Review
PDF Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) Scope and Practice Areas

Year 2018, Volume 2, Issue 3, 11 - 25, 01.06.2018
https://doi.org/10.31461/ybpd.383026

Abstract

Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is a kind of practice of energy psychotherapy consisting of cognitive and somatic components that are used to improve personal negative emotions and related emotional and physical disorders. Stress hormones are secreted in the brain when a person is stressed, the amygdala and other responsive cerebral segments are activated. If the stress can not be effectively coped with, the physical and psychological consequences that will become chronic in course of time. There are essential steps to follow in EFT; firstly person create a setup sentence for sending a message to the emotional body (subconscious) and then twelve meridians of energy end point (acupressure points) is tapped on. There are different protocols for application purposes. EFT can be performed in psychological and physical areas, which are very common in children and adults, and there is not reported of any adverse effects in randomized controlled trials. In this review, PubMed, Google's Academic and related literature sources were examined and it was determined that the EFT had research results in a variety of subjects. Emotions can be recognized, accepted and transformed with the EFT application. 

References

  • Aksoy, A. N. (2015). Doğum Korkusu: Literatür Değerlendirmesi. ODÜ Tıp Dergisi, (2), 161-5.
  • Alessandra, S., & Roberta, L. (2013). Tokophobia: When fear of childbirth prevails. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1(1), 1-18.
  • Amen, D. (2002). Images of Human Behavior. Newport Beach, CA: Mindworks Press.
  • Andrade, J., & Feinstein, D. (2004). Energy psychology: Theory, indications, evidence. D. Feinstein, Energy Psychology Interactive, 199-214.
  • Baker, A., & Siegel, L. (2010). Emotional freedom techniques (EFT) reduces intense fears: A partial replication and extension of Wells et al. (2003). Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, & Treatment, 2(2).
  • Bakshi, R., Mehta, A., Mehta, A., & Sharma, B. (2008). Tokophobia: Fear of Pregnancy and Childbirth. The Internet Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 10(1), 9-11.
  • Boath, E., Stewart, A., & Carryer, A. (2013). Tapping for success: A pilot study to explore if emotional freedom techniques (EFT) can reduce anxiety and enhance academic performance in university students. Innovative Practice in Higher Education, 1(3), 1-13.
  • Boath, E., Stewart, A., & Rolling, C. (2014). The impact of EFT and matrix reprinting on the civilian survivors of war in Bosnia: A pilot study. Current Research in Psychology, (5),65-73.
  • Boath, E., Stewart, A., & Carryer, A. (2012). A narrative systematic review of the effectiveness of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT). Staffordshire University, CPSI Monograph, http://www.staffordshire.ac.uk/assets/A_narrative_systematic%20_Review_of_the_effectiveness_of_Emotional_Freedoms_Technique_(EFT)_tcm44-45500.pdf .
  • Bougea, A. M., Spandideas, N., Alexopoulos, E. C., Thomaides, T., Chrousos, G. P., & Darviri, C. (2013). Effect of the emotional freedom technique on perceived stress, quality of life, and cortisol salivary levels in tension-type headache sufferers: A randomized controlled trial. Explore, 9(2), 91-9.
  • Brattberg, G. (2008) Self-administered EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) in individuals with fibromyalgia: a randomized trial. Integrative Medicine, 7(4), 30-5.
  • Chatwin, H., Stapleton, P., Porter, B., Devine, S., & Sheldon, T. (2016). The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Emotional Freedom Techniques in Reducing Depression and Anxiety Among Adults: A Pilot Study. Integrative Medicine, 15(2), 27.
  • Cherkin, D. C., Sherman, K. J., Avins, A. L., Erro, J. H., Ichikawa, L., Barlow, Delaney, K., Hawkes, R., Hamilton, L., Pressman, A., Deyo R. A., & Khalsa, P. S. (2009). A randomized trial comparing acupuncture, simulated acupuncture, and usual care for chronic low back pain. Archives Of Internal Medicine, 169(9), 858-66.
  • Church, D., & Brooks, A. J. (2010). Application of emotional freedom techniques. Integrative Medicine, 9(4), 47-48. (a)
  • Church, D., & Brooks, A. (2010). The effect of a brief EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) self-intervention on anxiety, depression, pain and cravings in healthcare workers. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician’s Journal, October 40-44. (b)
  • Church, D., & Brooks, A.J. (2014). CAM and energy psychology techniques remediate PTSD symptoms in veterans and spouses. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing. 10(1),24-33.
  • Church, D., De Asis, M.,& Brooks, A. J. (2012). Brief group intervention using EFT (emotional freedom techniques) for depression in college students: a randomized controlled trial. Depression Research & Treatment, Article ID 257172. 2012, 1-7.
  • Church, D., & Downs, D. (2012). Sports confidence and critical incident intensity after a brief application of emotional freedom techniques: a pilot study. Sport Journal, 15(1), 1-3.
