Year 2019, Volume 4 , Issue 2, Pages 515 - 541 2019-09-21

Modern and Folk Sports in Central Asia under Lenin and Stalin: Uzbekistan from 1925 to 1952
Lenin ve Stalin Dönemlerinde Orta Asya'da Modern ve Geleneksel Sporlar: 1925'ten 1952'ye Özbekistan

Sevket Hylton AKYİLDİZ [1]


Soviet physical culture was a soft power tool deployed to create healthy and patriotic citizen-soldiers and help modernise the urban Soviet Union: one key strand of this was modern sports. Critically reading selected Cold War and contemporary studies, we explore the acculturation and integration role of the Soviet sports culture in multicultural Uzbekistan from 1925 to 1952. In this interdisciplinary paper we ask: What was the impact of the Soviets sports in Uzbekistan? How and why did Lenin and Stalin reposition folk sports in society? The themes examined include the concept of Soviet sports, folk sports, and the development and impact of modern sports culture.

Sovyet beden kültürü, sağlıklı ve yurtsever vatandaş-askerler yetiştirmek ve Sovyetler Birliği'nin kentli nüfusunun modernleşmesine yardımcı olmak için kullanılan yumuşak bir güç aracıydı. Bunun en önemli yollarından biri modern sporlardı. Josef Stalin (1925'ten 1953'e kadar Komünist Parti lideri) topluma beden ve spor kültürünü kabul ettirip kurumsallaştırdı. Bununla birlikte, siyasi değişiklikler haricinde, spor modelinin kurumları 1980'lerin ortasına kadar varlığını devam ettirdi.  Bu çalışma Sovyetler Birliği Komünist Partisi'nin (1925'de kuruldu, bundan sonra Komünist Parti) spor vasıtasıyla Özbekistan Sovyet Sosyalist Cumhuriyeti (bundan sonra Özbekistan) üzerindeki etkisini inceleyecektir. Seçilmiş Soğuk Savaş ve çağdaş çalışmaları eleştirel bir şekilde ele alarak, 1925'ten 1952'ye çok kültürlü Özbekistan'da Sovyet spor kültürünün yerleşme ve bütünleşme rolünü araştıracağız. Disiplinler arası bu çalışmadaki sorumuz şu: Sovyet sporunun Özbekistan'daki etkisi neydi? Lenin ve Stalin geleneksel sporları topluma nasıl ve neden yeniden benimsetti? İncelenen hususlar arasında Sovyet sporları kavramı, geleneksel sporlar ve modern spor kültürünün gelişimi ve etkisi yer almaktadır.

  • Shirin Akiner, Central Asia: New Arc of Crisis? (London: Whitehall Paper Series, 1993), 11. David Lane, Soviet Society Under Perestroika (London: Unwin Hyman, 1990), 358-60. Formerly the Bolshevik wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (founded 1898). Susan Grant, Physical Culture and Sport in Soviet Society: Propaganda, Acculturation, and Transformation in the 1920s and 1930s (London: Routledge, 2013); see also Sevket Akyildiz, ‘Soviet Physical Culture in Uzbekistan: Implementation and Social Impact’, in Sports and Coaching: Pasts and Futures, ed. Dave Day (Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University, 2012), 105-122. Nikolaus Katzer and Sandra Budy and Alexandra Kohring and Manfred Zeller, Euphoria and Exhaustion: Modern Sport in Soviet Culture and Society (Frankfurt: CampusVerlag, 2010). A. Timofeyev and Y. Kopytkin, Soviet Sport: The Success Story (Moscow: Raduga Publishers, 1987). Christel Lane, The Rites of Rulers: Ritual in Industrial Society: The Soviet Case (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1981), 29; see also Sevket Akyildiz and Richard Carlson, Social and Cultural Change in Central Asia: The Soviet Legacy (London: Routledge, 2014). Eva Maurer, ‘An Academic Escape to the Periphery? The Social and Cultural Milieu of Soviet Mountaineering from the 1920s to the 1960s’, in Euphoria and Exhaustion: Modern Sport in Soviet Culture and Society, ed. Nikolaus Katzer (Frankfurt: CampusVerlag, 2010), 159. Burcu Dogramaci, ‘Heading into Modernity: Sporting Culture, Architecture and Photography in the Early Turkish Republic’, in Euphoria and Exhaustion: Modern Sport in Soviet Culture and Society, ed. Nikolaus Katzer (Frankfurt: CampusVerlag, 2010), 112. The Communist Party resolution of 1925 highlights the comprehensive nature of physical culture: ‘… physical culture must be considered not simply from the stand-point of public health and physical education, not only as an aspect of the cultural, economic and military training of young people. It should also be seen as a means to educate the masses (inasmuch as it develops will power, teamwork, endurance, resourcefulness and other valuable qualities). It must be regarded, moreover, as a means of rallying the bulk of the workers and peasants to the various Party, government and trade-union organizations, through which they can be drawn into social and political activity… Physical culture must be an inseparable part of overall political and cultural education and of public health’, cited in James Riordan, Soviet Sport: Background to the Olympics (New York, Washington Mews Books, 1980), 30. 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Paul Stronski, Tashkent: Forging a Soviet City, 1930–1966 (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2010), 2, 67. 1st December 1935, speech given by Stalin, Soch, I (XIV), 106, cited in Sheila Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism, (Oxford: OUP, 1999), 90, 224. Miriam Morton, The Making of Champions: Soviet Sports for Children and Teenagers (New York: Atheneum, 1974), 5. Anke Hilbrenner, ‘Soviet Women in Sports in the Brezhnev Years: The Female Body and Soviet Modernism’, in Euphoria and Exhaustion: Modern Sport in Soviet Culture and Society, ed. Nikolaus Katzer (Frankfurt: CampusVerlag, 2010), 302. Grant, Physical Culture and Sport, 100. Ibid., 84. Ibid., 94-7. Riordan, Sport in Soviet Society, 86. Hilbrenner, ‘Soviet Women in Sports in the Brezhnev Years’, 304. 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In 1955 Avery Brundage (an American and President of the International Olympic Committee from 1952 to 1972) gave a speech in Detroit (United States) about one mass unionwide Soviet sports meeting: ‘… I have seen many things in various parts of the world, but never anything that would even approach this one, either in magnitude or beauty… There were Uzbeks and Tadzhiks and Cossacks and Armenians and Georgians and Kirgiz… Each delegation included from 400 to 3,000 boys and girls… it went on for five hours like clockwork’. At the event, the printed slogans and banners visible during the displays read: ‘… ready for labour and defence; glory to the Fatherland; hail Lenin and Stalin; three million bales of cotton for the nation; success to the Communist Party; peace-peace-peace.’ Source: From a speech to the Economic Club of Detroit on 7 February 1955, cited in H.W. Morton, Soviet Sport (New York: Collier Books, 1963), 61-63, in Riordan, Sport in Soviet Society, 175. International Olympic Committee, ‘The Olympic Movement: Uzbekistan’, http://www.olympic.org/uzbekistan (accessed 6 July 2015); National Olympic Committee of Uzbekistan, http://www.olympic.uz/en/ (accessed 6 July 2015). Christina Kiaer, ‘The Swimming Vtorova Sisters: The Representation and Experience of Sport in the 1930s’, in Euphoria and Exhaustion: Modern Sport in Soviet Culture and Society, ed. Nikolaus Katzer (Frankfurt: CampusVerlag, 2010), 90. Karsten Bruggemann, ‘Imperial Careers and National Recollection: Baltic Wrestlers and the Organization of National Sports in the Late Tsarist Empire’, in Euphoria and Exhaustion: Modern Sport in Soviet Culture and Society, ed. Nikolaus Katzer (Frankfurt: CampusVerlag, 2010), 133.
Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Sevket Hylton AKYİLDİZ

