Year 2020, Volume 25 , Issue 3, Pages 1577 - 1592 2020-12-31

Micro Plastics and Removal Methods in Wastewater Treatment Plants
ATIKSU ARITMA TESİSLERİNDE MİKRO PLASTİKLER VE GİDERİM YÖNTEMLERİ

Kübra BOZDAŞ [1] , Gökhan Ekrem ÜSTÜN [2] , Ahmet AYGÜN [3]


Micro plastics come from different sources in wastewater treatment plants and the facilities are not designed to remove micro plastics. Despite this, there is removal of micro plastic in primary and secondary treatment processes. Studies have proven that wastewater treatment plants are a potential source of micro-plastic pollution for freshwater environments. Although there is a high rate of removal efficiency, considering the discharge in large volumes, there is micro plastic pollution for the receiving environments. In addition, as a result of reuse of treatment sludge as fertilizer, MPs kept in the sludge cause soil pollution. The effective removal of micro plastics varies according to the advanced treatment technologies applied in tertiary treatment. When the studies are examined, it is seen that the highest efficiency in the removal of micro plastics is with Membrane Bioreactors. The selection of advanced treatment technologies that ensure the proper removal of micro plastics in the design of treatment plants can be an effective method of reducing micro plastic pollution.

Atıksu arıtma tesislerine her gün farklı kaynaklardan mikro plastikler gelmektedir ve mikro plastikleri gidermek için tasarlanmamışlardır. Buna rağmen birincil ve ikincil arıtma süreçlerinde mikro plastiklerin giderimi mevcuttur. Yapılan çalışmalar atıksu arıtma tesislerinin tatlı su ortamları için potansiyel bir mikro plastik kirliliği kaynağı olduğunu kanıtlamıştır. Yüksek oranlarda giderim verimi olmasına rağmen büyük hacimlerde deşarj göz önüne alındığında alıcı ortamlar için mikro plastik kirlilik söz konusudur. Ayrıca arıtma çamurunun gübre olarak yeniden kullanımı sonucunda çamurda tutulan MP'ler toprak kirliliğine neden olmaktadır. Mikro plastiklerin etkili bir şekilde giderimi üçüncül arıtmada uygulanan ileri arıtma teknolojilerine göre değişmektedir. Daha önce yapılan çalışmalar incelendiğinde mikro plastiklerin gideriminde en yüksek verimin Membran Biyoreaktörler ile olduğu görülmektedir. Arıtma tesisleri tasarımında mikro plastiklerinin uygun bir şekilde giderimini sağlayan ileri arıtma teknolojilerinin seçilmesi mikro plastik kirliliğinin azalmasında etkili bir yöntem olabilir.
  • 1. Akarsu, C., Kumbur, H., Gokdag, K., Kideys, A. E.ve Sanchez-Vidal, A. (2020). Microplastics composition and load from three wastewater treatment plants discharging into Mersin Bay, north eastern Mediterranean Sea,Marine Pollutution Bulletin, 150, 110776. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110776
  • 2. Alvim, C. B., Mendoza-Roca, J. A.ve Bes-Pia, A. (2020). Wastewater treatment plant as microplastics release source – Quantification and identification techniques,Journal of Environmental Management, 255, 109739. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109739
  • 3. Anbumani, S.ve Kakkar, P. (2018). Ecotoxicological effects of microplastics on biota: a review, Environmental Science and Pollutution Research, 25(15), 14373-14396. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-1999-x
  • 4. Andrady, A. L. (2017). The plastic in microplastics: A review, Marine Pollutution Bulletin, 119(1), 12-22. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.01.082
  • 5. Barboza, L. G. A. ve Gimenez, B. C. G. (2015). Microplastics in the marine environment: Current trends and future perspectives, Marine Pollutution Bulletin, 97(1-2), 5-12. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.06.008
  • 6. Barnes, D. K., Galgani, F., Thompson, R. C.ve Barlaz, M. (2009). Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364(1526), 1985-1998. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0205