  • Church, D., & Feinstein, D. (2012). The psychobiology and clinical principles of energy psychology treatments for PTSD: A review. In T. Van Leeuwen & M. Brouwer (Eds.), Psychology of trauma. Hauppauge, NY: Nova, 211-24.
  • Church, D., Hawk, C., Brooks, A., Toukolehto, O. M, Dinter, I., & Stein, P. (2013). Psychological trauma symptom improvement in veterans using EFT (emotional freedom techniques): A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201, 153-160.
  • Church, D., Pina, O., Reategui, C., & Brooks, A. (2012). Single session reduction of the intensity of traumatic memories in abused adolescents after EFT: A randomized controlled pilot study. Traumatology, 18(3),73-79.
  • Church, D. (2013). Clinical EFT as an evidence-based practice for the treatment of psychological and physiological conditions. Psychology, 4,645-654. (b)
  • Church, D. (2013). Clinical EFT Handbook: A Definitive Resource for Practitioners, Scholars, Clinicians & Researchers. Church, D., Marohn, S. (Editör). Chapter 4. The Roots of EFT in Medicine and Psychology. Energy Psychology Press, (1), 53-65. (a)
  • Church, D. (2009). The effect of EFT (emotional freedom techniques) on athletic performance: A randomized controlled blind trial. Open Sports Sciences Journal, 2, 17-22.
  • Church, D. (2004). The EFT Mini-Manual (Emotional Freedom Techniques). www.EFTUniverse.com , Erişim Tarihi: 05.04.2017. Connolly, S. M., & Sakai, C. E. (2012). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using thought field therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13, 161-72.
  • Craig, G. (2004). EFT. Duygusal Özgürlük Teknikleri El Kitabı. www.eftiletanis.com/EFT_Manual_Turkish_eftiletanis.com.pdf., Erişim Tarihi: 04.04.2017.
  • Craig, G. (2008). The EFT manual. Santa Rosa, CA: Energy Psychology Press.
  • Davis, S., Bozon, B., & Laroche, S. (2003). How necessary is the activation of the immediate early gene zif268 in synaptic plasticity and learning? Behavioral Brain Research, 142, 17–30.
  • Dhond, R. P., Kettner, N., & Napadow, V. (2007). Neuroimaging acupuncte effects in the human brain. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13, 603-616.
  • Diepold, J. H. (2000). Touch and Breathe: An alternative treatment approach with meridian based psychotherapies. Traumatology, 6(2), 109-18.
  • Diepold, J. H., & Goldstein, D. (2008). Thought Field Therapy and qEEG changes in the treatment of trauma: A case study. Traumatology, 15, 85-93.
  • Dunnewold, A. L. (2014). Thought field therapy efficacy following large scale traumatic events. Current Research in Psychology, 5, 34-9.
  • Fang, J., Jin, Z., Wang, Y., Li, K., Kong, J., Nixon, E. E., Zeng, Y., Ren, Y., Tong, H., Wang, Y., & Hui, K. K. (2008). The salient characteristics of the central effects of acupuncture needling: Limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network modulation. Human Brain Mapping, 30(4), 11961206.
  • Feinstein D, & Church D. (2010). Modulating gene expression through psychotherapy: The contribution of non-invasive somatic interventions. Review of General Psychology, 14, 283-95.
  • Feinstein, D. (2012). Acupoint stimulation in treating psychological disorders: evidence of efficacy. Review of General Psychology, 16(4),364.
  • Feinstein, D. (2003). Energy psychology interactive CD training program (Version. 4.0). Ashland, OR: Innersource Publishing.
  • Fitch, J., Schmuldt, L., & Rudick, K. L. (2011). Reducing state communication anxiety for public speakers. An energy psychology pilot study. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 6, 178-92.
  • Fleming, T. (1996). Reduce traumatic stress in minutes: The Tapas Acupressure Technique (TAT) workbook. Torrence, CA: Tapas Fleming.
  • Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., & Friedman, M. J. (Eds.). (2000). Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. New York: Guilford.
  • Gaesser, A. H., & Karan, O. C. (2017). A randomized controlled comparison of Emotional Freedom Technique and cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce adolescent anxiety: A pilot study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 23(2),102-108.
  • Gallo, F. (2013). Energy for healing trauma, energy psychology and the efficient treatment of trauma and PTSD. Energy Psychology Journal, 5(1).
  • Gamble, J. A., Creedy, D. K., Webster, J., & Moyle, W. (2002). A review of the literature on debriefing or non-directive counselling to prevent postpartum emotional distress. Midwifer, 18,72-9.
  • Ghamsari, M. S., & Lavasani, M. G. (2015). Effectiveness Of Emotion Freedom Technique On Pregnant Women's Perceived Stress And Resilience. Journal of Education and Sociology, 6(2),118-22.
  • Gurret, J. M., Caufour, C., Palmer-Hoffman, J., & Church, D. (2012). Post-earthquake rehabilitation of clinical PTSD in Haitian seminarians. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research and Treatment, 4(2), 33-40.
