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Acid – Base Homeostasis in the Exercise a Traditional Review

Year 2022, Volume: 6 Issue: 2, 74 - 94, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.30769/usbd.1180707

Abstract

During high intensity exercise (i.e., working above the lactate threshold), the contracting skeletal muscles generate plenty of hydrogen (H+) ions. These H+ ions can lead to the exercise-induced metabolic acidosis and impairment of acid-base homeostasis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explain (a) the physiological mechanism of changes in the body pH level due to exercise and its effect on sportive performance, (b) the physiological mechanism of changes in exercise-induced acid-base homeostasis and its effect on athletic performance, and (c) the methods to minimize the negative effects of the mentioned physiological events. The aim of this study is to examine the nutritional supplements that can be used in the light of current literature. In this review, scientific articles and books on exercise and acid-base balance, exercise-induced acid-base disorders were examined. Pub Med, Web of Science, Medline, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and ULAKBİM electronic databases were searched using the keywords “exercise and pH balance”, “acidosis and exercise”, “exercise and acid-base balance”, “athletic performance and fluid balance”, “sport supplements for acid-base balance”, “sports beverage for athletes” and “nutritional strategies for acid-base balance”. A decrease in pH level with metabolic acidosis could decrease the exercise performance. Metabolic acidosis also negatively affects exercise performance due to factors such as the feeling of fatigue, and the decrease in mechanical performance in the muscles in athletes Therefore, showing the necessary sensitivity to the protection of acid-base balance and using supportive nutritional supplements (sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate, beta alanine, etc.) for delaying fatigue by athletes are recommended alternatives to maintain optimal performance.

References

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Egzersizde Asit-Baz Homeostazi Bir Geleneksel Derleme

Year 2022, Volume: 6 Issue: 2, 74 - 94, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.30769/usbd.1180707

Abstract

Yüksek yoğunluklu egzersiz sırasında (örneğin, laktat eşiğinin üzerinde çalışmak) kasılan iskelet kasları, önemli miktarda hidrojen (H+) iyonu birikimine sebep olur. Bu H+ iyonları, egzersize bağlı metabolik asidozun gelişmesine ve asit-baz homeostazının bozulmasına sebep olabilir. Dolayısıyla bu çalışmanın amacı (a) egzersize bağlı vücut pH seviyesinde meydana gelen değişimlerin fizyolojik mekanizmasını ve sportif performansa etkisini, (b) egzersize bağlı asit-baz homeostazında görülen değişimlerin fizyolojik mekanizmasını ve sportif performansa etkisini ve (c) bahsedilen fizyolojik olayların olumsuz etkilerinin minimize edilmesi için kullanılabilecek besin takviyelerini güncel literatür ışığında incelemeyi amaçlamıştır. Bu derleme çalışmasında egzersiz ve asit-baz dengesi, egzersize bağlı asit-baz bozuklukları ile ilgili konuları içeren bilimsel metinler ve kitaplar incelenmiştir. Pub Med, Web of Science, Medline, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar ve ULAKBİM elektronik veri tabanları “exercise and pH balance”, “acidosis and exercise”, “exercise and acid-base balance”, “athletic performance and fluid balance”, “sport supplements for asid-base balance”, “sports beverage for athletes’’ ve “nutritional strategies for acid-base balance” anahtar kelimeleri kullanılarak taranmıştır. Metabolik asidozla birlikte sporcularda yorgunluk hissi, kaslardaki mekanik performansın azalması gibi etmenler dolayısıyla egzersiz performansını da olumsuz etkiler. Bu nedenle sporcular tarafından yüksek şiddetli egzersizlerde bozulabilecek asit-baz homeostazı için destekleyici besinsel takviyelerin kullanılması (sodyum bikarbonat, sodyum sitrat, beta alanin vb.) sportif performansın optimal biçimde sürdürülebilmesi, oluşabilecek yorgunluğun geciktirilebilmesi ve performansın artırılması için tavsiye edilen alternatiflerdir.

