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Gebelik Süresince Aroclor 1254 (2 mg/kg/gün)’e Maruz Kalan Gebe Ratların Böbrek Beyin ve Karaciğer Dokularında Oksidant/Antioksidant Dengedeki Değişimler

Year 2015, Volume 26, Issue 2, 65 - 69, 01.08.2015

Abstract

Bu çalışma, Aroclor 1254’e maruz kalan gebe ratların beyin, böbrek ve karaciğer dokularında hem oksidant hem de antioksidant parametreleri araştırmak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Çalışmada ratlar iki gruba ayrılmıştır ve her bir grupta 10 rat bulunmaktadır. Birinci grup, gebe kontrol grubu ve ikinci grup, gebe Aroclor 1254 (2 mg/kg/gün, Aroclor 1254’ün bu dozu 20 gün boyunca subkutan olarak uygulandı). Her grupta yer alan gebe ratlar eter anestezi yöntemi ile uyutulmuş ve karaciğer, beyin ve böbrek dokuları çıkarılmıştır. Bu dokularda lipit peroksidasyon parametresi malondialdehid (MDA), glutatyon (GSH) seviyeleri ile glutatyon peroksidaz (GSH-Px), katalaz (CAT), süperoksit dismutaz (SOD), glutatyon redüktaz (GR), glutatyon S transferaz (GST) aktiviteleri ölçülmüştür. Çalışma sonucunda karaciğer, böbrek ve beyin dokularında analizi yapılan parametreler açısından iki grup arasında istatistiksel açıdan bir anlamlı bir fark tespit edilememiştir. Yapılan çalışma ile gebelik süresince uygulanan Aroclor 1254’ün (2 mg/kg) bir kısmının plasenta yoluyla yavruya geçmesi nedeniyle gebe ratın vücudunda kalan Aroclor 1254’ün miktarının gebe ratda oksidatif hasar oluşturabilecek kadar etkili olmadığı sonucuna varılmıştır. Özellikle yüksek dozda Aroclor 1254’ün gebe ratlara uygulandığı ileri bir çalışma ile; gebe ratlarda oluşabilecek oksidatif hasarın tespitinin yapılabileceği düşünülmektedir