  • Hartmann, S. (2016). Enerji EFT. Pegasus Yayınları. İstanbul, (1), 13-254.
  • Hartung, J., & Stein, P. (2012). Telephone delivery of EFT (emotional freedom techniques) remediates PTSD symptoms in veterans. Energy Psychology Journal, 4(1), 33-40.
  • Hartung, J. G., & Galvin, M. D. (2003). Energy psychology and EMDR: Combining forces to optimize treatment. New York: Norton.
  • Hodge, P. (2011). A pilot study of the effects of emotional freedom techniques in psoriasis. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research & Treatment, 3(2), 13-24.
  • Hofberg, K., Ward, M. R. (2003). Fear of pregnancy and childbirth. Postgrad Med J, 79, 505-10.
  • Hui, K. K. S, Liu, J., Makris, N., Gollub, R. W., Chen, A. J. W., & Moore, C. I., et al. (2000). Acupuncture modulates the limbic system and subcortical gray structures of the human brain: Evidence from fMRI studies in normal subjects. Human Brain Mapping, 9, 13-25.
  • Jain, S., & Rubino, A. (2012). The effectiveness of emotional freedom techniques (EFT) for optimal test performance: A randomized controlled trial. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research & Treatment, 4(2), 13-24.
  • Johnson, C., Shala, M., Sejdijaj, X., Odell, R., & Kadengjika, D. (2001). Thought Field Therapy: soothing the bad moments of Kosovo. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(10), 1237–40.
  • Jones, S., Thornton, J., & Andrews, H. (2011). Efficacy in reducing public speaking anxiety: A randomized controlled trial. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research and Treatment, 3(1), 33-42.
  • Jones, J. P. (2002). Ultrasonic acupuncture and the correlation between acupuncture stimulation and the activation of associated brain cortices using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 22(5), 362-70.
  • Kalla, M., Simmons, M., Robinson, A., Stapleton, P. (2017). Emotional freedom techniques (EFT) as a practice for supporting chronic disease healthcare: a practitioners’ perspective. Disability and Rehabilitation, 1-9.
  • Karatzias, T., Power, K., Brown, K., McGoldrick, T., Begum, M., Young, J., & Adams, S. (2011). A controlled comparison of the effectiveness and efficiency of two psychological therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs. emotional freedom techniques. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199, 372-8.
  • Lake, J. (2014). A review of select CAM modalities for the prevention and treatment of PTSD. Psychiatric Times, 31(7), 29-30.
  • Lambrou, P. T., Pratt, G. J., Chevalier, G. (2003). Physiological and psychological effects of a mind/body therapy on claustrophobia. Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine, 14, 239-51.
  • Lane, J. (2009). The neurochemistry of counterconditioning: Acupressure desensitization in psychotherapy. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 1(1), 31-44.
  • LeDoux, J. (2002). The synaptic self: how our brains become who we are (New York: Viking Penguin). Trad. It. Il Sé sinaptico. Come il nostro cervello ci fa diventare quelli che siamo. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  • Llewellyn-Edwards, T., & Llewellyn-Edwards, M. (2012). The effect of EFT (emotional freedom techniques) on soccer performance. Fidelity: Journal for the National Council of Psychotherapy, 47,14-19.
  • McCallion, F. (2012). Emotional freedom techniques for dyslexia: A case study. Energy Psychology Journal, 4(2), 29-30.
  • Mucillo, A. (2016). Tapping circles start up guide. https://tappingforkids.wordpress.com/2008/07/20/tapping-circles-start-up-guide, Erişim Tarihi: 05.04.2017.
  • Napadow, V., Dhond, R., Park, K., Kim, J., Makris, N., Kwong, K. K., Harris, R. E., Purdon, P. L., Kettner, N., & Hui, K. K. (2009). Time-variant fMRI activity in the brainstem and higher structures in response to acupuncture. NeuroImage, 47(1), 289-301.
  • Napadow, V., Kettner, N., Liu, J., Li, M., Kwong, K. K., Vangel, M., Makris, N., Audette, J., & Hui, K. K. (2007). Hypothalamus and amygdala response to acupuncture stimuli in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Pain, 130(3), 254-66.
  • O'Connell, M. A., Leahy‐Warren, P., Khashan, A. S., Kenny, L. C., & O'Neill, S. M. (2017). Worldwide prevalence of tocophobia in pregnant women: systematic review and meta‐analysis. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 1-14.
  • Perls, F. A. (1969). Ego, Hungar and Aggresion: The Beginning of Gestalt Therapy. Random House. New York, NY.
  • Perry, B. D. (1999). Memories of fear: how the brain stores and retrieves physiologic states, feelings, behaviors and thoughts from traumatic events. In Splintered reflections: Images of the body in trauma. Ed. Goodwin, J. & Attias, R. (Eds.) New York: Basic Books.
  • Phelps, E. A., & LeDoux, J. E. (2005). Contributions of the amygdala to emotion processing: from animal models to human behavior. Neuron, 48, 175-187.
