention. Injury Prevention Committee (Vol. 17). Ottawa: Canadian Paediatric Society
  • Willig, C. (2008). A Phenomenological investigation of the experience of taking part in ‘extreme sports’. Journal of Health Psychology, 13(5), 690–702. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105307082459
  • Whiteside, S. P., & Lynam, D. R. (2001). The Five Factor Model and impulsivity: Using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(4), 669-689. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00064-7
  • Zuckerman, M. (1983) Sensation seeking and sports. Personality and Individual Differences 4(3), 285–292.
  • Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioral Expressions and Biosocial Bases of Sensation Seeking. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Zuckerman, M., & Kuhlman, D. M. (2000). Personality and risk-taking: Common biosocial factors. Journal of Personality, 68(6), 999-1029. doi: 10.1111/1467-6494.00124
  • Zuckerman, M., Kuhlman, D. M., Joireman, J., Teta, P., & Kraft, M. (1993). A comparison of three structural models for personality: the big three, the big five, and the alternative five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(4), 757-768.
  • Zuckerman, M. (2007). Sensation Seeking. Sensation seeking and risky behavior (pp. 3-49). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Sport Sciences
Published Date Yaz
Journal Section Article
Authors

Özge YAVAŞ TEZ> (Primary Author)
MANİSA CELÂL BAYAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1948-1620
Türkiye


Melike ESENTAŞ DEVECİ>
MANİSA CELÂL BAYAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-8980-5662
Türkiye

Publication Date June 30, 2022
Application Date May 9, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1

Cite

APA Yavaş Tez, Ö. & Esentaş Deveci, M. (2022). Kayak ve Snowboarda İlişkin Heyecan Arayışının Akış Durumuna Etkisi: Cinsiyetin Düzenleyici Rolü . Ulusal Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 6 (1) , 30-45 . DOI: 10.30769/usbd.1114296