  • 7. Bayo, J., Olmos, S.ve Lopez-Castellanos, J. (2020). Microplastics in an urban wastewater treatment plant: The influence of physicochemical parameters and environmental factors, Chemosphere, 238, 124593. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124593
  • 8. Browne, M. A., Crump, P., Niven, S. J., Teuten, E., Tonkin, A., Galloway, T., ve Thompson, R. (2011). Accumulation of Microplastic on Shorelines Woldwide: Sources and Sinks. Environmental Science& Technology, 45(21), 9175- 9179. doi: 10.1021/es201811s
  • 9. Carpenter, E. J.ve Smith Jr., K. L. (1972). Plastics on the Sargasso sea surface,Science, 175(4027), 1240-1241. doi: 10.1126/science.175.4027.1240
  • 10. Carr, S. A., Liu, J.ve Tesoro, A. G. (2016). Transport and fate of microplastic particles in wastewater treatment plants,Water Research, 91, 174-182. doi: 10.1016 / j.watres.2016.01.002
  • 11. Cheunga, P. K.ve Fok, L. (2017). Characterisation of plastic microbeads in facial scrubs and their estimated emissions in Mainland China, Water Research, 122, 53-61. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2017.05.053
  • 12. Desforges, J. P., Galbraith, M., Dangerfield, N.ve Ross, P. S. (2014). Widespread distribution of microplastics in subsurface seawater in the NE Pacific Ocean,Marine Pollutution Bulletin, 79(1-2), 94-99. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.12.035
  • 13. Dris, R., Gasperi, J., Saad, M., Mirande, C.ve Tassin, B. (2016). Synthetic fibers in atmospheric fallout: A source of microplastics in the environment?,Marine Pollutution Bulletin, 104(1-2), 290-293. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.01.006
  • 14. Edo, C., Gonzalez-Pleiter, M., Leganes, F., Fernandez-Pinas, F.ve Rosal, R. (2020). Fate of microplastics in wastewater treatment plants and their environmental dispersion with effluent and sludge,Environmental Pollution, 259, 113837. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113837
  • 15. Eriksen, M., Mason, S., Wilson, S., Box, C., Zellers, A., Edwards, W., Farley, H. ve Amato, S. (2013). Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes, Marine Pollutution Bulletin, 77(1-2), 177-182. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.10.007
  • 16. Fendall, L. S.ve Sewell, M. A. (2009). Contributing to marine pollution by washing your face: microplastics in facial cleansers, Marine Pollutution Bulletin, 58(8), 1225-1228. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.04.025
  • 17. Gatidou, G., Arvaniti, O. S.ve Stasinakis, A. S. (2019). Review on the occurrence and fate of microplastics in Sewage Treatment Plants,Journal of Hazardous Materials, 367, 504-512. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.12.081
  • 18. Gies, E. A., LeNoble, J. L., Noel, M., Etemadifar, A., Bishay, F., Hall, E. R., ve Ross, P. S. (2018). Retention of microplastics in a major secondary wastewater treatment plant in Vancouver, Canada, Marine Pollutution Bulletin, 133, 553-561. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.06.006
  • 19. Gregory, M. R. (1996). Plastic ‘scrubbers’ in hand cleansers: a further (and minor) source for marine pollution identified,Marine Pollutution Bulletin, 32(12), 867-871. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(96)00047-1
  • 20. Gündoğdu, S. (2017). High level of micro-plastic pollution in the Iskenderun Bay NE Levantine coast of Turkey,Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 34(4), 401-408. doi: 10.12714/egejfas.2017.34.4.06
  • 21. Gündoğdu, S., Çevik, C., Güzel, E. ve Kilercioğlu, S. (2018). Microplastics in municipal wastewater treatment plants in Turkey: a comparison of the influent and secondary effluent concentrations,Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190.
  • 22. Habib, D., Locke, D. C., ve Cannone, L. J. (1998). Synthetic Fibers as Indicators of Municipal Sewage Sludge, Sludge Products, and Sewage Treatment Plant Effluents, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 103, 1-8.