  • Rancour, P. (2016). The Emotional Freedom Technique Finally, a Unifying Theory for the Practice of Holistic Nursing, or Too Good to Be True?. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 1-5.
  • Robson P, & Robson H. (2012). The challenges and opportunities of introducing thought field therapy (TFT) following the Haiti earthquake. Energy Psychology Journal, 4(1), 41-5.
  • Root, J. C., Tuescher, O., Cunningham-Bussel, A., Pan, H., Epstein, J., Altemus, M., & et al. (2009). Frontolimbic function and cortisol reactivity in response to emotional stimuli. Neuroreport, 20, 429-34.
  • Rotheram, M., Maynard, I., Thomas, O., Bawden, J., & Francis, L. (2012). Preliminary evidence for the treatment of type I “yips”: The efficacy of the emotional freedom techniques. Sport Psychologist, 26, 551-70.
  • Rothschild, B. (2000). The body remembers: The psychophysiology of trauma and trauma treatment. New York: Norton.
  • Rudin, R. A. (2005). A neurobiological basis for the observed peripheral sensory modulation of emotional responses. Traumatology, 11(3), 145-158.
  • Sabban, E. L., & Kvetnanasky, R. (2001). Stress-triggered activation of gene expression in catecholaminergic systems: Dynamics of transcriptional events. Trends in Neurosciences, 24, 91-8.
  • Salas, M., Brooks, A., & Rowe, J. (2011). The immediate effect of a brief energy psychology intervention (Emotional Freedom Techniques) on specific phobias: a pilot study. Explore, 7, 155-61.
  • Schoninger, B, & Hartung J. (2010). Changes on selfreport measures of public speaking anxiety following treatment with thought field therapy. Energy Psychology: Theory, Practice, Research, 2(1),13-26.
  • Serçekuş, P., & Okumuş, H. (2009). Fears associated with childbirth among nulliparous women in Turkey. Midwifery, 25, 155-62.
  • Sezgin, N. (2013). Tek Oturumda Uygulanan Duygusal Özgürlük Tekniği (EFT)'nin Yaratılan Stres Durumu Üzerindeki Etkileri. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi, 53(1), 329-48.
  • Shealy, N., & Church, D. (2008). Soul Medicine: Awakening your inner blueprint for abundant health and energy. Energy Psychology Press. Santa Rosa, CA.
  • Sheldon, T. (2014). Psychological intervention including emotional freedom techniques for an adult with motor vehicle accident related posttraumatic stress disorder: a case study. Current Research in Psychology, 5, 40-63.
  • Stapleton, P., Church, D., Sheldon, T., Porter, B., & Carlopio, C. (2013). Depression symptoms improve after successful weight loss with emotional freedom techniques. Hindawi Publishing Corporation ISRN Psychiatry. Article ID 573532.2013, 1-7.
  • Stapleton, P., Devine, S., Chatwin, H., Porter, B., & Sheldon, T. (2014). A feasibility study: Emotional freedom techniques for depression in Australian adults. Current Research in Psychology, 5(1), 19-33.
  • Stapleton, P., Sheldon, T., & Porter, B. (2012). Clinical benefits of emotional freedom techniques on food cravings at 12-months follow-up: A randomized controlled trial. Energy Psychology Journal, 4(1),13-24.
  • Stapleton, P., Sheldon, T., Porter, B., & Whitty, J. (2010). A randomized clinical trial of a meridian-based intervention for food cravings with six month follow-up. Behavior Change, 28(1),1-16.
  • Stein, P., & Brooks, A. (2011). Efficacy of EFT provided by coaches vs licenses therapists in veterans with PTSD. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research and Treatment, 3(1),11-18.
  • Swack, J. A. (2001). The biochemistry of energy psychology: An immunologist’s perspective on physiological mechanisms underlying energy psychology treatments. Keynote presentation, Third Annual International Energy Psychology Conference, San Diego, CA, May.
  • Swingle, P. (2010). Emotional freedom techniques (EFT) as an effective adjunctive treatment in the neurotherapeutic treatment of seizure disorders. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 2(1):29-38.
  • Swingle, P. G., Pulos, L., & Swingle, M. K. (2004). Neurophysiological indicators of EFT treatment of post traumatic stress. Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine, 15(1), 75-86.
  • Temple, G., & Mollon, P. (2011). Reducing anxiety in dental patients using emotional freedom techniques (EFT): a pilot study. Energy Psychol Theory Res Treat, 3(2), 53-56.
  • Craig, G. (2017). The EFT Tapping Home. www.emofree.com, Erişim Tarihi: 04.04.2017.
  • Ulett, G. A. (1992). Beyond yin and yang; How acupuncture really works. St. Louis: Warren S. Green, 38-53.
  • Van der Kolk, B. A. (2002). Beyond the talking cure: Somatic experience and subcortical imprints in the treatment of trauma. In F. Shapiro (Ed.), EMDR, promises for a paradigm shift New York: APA Press.