References

  • Aebi H (1984). Catalase. In vitro. Methods Enzymol, 105, 121-126.
  • Aluru N, Jorgensen EH, Maule AG, Vijayan MM (2004). PCB disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis involves brain glucocorticoid receptor down regulation in anadromous Arctic charr. Am J Physiol, 287, R787-R793.
  • Aly AAH, Domenech O (2009). Aroclor 1254 induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicology, 262, 175-183.
  • Ando M, Saito H, Wakisaka I (1986). Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in human placenta and cord blood. Environ Res, 41, 14-22.
  • Bansal R, You SH, Herzig CT, Zoeller RT (2005). Maternal thyroid hormone increases HES expression in the fetal rat brain: an effect mimicked by exposure to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Brain Res Dev, 156, 13-22.
  • Basaga HS (1990). Biochemical aspects of free radicals. Biochem Cell Biol, 68, 989-998.
  • Battershill JM (1994). Review of the safety assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with particular reference to reproductive toxicity. Hum Exp Toxicol, 13, 581-597.
  • Becu-Villalobos D, Gonzalez IA, Diaz-Torga G, Hockl P, Libertun C (1997). Brain sexual differentiation and gonadotropsins secretion in the rat. Cell Mol Neurobiol, 17, 699-715.
  • Beutler A (1975). A manual of biochemical methods. Grunef strottan, 2nd ed. New York.
  • Brouwer A, Longnecker MP, Birnbaum LS, Cogliano J, Kostyniak P, Moore J, Schantz S, Winneke G (1999). Characterization of potential endocrine-related health effects at low-dose levels of exposure to PCBs. Environ Health Perspect, 107, 639-649.
  • Brouwer A, van den Berg KJ (1986). Binding of a metabolite of 3,4,3´,4´tetrachlorobiphenyl to transthyretin reduces serum vitamin A transport by inhibiting the formation of the protein complex carrying both retinol and thyroxin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 85, 301-312.
  • Brunnberg S, Pettersson K, Rydin E, Matthews J, Hanberg A, Pongratz I (2003). The basic helix-loop-helix-PAS protein ARNT functions as a potent coactivator of estrogen receptor-dependent transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 100, 6517-6522.
  • Buitenhuis C, Cenijn PC, van Velzen M, Lilienthal H, Mlmberg T, Bergman A, Gutleb AC, Legler J, Brouwer A (2004). Effects of pregnant exposure to hydroxylated PCB metabolites and some brominated flame retardants on the development of rats. Organohalog Compd, 66, 3586-3592.
  • By Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951). Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem, 193, 265-275.
  • Chu I, Bowers JW, Caldwell D, Nakai J, Pulido O, Yagminas A, Wade GM, Moir D, Gill S, Mueller R (2005). Toxicological effects of gestational and lactational exposure to a mixture of persistent organochlorines in rats: Systemic effects. Toxicol Sci, 88, 645-655.
  • Chu I, Villeneuve DC, Yagminas A, Lecavalier P, Hakansson H, Ahlborg UG, Vali VE, Kennedy SW, Bregman A, Seegal RF, et. Al (1995). Toxicity of PCB 77 (3,3´,4,4´-tetrachlorobiphenyl) and PCB 118 (2,3,4,4´,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) in the rat following subchronic dietary exposure. Fundam Appl Toxicol, 26, 282-292.
  • Connor K, Ramamoorthy K, Moore M, Mustain M, Chen I, Safe S, Zacharewski T, Gillesby B, Joyeux A, Balaguer P (1997). Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as estrogens and antiestrogens: structure-activity relationships. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 145, 111-123.
  • Desaulniers D, Leingartner K, Wade M, Fintelman E, Yagminas A, Foster WG (1999). Effects of acute exposure to PCBs 126 and 153 on anterior pituitary and thyroid hormones and FSH isoforms in adult Sprague Dawley male rats. Toxicol Sci, 47, 158-169.
  • Doğan A, Erişir M (2011). Alterations of the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium in liver, brain, kidney and heart tissues of offspring born from pregnant rats exposed to Aroclor 1254 alone or in combination with vitamin E. Revue Med Vet, 162(7), 364-370.
  • Gregoraszczuk EL, Zemla M, Ptak A, Grabic R (2005). The action of lowand high-chlorinated biphenyl mixture on prepubertal porcine ovary: steroid secretion and cells apoptosis. Endocr Regul, 39, 33-41.
  • Habdous M, Vincet-Viry M, Visvikis S, Siest G (2002). Rapid spectrophotometric method for serum glutathione S-transferases activity. Clin Chim Acta, 326, 131-142.
  • Kester MH, Bulduk S, Tibboel D, Meinl W, Glatt H, Falany CN, Coughtrie MW, Bergman A, Safe SH, Kuiper GG, Schuur AG, Brouwer A, Visser TJ (2000). Potent inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase by hydroxylated PCB metabolites: a novel pathway explaining the estrogenic activity of PCBs. Endocrinology, 141, 1897-1900.
  • Khan IA, Thomas P (2001). Disruption of neuroendocrine control of luteinizing hormone secretion by Aroclor 1254 involves inhibition of hypothalamic tryptophan hydroxylase activity. Biol Reorod, 64, 955964.
  • Kodavanti PR, McKinney JD (2000). Assessing the role of orthosubstitution on polychlorinated biphenyl binding to transthyretin, a thyroxine transport protein. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 162, 10-21.