Dates

Publication Date : September 21, 2019

Bibtex @research article { vakanuvis595032, journal = {Vakanüvis - Uluslararası Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi}, issn = {2149-9535}, eissn = {2636-7777}, address = {}, publisher = {Serkan YAZICI}, year = {2019}, volume = {4}, pages = {515 - 541}, doi = {10.24186/vakanuvis.595032}, title = {Modern and Folk Sports in Central Asia under Lenin and Stalin: Uzbekistan from 1925 to 1952}, key = {cite}, author = {AKYİLDİZ, Sevket Hylton} }
APA AKYİLDİZ, S . (2019). Modern and Folk Sports in Central Asia under Lenin and Stalin: Uzbekistan from 1925 to 1952. Vakanüvis - Uluslararası Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi , 4 (2) , 515-541 . DOI: 10.24186/vakanuvis.595032
MLA AKYİLDİZ, S . "Modern and Folk Sports in Central Asia under Lenin and Stalin: Uzbekistan from 1925 to 1952". Vakanüvis - Uluslararası Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi 4 (2019 ): 515-541 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/vakanuvis/issue/48884/595032>
Chicago AKYİLDİZ, S . "Modern and Folk Sports in Central Asia under Lenin and Stalin: Uzbekistan from 1925 to 1952". Vakanüvis - Uluslararası Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi 4 (2019 ): 515-541
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Modern and Folk Sports in Central Asia under Lenin and Stalin: Uzbekistan from 1925 to 1952 AU - Sevket Hylton AKYİLDİZ Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.24186/vakanuvis.595032 DO - 10.24186/vakanuvis.595032 T2 - Vakanüvis - Uluslararası Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 515 EP - 541 VL - 4 IS - 2 SN - 2149-9535-2636-7777 M3 - doi: 10.24186/vakanuvis.595032 UR - https://doi.org/10.24186/vakanuvis.595032 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Vakanüvis - Uluslararası Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi Modern and Folk Sports in Central Asia under Lenin and Stalin: Uzbekistan from 1925 to 1952 %A Sevket Hylton AKYİLDİZ %T Modern and Folk Sports in Central Asia under Lenin and Stalin: Uzbekistan from 1925 to 1952 %D 2019 %J Vakanüvis - Uluslararası Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi %P 2149-9535-2636-7777 %V 4 %N 2 %R doi: 10.24186/vakanuvis.595032 %U 10.24186/vakanuvis.595032
ISNAD AKYİLDİZ, Sevket Hylton . "Modern and Folk Sports in Central Asia under Lenin and Stalin: Uzbekistan from 1925 to 1952". Vakanüvis - Uluslararası Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi 4 / 2 (September 2019): 515-541 . https://doi.org/10.24186/vakanuvis.595032
AMA AKYİLDİZ S . Modern and Folk Sports in Central Asia under Lenin and Stalin: Uzbekistan from 1925 to 1952. VAKANÜVİS. 2019; 4(2): 515-541.
Vancouver AKYİLDİZ S . Modern and Folk Sports in Central Asia under Lenin and Stalin: Uzbekistan from 1925 to 1952. Vakanüvis - Uluslararası Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2019; 4(2): 541-515.