  • Waite, W. L., & Holder, M. D. (2003). Assessment of the emotional freedom technique. Sci Rev Ment Health Pract, 2(1), 1-10.
  • Wells, S., Polglase, K., Andrews, H. B., & Carrington, P. (2003). Efficacy of a meridian based desensitization technique (EFT) versus diaphragmatic breathing in the treatment of specific phobias. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59, 943-966.
  • Wolpe, J. (1973). The Practice of Behavior Therapy. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Pergamon Press.
  • Wolpe, J., & Wolpe, D. (1981). Our useless fears. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 48-61.
  • Zhang, Y., Feng, B., Xie, J. P., Xu, F. Z., & Chen, J. (2011). Clinical study on treatment of the earthquake-caused post- traumatic stress disorder by cognitive behavior therapy and acupoint stimulation. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 31(1), 60-63.

Duygusal Özgürleşme Tekniği (EFT) Kapsamı ve Uygulama Alanları

Year 2018, Volume 2, Issue 3, 11 - 25, 01.06.2018
https://doi.org/10.31461/ybpd.383026

Abstract

Duygusal Özgürleşme Tekniği (EFT), kişisel negatif duyguların ve buna bağlı oluşan duygusal ve fiziksel rahatsızlıkların iyileştirilmesinde kullanılan, kognitif ve somatik komponentlerden oluşan, enerji psikoterapi türevi bir uygulamadır. Kişide oluşan stres yanıtına karşılık stres hormonları salgılanır ve devamında amigdala ve diğer strese yanıt oluşturan serebral bölümler aktive olur. Bu döngüye müdahale edilmez ise kişide meydana gelen fiziksel ve psikolojik sonuçlar zamanla kronikleşmeye başlar. EFT uygulamasında izlenmesi gereken temel basamaklar mevcuttur; telkin cümleleriyle duygu bedenine (bilinçaltına) mesaj vererek on iki enerji meridyen uç noktasına (akupresür noktaları) tıklamalar yapılır. Uygulama amaçlarına yönelik farklı protokoller bulunmaktır. Çocuk ve erişkinlerde oldukça yaygın psikolojik ve fiziksel alanlarda EFT uygulaması yapılabilmekte ve yapılmış randomize kontrollü araştırmalarda herhangi bir yan etkisi olduğundan bahsedilmemektedir. Bu derlemede Pubmed, Google akademik ve ilgili literatür kaynakları taranarak incelendiğinde çok çeşitli konularda EFT’nin araştırma sonuçları olduğu belirlenmiştir. EFT uygulaması ile duyguların nasıl hissedildiği ve ifade edildiği fark edilebilmekte, kabul edilebilmekte ve dönüştürülebilmektedir.

References

  • Aksoy, A. N. (2015). Doğum Korkusu: Literatür Değerlendirmesi. ODÜ Tıp Dergisi, (2), 161-5.
  • Alessandra, S., & Roberta, L. (2013). Tokophobia: When fear of childbirth prevails. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1(1), 1-18.
  • Amen, D. (2002). Images of Human Behavior. Newport Beach, CA: Mindworks Press.
  • Andrade, J., & Feinstein, D. (2004). Energy psychology: Theory, indications, evidence. D. Feinstein, Energy Psychology Interactive, 199-214.
  • Baker, A., & Siegel, L. (2010). Emotional freedom techniques (EFT) reduces intense fears: A partial replication and extension of Wells et al. (2003). Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, & Treatment, 2(2).
  • Bakshi, R., Mehta, A., Mehta, A., & Sharma, B. (2008). Tokophobia: Fear of Pregnancy and Childbirth. The Internet Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 10(1), 9-11.
  • Boath, E., Stewart, A., & Carryer, A. (2013). Tapping for success: A pilot study to explore if emotional freedom techniques (EFT) can reduce anxiety and enhance academic performance in university students. Innovative Practice in Higher Education, 1(3), 1-13.
  • Boath, E., Stewart, A., & Rolling, C. (2014). The impact of EFT and matrix reprinting on the civilian survivors of war in Bosnia: A pilot study. Current Research in Psychology, (5),65-73.
  • Boath, E., Stewart, A., & Carryer, A. (2012). A narrative systematic review of the effectiveness of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT). Staffordshire University, CPSI Monograph, http://www.staffordshire.ac.uk/assets/A_narrative_systematic%20_Review_of_the_effectiveness_of_Emotional_Freedoms_Technique_(EFT)_tcm44-45500.pdf .
  • Bougea, A. M., Spandideas, N., Alexopoulos, E. C., Thomaides, T., Chrousos, G. P., & Darviri, C. (2013). Effect of the emotional freedom technique on perceived stress, quality of life, and cortisol salivary levels in tension-type headache sufferers: A randomized controlled trial. Explore, 9(2), 91-9.
  • Brattberg, G. (2008) Self-administered EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) in individuals with fibromyalgia: a randomized trial. Integrative Medicine, 7(4), 30-5.