  • Lewandowski KC, Stojanovic N, Press M, Tuck S, Lewinski A, Malgorzata KL (2014). Raised concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (LPO) in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance. Ann Agr Env Med, 21, 429-434.
  • MC Lean MR, Twaroski TP, Robertson LW (2000). Redox cycling of 2-(x´mono,-di, trichlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinones, oxidation products of polychlorinated biphenyls. Arch Biochem Biophys, 376, 449-455.
  • Meerts HA, Lilienthal H, Hoving S, vand den Berh JH, Weijers BM, Bergman A, Koeman JH, Brouwer A (2004). Developmental exposure to 4-hydroxy-2,3,3´,4´,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB107): Long term effects on brain development, behavior and brain stem auditory evoked potential in rats. Toxicol Sci, 82, 207-218.
  • Morse DC, Seegal RF, Borsch KO, Brouwer A (1996). Long-term alterations in regional brain serotonin metabolism following maternal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in the rat. Neurotoxicology, 17, 631638.
  • Muhtuvel R, Venkataraman P, Krishnamoorthy G, Gunadharini DN, Kanagaraj P, Stanley JA, Srinivasan N, Balasubramanian K, Aruldhas MM, Arunakaran J (1999). Antioxidant effect of ascorbic acid on PCB (Aroclor 1254) induced oxidative stress in hypothalamus of albino rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 161, 160-167.
  • Ngui JS, Bandiera SM (1999). Induction of hepatic CYP2B is a more sensitive indicator of exposure to aroclor 1260 than CYP1A in male rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 161, 160-167.
  • Öztürk LK, Aykuz A, Koc S, Gul N, Dogan BN (2010). Salivary lipid peroxidation and total sialic acid levels during healthy gestitation and postpartum: A longitudinal study. Clin Biochem, 43, 430-434.
  • Patisaul HB, Fortino AE, Polston EK (2006). Neonatal genistein or bisphenol-A exposure alters sexual differentiation of the AVPV. Neurotoxicol Teratol, 28, 111-118.
  • Placer ZA, Cushman L, Johnson BC (1966). Estimation of products of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde) in biological fluids. Anal Biochem, 16, 359-364.
  • Poli G (1993). Liver damage due to free radicals. Br Med Bull, 49, 604-620. Primus RJ, Kellog CK (1990). Gonadal hormones during puberty orginaze environment-related social interaction in the male rat. Horm Behav, 24, 311-323.
  • Ptak A, Ludewig G, Lehmler HJ, Wojtowicz AK, Robertson LW, Gregoraszczuk EL (2005). Comparison of the actions of 4chlorobiphenyl and its hydroxylated metabolites on estradiol secretion by ovarian follicles in primary cells in culture. Reprod Toxicol, 20, 5764.
  • Rangan U, Bulkley GB (1993). Prospects for treatment of free radicalmediated tissue injury. Br Med Bull, 49, 700-718.
  • Romeo RD (2003). Puberty: a period of both orginazional and activational effects of steroid hormones on neurobehavioral development. J Neuroendocrinol, 15, 1185-1192.
  • Salama J, Chakraborty TR, Ng L, Gore AC (2003). Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on estrogen receptor-beta expression in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus. Environ Health Perspect, 111, 1278-1282.
  • Sarita C, Sava L, Saxena V, Pillai S, Sontakke A, Ingole D (2005). Reduced Glutathione: Importance of specimen collection. J Clin Biochem, 20, 150-152.
  • Seegal RF, Bush B, Brosch KO (1985). Polychlorinated biphenyls induce regional changes in brain norepinephrine concentrations in adult rats. Neurotoxicology, 6, 13-23.
  • Seegal RF, Bush B, Shain W (1990). Lightly chlorinated ortho-substituted PCB congeners decrease dopamine in nonhuman primate brain and in tissue culture. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 106, 136-144.
  • Seegal RF, Okoniewski RJ, Brosch KO, Bemis JC (2002). Polychlorinated biphenyls alter extraneural but not tissue dopamine concentrations in adult rat striatum: an in vivo microdialysis study. Environ Health Perspect, 110, 1113-1117.
  • Smith IK, Vierheller TL, Thorne CA (1988). Assay o glutathione reductase in crude tissue homogenates using 5,5’-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid). Anal Biochem, 175, 408-413.
  • Song Y, Buettner GR, Parkin S, Wagner BA, Robertson LW, Lehmler HJ (2008a). Chlorination increases the persistence of semiquinone free radicals derived from polychlorinated biphenyl hydroquinones and quinones. J Org Chem, 73, 8296-8304.
  • Song Y, Wagner BA, Lehmler HJ, Buettner GR (2008b). Semiquinone radicals from oxygenated polychlorinated biphenyls: electron paramagnetic resonance studies. Chem Res Toxicol, 21, 1359-1367.
  • Sun Y, Oberley WL, Li Y (1988). A simple method for clinical assay of superoxide dismutase. Clin Chem, 34, 497-500.
  • Twaroski TP, O’Brien ML, Robertson LW (2001). Effects of selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeneron hepatic glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and selenium status: implications for oxidative stress. Biochem Pharmacol, 62, 273-281.
  • Yamane T, Fukuda N, Inaba J, Nishimura Y (1975). Effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) on metabolism of thyroid hormone in Wistar rats. Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi, 30, 497-502.