References

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  • Acarkan, T. (2013). Latent Asidoz. Bilimsel Tamamlayıcı Tıp Regülasyon ve Nöral Terapi Dergisi(17), 18-24.
  • Allen, D. G., Lamb, G. D., & Westerblad, H. (2008). Skeletal muscle fatigue: Cellular mechanisms. Physiological Reviews, 88(1), 287-332. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00015.2007
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  • Ashikawa, I., & Itoh, K. (1979). Raman spectra of polypeptides containing L‐histidine residues and tautomerism of imidazole side chain. Biopolymers: Original Research on Biomolecules, 18(8), 1859-1876. Bangsbo, J., Johansen, L., Graham, T., & Saltin, B. (1993). Lactate and H+ effluxes from human skeletal muscles during intense, dynamic exercise. The Journal of physiology, 462(1), 115-133.
  • Boning, D., & Maassen, N. (2008). Point: Counterpoint: Lactic acid is/is not the only physicochemical contributor to the acidosis of exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 105(1), 358-359.
  • Carr, A. J., Hopkins, W. G., & Gore, C. J. (2011). Effects of acute alkalosis and acidosis on performance. Sports Medicine, 41(10), 801-814.
  • Cicioğlu, İ., Tamer, K., Çevik, C., & Düzgün, E. (2001). Farklı dozlarda sodyum bikarbonat alımının yoğun egzersiz performansına etkisi. Gazi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 6(1), 41-52.
  • Constable, P. D. (2014). Acid-base assessment: when and how to apply the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and strong ion difference theory. Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice, 30(2), 295-316.
  • Coombes, J., & McNaughton, L. R. (1993). Effects of bicarbonate ingestion on leg strength and power during isokinetic knee flexion and extension. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 7(4), 241-249.
  • Costill, D. L., Verstappen, F., Kuipers, H., Janssen, E., & Fink, W. (1984). Acid-base balance during repeated bouts of exercise: influence of HCO3. International journal of sports medicine, 5(05), 228-231.
  • Cox, P. J., Kirk, T., Ashmore, T., Willerton, K., Evans, R., Smith, A., . . . McLure, S. W. (2016). Nutritional ketosis alters fuel preference and thereby endurance performance in athletes. Cell metabolism, 24(2), 256-268.
  • Dearlove, D. J., Faull, O. K., Rolls, E., Clarke, K., & Cox, P. J. (2019). Nutritional ketoacidosis during incremental exercise in healthy athletes. Frontiers in physiology, 10, 290.
  • Derave, W., Ozdemir, M. S., Harris, R. C., Pottier, A., Reyngoudt, H., Koppo, K., . . . Achten, E. (2007). β-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. Journal of applied physiology, 103(5), 1736-1743.
  • Djarova, T., Ilkov, A., Varbanova, A., Nikiforova, A., & Mateev, G. (1986). Human growth hormone, cortisol, and acid-base balance changes after hyperventilation and breath-holding. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 7(06), 311-315.
  • Ertuğrul, L. (2010). Fizyoloji (1. ed.). Akademi Basın ve Yayıncılık.
  • Farrell, P. A., Joyner, M. J., & Caiozzo, V. (2011). ACSM's advanced exercise physiology: Wolters Kluwer Health Adis (ESP).
  • Foster, G. T., Vaziri, N. D., & Sassoon, C. (2001). Respiratory alkalosis. Respiratory care, 46(4), 384-391.
  • Fry, A. C., & Karet, F. E. (2007). Inherited renal acidoses. Physiology, 22(3), 202-211.
  • Gattinoni, L., & Lissoni, A. (1998). Pathophysiology and diagnosis of respiratory acid-base disturbances in patients with critical illness. In Critical care nephrology (pp. 297-311): Springer.
  • Gençoğlu, C., & Akkuş, E. (2020). Egzersize tiroid hormon yanıtları. Medical Sciences, 15(3), 71-80.
  • Gough, L. A., Rimmer, S., Sparks, S. A., McNaughton, L. R., & Higgins, M. F. (2019). Post-exercise supplementation of sodium bicarbonate improves acid base balance recovery and subsequent high-intensity boxing specific performance. Frontiers in Nutrition, 6, 155.
  • Gönlügür, U., & Gönlügür, T. (2020). The Role of the lungs in acid-base balance. Acıbadem Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 11(1), 23-26.
  • Gropper, S. S., & Smith, J. L. (2012). Advanced nutrition and human metabolism: Cengage Learning, Boston, Massachusetts, ABD.
  • Guyton, A., & Hall, J. (2016). Textbook of medical physiology (13th Ed.) (11th ed.): Philadelphia: Elseiver.
  • Günay, M., Baltacı, A. K., Şıktar, E., ve Şıktar, E. (2018). Egzersiz ve solunum. Gazi Kitabevi Tic. Ltd. Şti.
  • Hargreaves, M., & Spriet, L. L. (2020). Skeletal muscle energy metabolism during exercise. Nature Metabolism, 2(9), 817-828.
  • Harris, R. C., Tallon, M., Dunnett, M., Boobis, L., Coakley, J., Kim, H. J., . . . Wise, J. A. (2006). The absorption of orally supplied β-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino acids, 30(3), 279-289.
  • Hazır, T., ve Gül, Ş. (2015). Yüksek şiddetli egzersiz sonrasında pasif, kor egzersizleri ile kombine pasif ve aktif toparlanmanın kandan laktik asit eliminasyonu üzerine etkisi. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 26(4), 165-176.
  • Hill, C., Harris, R. C., Kim, H., Harris, B., Sale, C., Boobis, L., . . . Wise, J. A. (2007). Influence of β-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino acids, 32(2), 225-233.
  • Hollidge-Horvat, M., Parolin, M., Wong, D., Jones, N., &Heigenhauser, G. (2000). Effect of induced metabolic alkalosis on human skeletal muscle metabolism during exercise. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism, 278(2), E316-E329.
  • Jones, N. L. (2008). An obsession with CO2. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 33(4), 641-650.
  • Junior, A. H. L., de Salles Painelli, V., Saunders, B., & Artioli, G. G. (2015). Nutritional strategies to modulate intracellular and extracellular buffering capacity during high-intensity exercise. Sports Medicine, 45(1), 71-81.
  • Kellum, J. (2005). Making strong ion difference the" Euro" for bedside acid-base analysis. In Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2005 (pp. 675-685): Springer.
  • Koca, F., Süer, C., & Erol, E. (2004). Sodyum bikarbonat alımının farklı yüksekliklerde yapılan yoğun anaerobik egzersizlere ergojenik etkisi. Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 13(2), 39-45.
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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Sports Medicine
Journal Section Review
Authors

Cebrail GENÇOĞLU 0000-0002-0990-9224

Mustafa GÜL 0000-0002-0042-890X

Süleyman ULUPINAR 0000-0002-9466-5278

Serhat ÖZBAY 0000-0001-6424-8871

Ayhan TANYELİ 0000-0002-0095-0917

Saime ÖZBEK ŞEBİN 0000-0002-1738-4800

Emine ÖNCAN 0000-0002-3296-7633

Early Pub Date December 24, 2022
Publication Date December 31, 2022
Submission Date September 27, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022 Volume: 6 Issue: 2

Cite

APA GENÇOĞLU, C., GÜL, M., ULUPINAR, S., ÖZBAY, S., et al. (2022). Egzersizde Asit-Baz Homeostazi Bir Geleneksel Derleme. Ulusal Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 6(2), 74-94. https://doi.org/10.30769/usbd.1180707