  • Chatwin, H., Stapleton, P., Porter, B., Devine, S., & Sheldon, T. (2016). The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Emotional Freedom Techniques in Reducing Depression and Anxiety Among Adults: A Pilot Study. Integrative Medicine, 15(2), 27.
  • Cherkin, D. C., Sherman, K. J., Avins, A. L., Erro, J. H., Ichikawa, L., Barlow, Delaney, K., Hawkes, R., Hamilton, L., Pressman, A., Deyo R. A., & Khalsa, P. S. (2009). A randomized trial comparing acupuncture, simulated acupuncture, and usual care for chronic low back pain. Archives Of Internal Medicine, 169(9), 858-66.
  • Church, D., & Brooks, A. J. (2010). Application of emotional freedom techniques. Integrative Medicine, 9(4), 47-48. (a)
  • Church, D., & Brooks, A. (2010). The effect of a brief EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) self-intervention on anxiety, depression, pain and cravings in healthcare workers. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician’s Journal, October 40-44. (b)
  • Church, D., & Brooks, A.J. (2014). CAM and energy psychology techniques remediate PTSD symptoms in veterans and spouses. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing. 10(1),24-33.
  • Church, D., De Asis, M.,& Brooks, A. J. (2012). Brief group intervention using EFT (emotional freedom techniques) for depression in college students: a randomized controlled trial. Depression Research & Treatment, Article ID 257172. 2012, 1-7.
  • Church, D., & Downs, D. (2012). Sports confidence and critical incident intensity after a brief application of emotional freedom techniques: a pilot study. Sport Journal, 15(1), 1-3.
  • Church, D., & Feinstein, D. (2012). The psychobiology and clinical principles of energy psychology treatments for PTSD: A review. In T. Van Leeuwen & M. Brouwer (Eds.), Psychology of trauma. Hauppauge, NY: Nova, 211-24.
  • Church, D., Hawk, C., Brooks, A., Toukolehto, O. M, Dinter, I., & Stein, P. (2013). Psychological trauma symptom improvement in veterans using EFT (emotional freedom techniques): A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201, 153-160.
  • Church, D., Pina, O., Reategui, C., & Brooks, A. (2012). Single session reduction of the intensity of traumatic memories in abused adolescents after EFT: A randomized controlled pilot study. Traumatology, 18(3),73-79.
  • Church, D. (2013). Clinical EFT as an evidence-based practice for the treatment of psychological and physiological conditions. Psychology, 4,645-654. (b)
  • Church, D. (2013). Clinical EFT Handbook: A Definitive Resource for Practitioners, Scholars, Clinicians & Researchers. Church, D., Marohn, S. (Editör). Chapter 4. The Roots of EFT in Medicine and Psychology. Energy Psychology Press, (1), 53-65. (a)
  • Church, D. (2009). The effect of EFT (emotional freedom techniques) on athletic performance: A randomized controlled blind trial. Open Sports Sciences Journal, 2, 17-22.
  • Church, D. (2004). The EFT Mini-Manual (Emotional Freedom Techniques). www.EFTUniverse.com , Erişim Tarihi: 05.04.2017. Connolly, S. M., & Sakai, C. E. (2012). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using thought field therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13, 161-72.
  • Craig, G. (2004). EFT. Duygusal Özgürlük Teknikleri El Kitabı. www.eftiletanis.com/EFT_Manual_Turkish_eftiletanis.com.pdf., Erişim Tarihi: 04.04.2017.
  • Craig, G. (2008). The EFT manual. Santa Rosa, CA: Energy Psychology Press.
  • Davis, S., Bozon, B., & Laroche, S. (2003). How necessary is the activation of the immediate early gene zif268 in synaptic plasticity and learning? Behavioral Brain Research, 142, 17–30.
  • Dhond, R. P., Kettner, N., & Napadow, V. (2007). Neuroimaging acupuncte effects in the human brain. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13, 603-616.
  • Diepold, J. H. (2000). Touch and Breathe: An alternative treatment approach with meridian based psychotherapies. Traumatology, 6(2), 109-18.
  • Diepold, J. H., & Goldstein, D. (2008). Thought Field Therapy and qEEG changes in the treatment of trauma: A case study. Traumatology, 15, 85-93.
  • Dunnewold, A. L. (2014). Thought field therapy efficacy following large scale traumatic events. Current Research in Psychology, 5, 34-9.
  • Fang, J., Jin, Z., Wang, Y., Li, K., Kong, J., Nixon, E. E., Zeng, Y., Ren, Y., Tong, H., Wang, Y., & Hui, K. K. (2008). The salient characteristics of the central effects of acupuncture needling: Limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network modulation. Human Brain Mapping, 30(4), 11961206.
  • Feinstein D, & Church D. (2010). Modulating gene expression through psychotherapy: The contribution of non-invasive somatic interventions. Review of General Psychology, 14, 283-95.