Changes of the Oxidant/Antioxidant Equilibrium in Liver, Brain and Kidney Tissues of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Aroclor1254 (2mg/kg/day) During Pregnancy

Year 2015, Volume 26, Issue 2, 65 - 69, 01.08.2015

Abstract

This study was conducted in order to investigate both oxidant and antioxidant parameters in liver, kidney, and brain tissues of pregnant rats exposed to Aroclor 1254. In the study, rats were divided into two groups, each of which consisted of 10 rats. The first group was the pregnant control group, and the second group was the pregnant Aroclor 1254 (2 mg/kg/day dose of Aroclor 1254 was administered by subcutaneous injection for 20 days). The pregnant rats in each group were anesthetized by using ether anaesthesia method, and their liver, brain, and kidney tissues were resected. Parameter of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels as well as glutathione peroxydase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S- transferase (GST) activities were measured in these tissues. As a result of the study, no statistically significant difference was determined between two groups in terms of parameters analysed in liver, kidney, and brain tissues. This study concluded that since a part of Aroclor 1254 (2 mg/kg), which was administered during pregnancy, was transmitted to the infant via placenta, the amount of Aroclor 1254, left in the body of pregnant rat, was not so effective to create oxidative damage in the pregnant rat. It is thought that the oxidative damage which could occur in the pregnant rats could be determined particularly through an advanced study in which a high dosage of Aroclor 1254 is administered to the pregnant rats