  • 23. Habib, R. Z., Thiemann, T.ve Kendi, R. A. (2020). Microplastics and Wastewater Treatment Plants—A Review, Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 12(01), 35. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2020.121001
  • 24. He, P., Chen, L., Shao, L., Zhang, H.ve Lu, F. (2019). Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill: A source of microplastics? -Evidence of microplastics in landfill leachate,Water Research, 159, 38-45. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2019.04.060
  • 25. Hernandez, E., Nowack, B.ve Mitrano, D. M. (2017). Polyester Textiles as a Source of Microplastics from Households: A Mechanistic, Environmental Science & Technology, 51, 7036-7046. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b01750
  • 26. Ivar do Sul, J. A.ve Costa, M. F. (2014). The present and future of microplastic pollution in the marine environment, Environmental Pollution, 185, 352-364. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.10.036
  • 27. Jambeck, J. R., Geyer, R., Wilcox, C., Siegler, T. R., Perryman, M., Andrady, A., Narayan, R.ve Law, K. L. (2015). Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean,Science, 347(6223), 768-771. doi: 10.1126/science.1260352
  • 28. Kole, P. J., Löhr, A. J., Van Belleghem, F. G. A. J. ve Ragas, A. N. J. (2017). Wear and Tear of Tyres: A Stealthy Source of Microplastics in the Environment,International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(10), 1265. doi: 10.3390 / ijerph14101265
  • 29. Lares, M., Ncibi, M. C.ve Sillanpaa, M. (2018). Occurrence, identification and removal of microplastic particles and fibers in conventional activated sludge process and advanced MBR technology,Water Research, 133, 236-246. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.01.049
  • 30. Lassen, C., Hansen, S. F., Magnusson, K., Noren, F., Hartmann, N. I. B., Jensen, P. R., Nielsen, T. G. ve Brinch, A. (2015). Microplastics-occurrence, Effects and Sources of Releases to the Environment in Denmark, Danish Environmental Protection Agency, 206.
  • 31. Law, K. L., Moret-Ferguson, S. E., Goodwin, D. S., Zettler, E. R., Deforce, E., Kukulka, T. ve Proskurowski, G. (2014). Distribution of surface plastic debris in the eastern Pacific Ocean from an 11-year data set, Environmental Science & Technology, 48(9), 4732-4738. doi: 10.1021/es4053076
  • 32. Lee, H.,ve Kim, Y. (2018). Treatment characteristics of microplastics at biological sewage treatment facilities in Korea,Marine Pollutution Bulletin, 137, 1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.09.050
  • 33. Leslie, H. A., Brandsma, S. H., van Velzen, M. J. M.ve Vethaak, A. D. (2017). Microplastics en route: Field measurements in the Dutch river delta and Amsterdam canals, wastewater treatment plants, North Sea sediments and biota,Environmental International, 101, 133-142. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2017.01.018
  • 34. Li, X., Chen, L., Mei, Q., Dong, B., Dai, X., Ding, G.ve Zeng, E. Y. (2018). Microplastics in sewage sludge from the wastewater treatment plants in China, Water Research, 142, 75-85. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.05.034
  • 35. Li, L., Zhou, Q., Yin, N. Tu, C. ve Luo, Y. (2019). Uptake and accumulation of microplastics in an edible plant, Chinese Science Bulletin, 64(9), 928-934. doi:10.1360/N972018-00845
  • 36. Liu, X., Yuan, W., Di, M., Li, Z.ve Wang, J. (2019). Transfer and fate of microplastics during the conventional activated sludge process in one wastewater treatment plant of China,Chemical Engineering Journal, 362, 176-182. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2019.01.033
  • 37. Long, Z., Pan, Z., Wang, W., Ren, J., Yu, X., Lin, L., Chen, H. ve Jin, X. (2019). Microplastic abundance, characteristics, and removal in wastewater treatment plants in a coastal city of China,Water Research, 155, 255-265. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2019.02.028