  • Feinstein, D. (2012). Acupoint stimulation in treating psychological disorders: evidence of efficacy. Review of General Psychology, 16(4),364.
  • Feinstein, D. (2003). Energy psychology interactive CD training program (Version. 4.0). Ashland, OR: Innersource Publishing.
  • Fitch, J., Schmuldt, L., & Rudick, K. L. (2011). Reducing state communication anxiety for public speakers. An energy psychology pilot study. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 6, 178-92.
  • Fleming, T. (1996). Reduce traumatic stress in minutes: The Tapas Acupressure Technique (TAT) workbook. Torrence, CA: Tapas Fleming.
  • Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., & Friedman, M. J. (Eds.). (2000). Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. New York: Guilford.
  • Gaesser, A. H., & Karan, O. C. (2017). A randomized controlled comparison of Emotional Freedom Technique and cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce adolescent anxiety: A pilot study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 23(2),102-108.
  • Gallo, F. (2013). Energy for healing trauma, energy psychology and the efficient treatment of trauma and PTSD. Energy Psychology Journal, 5(1).
  • Gamble, J. A., Creedy, D. K., Webster, J., & Moyle, W. (2002). A review of the literature on debriefing or non-directive counselling to prevent postpartum emotional distress. Midwifer, 18,72-9.
  • Ghamsari, M. S., & Lavasani, M. G. (2015). Effectiveness Of Emotion Freedom Technique On Pregnant Women's Perceived Stress And Resilience. Journal of Education and Sociology, 6(2),118-22.
  • Gurret, J. M., Caufour, C., Palmer-Hoffman, J., & Church, D. (2012). Post-earthquake rehabilitation of clinical PTSD in Haitian seminarians. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research and Treatment, 4(2), 33-40.
  • Hartmann, S. (2016). Enerji EFT. Pegasus Yayınları. İstanbul, (1), 13-254.
  • Hartung, J., & Stein, P. (2012). Telephone delivery of EFT (emotional freedom techniques) remediates PTSD symptoms in veterans. Energy Psychology Journal, 4(1), 33-40.
  • Hartung, J. G., & Galvin, M. D. (2003). Energy psychology and EMDR: Combining forces to optimize treatment. New York: Norton.
  • Hodge, P. (2011). A pilot study of the effects of emotional freedom techniques in psoriasis. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research & Treatment, 3(2), 13-24.
  • Hofberg, K., Ward, M. R. (2003). Fear of pregnancy and childbirth. Postgrad Med J, 79, 505-10.
  • Hui, K. K. S, Liu, J., Makris, N., Gollub, R. W., Chen, A. J. W., & Moore, C. I., et al. (2000). Acupuncture modulates the limbic system and subcortical gray structures of the human brain: Evidence from fMRI studies in normal subjects. Human Brain Mapping, 9, 13-25.
  • Jain, S., & Rubino, A. (2012). The effectiveness of emotional freedom techniques (EFT) for optimal test performance: A randomized controlled trial. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research & Treatment, 4(2), 13-24.
  • Johnson, C., Shala, M., Sejdijaj, X., Odell, R., & Kadengjika, D. (2001). Thought Field Therapy: soothing the bad moments of Kosovo. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(10), 1237–40.
  • Jones, S., Thornton, J., & Andrews, H. (2011). Efficacy in reducing public speaking anxiety: A randomized controlled trial. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research and Treatment, 3(1), 33-42.
  • Jones, J. P. (2002). Ultrasonic acupuncture and the correlation between acupuncture stimulation and the activation of associated brain cortices using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 22(5), 362-70.
  • Kalla, M., Simmons, M., Robinson, A., Stapleton, P. (2017). Emotional freedom techniques (EFT) as a practice for supporting chronic disease healthcare: a practitioners’ perspective. Disability and Rehabilitation, 1-9.
  • Karatzias, T., Power, K., Brown, K., McGoldrick, T., Begum, M., Young, J., & Adams, S. (2011). A controlled comparison of the effectiveness and efficiency of two psychological therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs. emotional freedom techniques. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199, 372-8.
  • Lake, J. (2014). A review of select CAM modalities for the prevention and treatment of PTSD. Psychiatric Times, 31(7), 29-30.
  • Lambrou, P. T., Pratt, G. J., Chevalier, G. (2003). Physiological and psychological effects of a mind/body therapy on claustrophobia. Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine, 14, 239-51.
  • Lane, J. (2009). The neurochemistry of counterconditioning: Acupressure desensitization in psychotherapy. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 1(1), 31-44.
  • LeDoux, J. (2002). The synaptic self: how our brains become who we are (New York: Viking Penguin). Trad. It. Il Sé sinaptico. Come il nostro cervello ci fa diventare quelli che siamo. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  • Llewellyn-Edwards, T., & Llewellyn-Edwards, M. (2012). The effect of EFT (emotional freedom techniques) on soccer performance. Fidelity: Journal for the National Council of Psychotherapy, 47,14-19.