References

  • Aebi H (1984). Catalase. In vitro. Methods Enzymol, 105, 121-126.
  • Aluru N, Jorgensen EH, Maule AG, Vijayan MM (2004). PCB disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis involves brain glucocorticoid receptor down regulation in anadromous Arctic charr. Am J Physiol, 287, R787-R793.
  • Aly AAH, Domenech O (2009). Aroclor 1254 induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicology, 262, 175-183.
  • Ando M, Saito H, Wakisaka I (1986). Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in human placenta and cord blood. Environ Res, 41, 14-22.
  • Bansal R, You SH, Herzig CT, Zoeller RT (2005). Maternal thyroid hormone increases HES expression in the fetal rat brain: an effect mimicked by exposure to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Brain Res Dev, 156, 13-22.
  • Basaga HS (1990). Biochemical aspects of free radicals. Biochem Cell Biol, 68, 989-998.
  • Battershill JM (1994). Review of the safety assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with particular reference to reproductive toxicity. Hum Exp Toxicol, 13, 581-597.
  • Becu-Villalobos D, Gonzalez IA, Diaz-Torga G, Hockl P, Libertun C (1997). Brain sexual differentiation and gonadotropsins secretion in the rat. Cell Mol Neurobiol, 17, 699-715.
  • Beutler A (1975). A manual of biochemical methods. Grunef strottan, 2nd ed. New York.
  • Brouwer A, Longnecker MP, Birnbaum LS, Cogliano J, Kostyniak P, Moore J, Schantz S, Winneke G (1999). Characterization of potential endocrine-related health effects at low-dose levels of exposure to PCBs. Environ Health Perspect, 107, 639-649.
  • Brouwer A, van den Berg KJ (1986). Binding of a metabolite of 3,4,3´,4´tetrachlorobiphenyl to transthyretin reduces serum vitamin A transport by inhibiting the formation of the protein complex carrying both retinol and thyroxin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 85, 301-312.
  • Brunnberg S, Pettersson K, Rydin E, Matthews J, Hanberg A, Pongratz I (2003). The basic helix-loop-helix-PAS protein ARNT functions as a potent coactivator of estrogen receptor-dependent transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 100, 6517-6522.
  • Buitenhuis C, Cenijn PC, van Velzen M, Lilienthal H, Mlmberg T, Bergman A, Gutleb AC, Legler J, Brouwer A (2004). Effects of pregnant exposure to hydroxylated PCB metabolites and some brominated flame retardants on the development of rats. Organohalog Compd, 66, 3586-3592.
  • By Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951). Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem, 193, 265-275.
  • Chu I, Bowers JW, Caldwell D, Nakai J, Pulido O, Yagminas A, Wade GM, Moir D, Gill S, Mueller R (2005). Toxicological effects of gestational and lactational exposure to a mixture of persistent organochlorines in rats: Systemic effects. Toxicol Sci, 88, 645-655.
  • Chu I, Villeneuve DC, Yagminas A, Lecavalier P, Hakansson H, Ahlborg UG, Vali VE, Kennedy SW, Bregman A, Seegal RF, et. Al (1995). Toxicity of PCB 77 (3,3´,4,4´-tetrachlorobiphenyl) and PCB 118 (2,3,4,4´,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) in the rat following subchronic dietary exposure. Fundam Appl Toxicol, 26, 282-292.
  • Connor K, Ramamoorthy K, Moore M, Mustain M, Chen I, Safe S, Zacharewski T, Gillesby B, Joyeux A, Balaguer P (1997). Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as estrogens and antiestrogens: structure-activity relationships. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 145, 111-123.
  • Desaulniers D, Leingartner K, Wade M, Fintelman E, Yagminas A, Foster WG (1999). Effects of acute exposure to PCBs 126 and 153 on anterior pituitary and thyroid hormones and FSH isoforms in adult Sprague Dawley male rats. Toxicol Sci, 47, 158-169.
  • Doğan A, Erişir M (2011). Alterations of the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium in liver, brain, kidney and heart tissues of offspring born from pregnant rats exposed to Aroclor 1254 alone or in combination with vitamin E. Revue Med Vet, 162(7), 364-370.
  • Gregoraszczuk EL, Zemla M, Ptak A, Grabic R (2005). The action of lowand high-chlorinated biphenyl mixture on prepubertal porcine ovary: steroid secretion and cells apoptosis. Endocr Regul, 39, 33-41.
  • Habdous M, Vincet-Viry M, Visvikis S, Siest G (2002). Rapid spectrophotometric method for serum glutathione S-transferases activity. Clin Chim Acta, 326, 131-142.
  • Kester MH, Bulduk S, Tibboel D, Meinl W, Glatt H, Falany CN, Coughtrie MW, Bergman A, Safe SH, Kuiper GG, Schuur AG, Brouwer A, Visser TJ (2000). Potent inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase by hydroxylated PCB metabolites: a novel pathway explaining the estrogenic activity of PCBs. Endocrinology, 141, 1897-1900.
  • Khan IA, Thomas P (2001). Disruption of neuroendocrine control of luteinizing hormone secretion by Aroclor 1254 involves inhibition of hypothalamic tryptophan hydroxylase activity. Biol Reorod, 64, 955964.
  • Kodavanti PR, McKinney JD (2000). Assessing the role of orthosubstitution on polychlorinated biphenyl binding to transthyretin, a thyroxine transport protein. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 162, 10-21.