  • 38. Magni, S., Binelli, A., Pittura, L., Avio, C. G., Della Torre, C., Parenti, C. C., Gorbi, S. ve Regoli, F. (2019). The fate of microplastics in an Italian Wastewater Treatment Plant, Science of Total Environment, 652, 602-610. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.269
  • 39. Magnusson, K. ve Noren, F. (2014). Screening of Microplastic Particles in and Down-stream a Wastewater Treatment Plant, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
  • 40. Mahon, A. M., O'Connell, B., Healy, M. G., O'Connor, I., Officer, R., Nash, R.ve Morrison, L. (2017). Microplastics in Sewage Sludge: Effects of Treatment, Environmental Science & Technology, 51(2), 810-818. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b04048
  • 41. Masia, P., Sol, D., Ardura, A., Laca, A., Borrell, Y. J., Dopico, E., Laca, A., Machado-Schiaffino, G., Diaz, M. ve Garcia-Vazquez, E. (2020). Bioremediation as a promising strategy for microplastics removal in wastewater treatment plants,Marine Pollution Bulletin, 156, 111252. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111252
  • 42. Mason, S. A., Garneau, D., Sutton, R., Chu, Y., Ehmann, K., Barnes, J., Fink, P., Papazissimos, D. ve Rogers, D. L. (2016). Microplastic pollution is widely detected in US municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent,Environmental Pollution, 218, 1045-1054. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.08.056
  • 43. McCormick, A., Hoellein, T. J., Mason, S. A., Schluep, J.ve Kelly, J. J. (2014). Microplastic is an abundant and distinct microbial habitat in an urban river,Environmental Science Technology, 48(20), 11863-11871. doi:10.1021 / es503610r
  • 44. Mintenig, S. M., Int-Veen, I., Loder, M. G. J., Primpke, S.ve Gerdts, G. (2017). Identification of microplastic in effluents of waste water treatment plants using focal plane array-based micro-Fourier-transform infrared imaging,Water Research, 108, 365-372. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2016.11.015
  • 45. Mohapatra, D. P., Cledon, M., Brar, S. K.ve Surampalli, R. Y. (2016). Application of Wastewater and Biosolids in Soil: Occurrence and Fate of Emerging Contaminants,Water, Air, & Soil Pollution,227, 1-14.
  • 46. Murphy, F., Ewins, C., Carbonnier, F.ve Quinn, B. (2016). Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW) as a Source of Microplastics in the Aquatic Environment,Environmental Science & Technology, 50(11), 5800-5808. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b05416
  • 47. Napper, I. E., Bakir, A., Rowland, S. J.ve Thompson, R. C. (2015). Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 99(1-2), 178-185. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.07.029
  • 48. Ngo, P. L., Pramanik, B. K., Shah, K.ve Roychand, R. (2019). Pathway, classification and removal efficiency of microplastics in wastewater treatment plants,Environmental Pollution, 255(Pt 2), 113326. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113326
  • 49. Nizzetto, L., Futter, M.ve Langaas, S. (2016). Are Agricultural Soils Dumps for Microplastics of Urban Origin?,Environmental Science & Technology, 50(20), 10777-10779. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b04140
  • 50. Rummel, C. D., Jahnke, A., Gorokhova, E., Kühnel, D.ve Schmitt-Jahsen, M. (2017). Impacts of biofilm formation on the fate and potential effects of microplastic in the aquatic environment, Environmental Science &Technology Letters, 4(7), 258-267. doi: 10.1021/acs.estlett.7b00164
  • 51. Simon, M., van Alst, N.ve Vollertsen, J. (2018). Quantification of microplastic mass and removal rates at wastewater treatment plants applying Focal Plane Array (FPA)-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) imaging, Water Research, 142, 1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.05.019
  • 52. Singh, R. P. ve Agrawal, M. (2008). Potential benefits and risks of land application of sewage sludge, Waste Management, 28(2), 347-358. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2006.12.010