  • Lewandowski KC, Stojanovic N, Press M, Tuck S, Lewinski A, Malgorzata KL (2014). Raised concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (LPO) in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance. Ann Agr Env Med, 21, 429-434.
  • MC Lean MR, Twaroski TP, Robertson LW (2000). Redox cycling of 2-(x´mono,-di, trichlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinones, oxidation products of polychlorinated biphenyls. Arch Biochem Biophys, 376, 449-455.
  • Meerts HA, Lilienthal H, Hoving S, vand den Berh JH, Weijers BM, Bergman A, Koeman JH, Brouwer A (2004). Developmental exposure to 4-hydroxy-2,3,3´,4´,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB107): Long term effects on brain development, behavior and brain stem auditory evoked potential in rats. Toxicol Sci, 82, 207-218.
  • Morse DC, Seegal RF, Borsch KO, Brouwer A (1996). Long-term alterations in regional brain serotonin metabolism following maternal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in the rat. Neurotoxicology, 17, 631638.
  • Muhtuvel R, Venkataraman P, Krishnamoorthy G, Gunadharini DN, Kanagaraj P, Stanley JA, Srinivasan N, Balasubramanian K, Aruldhas MM, Arunakaran J (1999). Antioxidant effect of ascorbic acid on PCB (Aroclor 1254) induced oxidative stress in hypothalamus of albino rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 161, 160-167.
  • Ngui JS, Bandiera SM (1999). Induction of hepatic CYP2B is a more sensitive indicator of exposure to aroclor 1260 than CYP1A in male rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 161, 160-167.
  • Öztürk LK, Aykuz A, Koc S, Gul N, Dogan BN (2010). Salivary lipid peroxidation and total sialic acid levels during healthy gestitation and postpartum: A longitudinal study. Clin Biochem, 43, 430-434.
  • Patisaul HB, Fortino AE, Polston EK (2006). Neonatal genistein or bisphenol-A exposure alters sexual differentiation of the AVPV. Neurotoxicol Teratol, 28, 111-118.
  • Placer ZA, Cushman L, Johnson BC (1966). Estimation of products of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde) in biological fluids. Anal Biochem, 16, 359-364.
  • Poli G (1993). Liver damage due to free radicals. Br Med Bull, 49, 604-620. Primus RJ, Kellog CK (1990). Gonadal hormones during puberty orginaze environment-related social interaction in the male rat. Horm Behav, 24, 311-323.
  • Ptak A, Ludewig G, Lehmler HJ, Wojtowicz AK, Robertson LW, Gregoraszczuk EL (2005). Comparison of the actions of 4chlorobiphenyl and its hydroxylated metabolites on estradiol secretion by ovarian follicles in primary cells in culture. Reprod Toxicol, 20, 5764.
  • Rangan U, Bulkley GB (1993). Prospects for treatment of free radicalmediated tissue injury. Br Med Bull, 49, 700-718.
  • Romeo RD (2003). Puberty: a period of both orginazional and activational effects of steroid hormones on neurobehavioral development. J Neuroendocrinol, 15, 1185-1192.
  • Salama J, Chakraborty TR, Ng L, Gore AC (2003). Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on estrogen receptor-beta expression in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus. Environ Health Perspect, 111, 1278-1282.
  • Sarita C, Sava L, Saxena V, Pillai S, Sontakke A, Ingole D (2005). Reduced Glutathione: Importance of specimen collection. J Clin Biochem, 20, 150-152.
  • Seegal RF, Bush B, Brosch KO (1985). Polychlorinated biphenyls induce regional changes in brain norepinephrine concentrations in adult rats. Neurotoxicology, 6, 13-23.
  • Seegal RF, Bush B, Shain W (1990). Lightly chlorinated ortho-substituted PCB congeners decrease dopamine in nonhuman primate brain and in tissue culture. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 106, 136-144.
  • Seegal RF, Okoniewski RJ, Brosch KO, Bemis JC (2002). Polychlorinated biphenyls alter extraneural but not tissue dopamine concentrations in adult rat striatum: an in vivo microdialysis study. Environ Health Perspect, 110, 1113-1117.
  • Smith IK, Vierheller TL, Thorne CA (1988). Assay o glutathione reductase in crude tissue homogenates using 5,5’-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid). Anal Biochem, 175, 408-413.
  • Song Y, Buettner GR, Parkin S, Wagner BA, Robertson LW, Lehmler HJ (2008a). Chlorination increases the persistence of semiquinone free radicals derived from polychlorinated biphenyl hydroquinones and quinones. J Org Chem, 73, 8296-8304.
  • Song Y, Wagner BA, Lehmler HJ, Buettner GR (2008b). Semiquinone radicals from oxygenated polychlorinated biphenyls: electron paramagnetic resonance studies. Chem Res Toxicol, 21, 1359-1367.
  • Sun Y, Oberley WL, Li Y (1988). A simple method for clinical assay of superoxide dismutase. Clin Chem, 34, 497-500.
  • Twaroski TP, O’Brien ML, Robertson LW (2001). Effects of selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeneron hepatic glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and selenium status: implications for oxidative stress. Biochem Pharmacol, 62, 273-281.
  • Yamane T, Fukuda N, Inaba J, Nishimura Y (1975). Effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) on metabolism of thyroid hormone in Wistar rats. Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi, 30, 497-502.

Details

Other ID JA79AM98JM
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Ayşe DOĞAN This is me


Mine ERİŞİR This is me

Publication Date August 1, 2015
Submission Date August 1, 2015
Acceptance Date
Published in Issue Year 2015, Volume 26, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @ { vanvetj251004, journal = {Van Veterinary Journal}, issn = {2149-3359}, eissn = {2149-8644}, address = {YYÜ Veteriner Fakültesi Dergi Editörlüğü Kampüs Van Turkey}, publisher = {Van Yuzuncu Yıl University}, year = {2015}, volume = {26}, number = {2}, pages = {65 - 69}, title = {Changes of the Oxidant/Antioxidant Equilibrium in Liver, Brain and Kidney Tissues of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Aroclor1254 (2mg/kg/day) During Pregnancy}, key = {cite}, author = {Doğan, Ayşe and Erişir, Mine} }
APA Doğan, A. & Erişir, M. (2015). Changes of the Oxidant/Antioxidant Equilibrium in Liver, Brain and Kidney Tissues of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Aroclor1254 (2mg/kg/day) During Pregnancy . Van Veterinary Journal , 26 (2) , 65-69 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/vanvetj/issue/23560/251004
MLA Doğan, A. , Erişir, M. "Changes of the Oxidant/Antioxidant Equilibrium in Liver, Brain and Kidney Tissues of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Aroclor1254 (2mg/kg/day) During Pregnancy" . Van Veterinary Journal 26 (2015 ): 65-69 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/vanvetj/issue/23560/251004>
Chicago Doğan, A. , Erişir, M. "Changes of the Oxidant/Antioxidant Equilibrium in Liver, Brain and Kidney Tissues of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Aroclor1254 (2mg/kg/day) During Pregnancy". Van Veterinary Journal 26 (2015 ): 65-69
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Changes of the Oxidant/Antioxidant Equilibrium in Liver, Brain and Kidney Tissues of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Aroclor1254 (2mg/kg/day) During Pregnancy AU - AyşeDoğan, MineErişir Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - DO - T2 - Van Veterinary Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 65 EP - 69 VL - 26 IS - 2 SN - 2149-3359-2149-8644 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2023 ER -
EndNote %0 Van Veterinary Journal Changes of the Oxidant/Antioxidant Equilibrium in Liver, Brain and Kidney Tissues of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Aroclor1254 (2mg/kg/day) During Pregnancy %A Ayşe Doğan , Mine Erişir %T Changes of the Oxidant/Antioxidant Equilibrium in Liver, Brain and Kidney Tissues of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Aroclor1254 (2mg/kg/day) During Pregnancy %D 2015 %J Van Veterinary Journal %P 2149-3359-2149-8644 %V 26 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Doğan, Ayşe , Erişir, Mine . "Changes of the Oxidant/Antioxidant Equilibrium in Liver, Brain and Kidney Tissues of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Aroclor1254 (2mg/kg/day) During Pregnancy". Van Veterinary Journal 26 / 2 (August 2015): 65-69 .
AMA Doğan A. , Erişir M. Changes of the Oxidant/Antioxidant Equilibrium in Liver, Brain and Kidney Tissues of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Aroclor1254 (2mg/kg/day) During Pregnancy. Van Vet J. 2015; 26(2): 65-69.
Vancouver Doğan A. , Erişir M. Changes of the Oxidant/Antioxidant Equilibrium in Liver, Brain and Kidney Tissues of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Aroclor1254 (2mg/kg/day) During Pregnancy. Van Veterinary Journal. 2015; 26(2): 65-69.
IEEE A. Doğan and M. Erişir , "Changes of the Oxidant/Antioxidant Equilibrium in Liver, Brain and Kidney Tissues of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Aroclor1254 (2mg/kg/day) During Pregnancy", Van Veterinary Journal, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 65-69, Aug. 2015

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