  • 53. Sun, J., Dai, X., Wang, Q., van Loosdrecht, M. C. M. ve Ni, B. J. (2019). Microplastics in wastewater treatment plants: Detection, occurrence and removal,Water Research, 152, 21-37. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.12.050
  • 54. Talvitie, J., Heinonen, M., Pakkönen, J.-P., Vahtera, E., Mikola, A., Setala, O.ve Vahala, R. (2015). Do wastewater treatment plants act as a potential point source of microplastics? Preliminary study in the coastal Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea,Water Science &Technology,72(9), 1495-1504. doi: 10.2166/wst.2015.360
  • 55. Talvitie, J., Mikola, A., Koistinen, A. ve Setala, O. (2017a). Solutions to microplastic pollution - Removal of microplastics from wastewater effluent with advanced wastewater treatment technologies,Water Research, 123, 401-407. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.07.005
  • 56. Talvitie, J., Mikola, A., Setala, O., Heinonen, M.ve Koistinen, A. (2017b). How well is microlitter purified from wastewater? – A detailed study on the stepwise removal of microlitter in a tertiary level wastewater treatment plant,Water Research, 109, 164-172. doi: 10.1016 / j.watres.2016.11.046
  • 57. Thompson, R. C., Olson, Y., Mitchell, R. P., Davis, A., Rowland, S. J., Yuhanna, A. W. G., McGonigle, D. ve Russell, A. E. (2004). Lost at sea: where is all the plastic?, Science, 304(5672), 838. doi: 10.1126/science.1094559
  • 58. Wright, S. L.ve Kelly, F. J. (2017). Plastic and Human Health: A Micro Issue?,Environmental Science &Technology, 51(12), 6634-6647. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b00423
  • 59. Xu, X., Jian, Y., Xue, Y., Hou, Q. ve Wang, L. (2019). Microplastics in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): Occurrence and removal,Chemosphere, 235, 1089-1096. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.06.197
  • 60. Xu, Q., Gao, Y., Xu, L., Shi, W., Wang,F., LeBlanc, G. A., Cui, S., An, L. ve Lei, K. (2020). Investigation of the microplastics profile in sludge from China’s largest Water reclamation plant using a feasible isolation device, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 388, 122067. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122067
  • 61. Yang, L., Li, K., Cui, S., Kang, Y., An, L. ve Lei, K. (2019). Removal of microplastics in municipal sewage from China's largest water reclamation plant,Water Research, 155, 175-181. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2019.02.046
  • 62. Zhang, G. S. ve Liu, Y. F. (2018). The distribution of microplastics in soil aggregate fractions in southwestern China,The Science of the Total Environment, 642, 12-20. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.004
  • 63. Zhang, Z.ve Chen, Y. (2020). Effects of microplastics on wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and their removal: A review, Chemical Engineering Journal, 382, 122955. doi: 10.1016 / j.cej.2019.122955
  • 64. Zhang, L., Xie, Y., Liu, J., Zhong, S., Qian, Y. ve Gao, P. (2020). An Overlooked Entry Pathway of Microplastics into Agricultural Soils from Application of Sludge-Based Fertilizers, Environmental Science &Technology, 54(7), 4248-4255. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b07905
  • 65. Ziajahromi, S., Neale, P. A., Rintoul, L.ve Leusch, F. D. L. (2017). Wastewater treatment plants as a pathway for microplastics: Development of a new approach to sample wastewater-based microplastics, Water Research, 112, 93-99. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.01.042
  • 66. Zitko, V. ve Hanlon, M. (1991). Another source of pollution by plastics: Skin cleaners with plastic scrubbers, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 22(1), 41-42. doi: 10.1016 / 0025-326X (91) 90444-W
  • 67. Zubris, K. A. ve Richards, B. K. (2005). Synthetic fibers as an indicator of land application of sludge,Environmental Pollution , 138(2), 201-211. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2005.04.013
Primary Language tr
Subjects Environmental Engineering
Journal Section Survey Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0003-4921-2058
Author: Kübra BOZDAŞ (Primary Author)
Institution: BURSA ULUDAĞ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, ÇEVRE MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ, ÇEVRE TEKNOLOJİSİ ANABİLİM DALI
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-7126-6792
Author: Gökhan Ekrem ÜSTÜN
Institution: BURSA ULUDAĞ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, ÇEVRE MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ, ÇEVRE TEKNOLOJİSİ ANABİLİM DALI
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-6321-0350
Author: Ahmet AYGÜN
Institution: BURSA TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK VE DOĞA BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, ÇEVRE MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Application Date : June 26, 2020
Acceptance Date : October 19, 2020
Publication Date : December 31, 2020

Bibtex @review { uumfd758523, journal = {Uludağ University Journal of The Faculty of Engineering}, issn = {2148-4147}, eissn = {2148-4155}, address = {}, publisher = {Bursa Uludağ University}, year = {2020}, volume = {25}, pages = {1577 - 1592}, doi = {10.17482/uumfd.758523}, title = {ATIKSU ARITMA TESİSLERİNDE MİKRO PLASTİKLER VE GİDERİM YÖNTEMLERİ}, key = {cite}, author = {Bozdaş, Kübra and Üstün, Gökhan Ekrem and Aygün, Ahmet} }
APA Bozdaş, K , Üstün, G , Aygün, A . (2020). ATIKSU ARITMA TESİSLERİNDE MİKRO PLASTİKLER VE GİDERİM YÖNTEMLERİ . Uludağ University Journal of The Faculty of Engineering , 25 (3) , 1577-1592 . DOI: 10.17482/uumfd.758523
MLA Bozdaş, K , Üstün, G , Aygün, A . "ATIKSU ARITMA TESİSLERİNDE MİKRO PLASTİKLER VE GİDERİM YÖNTEMLERİ" . Uludağ University Journal of The Faculty of Engineering 25 (2020 ): 1577-1592 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/uumfd/issue/57911/758523>
Chicago Bozdaş, K , Üstün, G , Aygün, A . "ATIKSU ARITMA TESİSLERİNDE MİKRO PLASTİKLER VE GİDERİM YÖNTEMLERİ". Uludağ University Journal of The Faculty of Engineering 25 (2020 ): 1577-1592
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - ATIKSU ARITMA TESİSLERİNDE MİKRO PLASTİKLER VE GİDERİM YÖNTEMLERİ AU - Kübra Bozdaş , Gökhan Ekrem Üstün , Ahmet Aygün Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.17482/uumfd.758523 DO - 10.17482/uumfd.758523 T2 - Uludağ University Journal of The Faculty of Engineering JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1577 EP - 1592 VL - 25 IS - 3 SN - 2148-4147-2148-4155 M3 - doi: 10.17482/uumfd.758523 UR - https://doi.org/10.17482/uumfd.758523 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Uludağ University Journal of The Faculty of Engineering ATIKSU ARITMA TESİSLERİNDE MİKRO PLASTİKLER VE GİDERİM YÖNTEMLERİ %A Kübra Bozdaş , Gökhan Ekrem Üstün , Ahmet Aygün %T ATIKSU ARITMA TESİSLERİNDE MİKRO PLASTİKLER VE GİDERİM YÖNTEMLERİ %D 2020 %J Uludağ University Journal of The Faculty of Engineering %P 2148-4147-2148-4155 %V 25 %N 3 %R doi: 10.17482/uumfd.758523 %U 10.17482/uumfd.758523
ISNAD Bozdaş, Kübra , Üstün, Gökhan Ekrem , Aygün, Ahmet . "ATIKSU ARITMA TESİSLERİNDE MİKRO PLASTİKLER VE GİDERİM YÖNTEMLERİ". Uludağ University Journal of The Faculty of Engineering 25 / 3 (December 2020): 1577-1592 . https://doi.org/10.17482/uumfd.758523
AMA Bozdaş K , Üstün G , Aygün A . ATIKSU ARITMA TESİSLERİNDE MİKRO PLASTİKLER VE GİDERİM YÖNTEMLERİ. UUJFE. 2020; 25(3): 1577-1592.
Vancouver Bozdaş K , Üstün G , Aygün A . ATIKSU ARITMA TESİSLERİNDE MİKRO PLASTİKLER VE GİDERİM YÖNTEMLERİ. Uludağ University Journal of The Faculty of Engineering. 2020; 25(3): 1577-1592.
IEEE K. Bozdaş , G. Üstün and A. Aygün , "ATIKSU ARITMA TESİSLERİNDE MİKRO PLASTİKLER VE GİDERİM YÖNTEMLERİ", Uludağ University Journal of The Faculty of Engineering, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1577-1592, Dec. 2021, doi:10.17482/uumfd.758523