  • McCallion, F. (2012). Emotional freedom techniques for dyslexia: A case study. Energy Psychology Journal, 4(2), 29-30.
  • Mucillo, A. (2016). Tapping circles start up guide. https://tappingforkids.wordpress.com/2008/07/20/tapping-circles-start-up-guide, Erişim Tarihi: 05.04.2017.
  • Napadow, V., Dhond, R., Park, K., Kim, J., Makris, N., Kwong, K. K., Harris, R. E., Purdon, P. L., Kettner, N., & Hui, K. K. (2009). Time-variant fMRI activity in the brainstem and higher structures in response to acupuncture. NeuroImage, 47(1), 289-301.
  • Napadow, V., Kettner, N., Liu, J., Li, M., Kwong, K. K., Vangel, M., Makris, N., Audette, J., & Hui, K. K. (2007). Hypothalamus and amygdala response to acupuncture stimuli in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Pain, 130(3), 254-66.
  • O'Connell, M. A., Leahy‐Warren, P., Khashan, A. S., Kenny, L. C., & O'Neill, S. M. (2017). Worldwide prevalence of tocophobia in pregnant women: systematic review and meta‐analysis. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 1-14.
  • Perls, F. A. (1969). Ego, Hungar and Aggresion: The Beginning of Gestalt Therapy. Random House. New York, NY.
  • Perry, B. D. (1999). Memories of fear: how the brain stores and retrieves physiologic states, feelings, behaviors and thoughts from traumatic events. In Splintered reflections: Images of the body in trauma. Ed. Goodwin, J. & Attias, R. (Eds.) New York: Basic Books.
  • Phelps, E. A., & LeDoux, J. E. (2005). Contributions of the amygdala to emotion processing: from animal models to human behavior. Neuron, 48, 175-187.
  • Rancour, P. (2016). The Emotional Freedom Technique Finally, a Unifying Theory for the Practice of Holistic Nursing, or Too Good to Be True?. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 1-5.
  • Robson P, & Robson H. (2012). The challenges and opportunities of introducing thought field therapy (TFT) following the Haiti earthquake. Energy Psychology Journal, 4(1), 41-5.
  • Root, J. C., Tuescher, O., Cunningham-Bussel, A., Pan, H., Epstein, J., Altemus, M., & et al. (2009). Frontolimbic function and cortisol reactivity in response to emotional stimuli. Neuroreport, 20, 429-34.
  • Rotheram, M., Maynard, I., Thomas, O., Bawden, J., & Francis, L. (2012). Preliminary evidence for the treatment of type I “yips”: The efficacy of the emotional freedom techniques. Sport Psychologist, 26, 551-70.
  • Rothschild, B. (2000). The body remembers: The psychophysiology of trauma and trauma treatment. New York: Norton.
  • Rudin, R. A. (2005). A neurobiological basis for the observed peripheral sensory modulation of emotional responses. Traumatology, 11(3), 145-158.
  • Sabban, E. L., & Kvetnanasky, R. (2001). Stress-triggered activation of gene expression in catecholaminergic systems: Dynamics of transcriptional events. Trends in Neurosciences, 24, 91-8.
  • Salas, M., Brooks, A., & Rowe, J. (2011). The immediate effect of a brief energy psychology intervention (Emotional Freedom Techniques) on specific phobias: a pilot study. Explore, 7, 155-61.
  • Schoninger, B, & Hartung J. (2010). Changes on selfreport measures of public speaking anxiety following treatment with thought field therapy. Energy Psychology: Theory, Practice, Research, 2(1),13-26.
  • Serçekuş, P., & Okumuş, H. (2009). Fears associated with childbirth among nulliparous women in Turkey. Midwifery, 25, 155-62.
  • Sezgin, N. (2013). Tek Oturumda Uygulanan Duygusal Özgürlük Tekniği (EFT)'nin Yaratılan Stres Durumu Üzerindeki Etkileri. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi, 53(1), 329-48.
  • Shealy, N., & Church, D. (2008). Soul Medicine: Awakening your inner blueprint for abundant health and energy. Energy Psychology Press. Santa Rosa, CA.
  • Sheldon, T. (2014). Psychological intervention including emotional freedom techniques for an adult with motor vehicle accident related posttraumatic stress disorder: a case study. Current Research in Psychology, 5, 40-63.
  • Stapleton, P., Church, D., Sheldon, T., Porter, B., & Carlopio, C. (2013). Depression symptoms improve after successful weight loss with emotional freedom techniques. Hindawi Publishing Corporation ISRN Psychiatry. Article ID 573532.2013, 1-7.
  • Stapleton, P., Devine, S., Chatwin, H., Porter, B., & Sheldon, T. (2014). A feasibility study: Emotional freedom techniques for depression in Australian adults. Current Research in Psychology, 5(1), 19-33.
  • Stapleton, P., Sheldon, T., & Porter, B. (2012). Clinical benefits of emotional freedom techniques on food cravings at 12-months follow-up: A randomized controlled trial. Energy Psychology Journal, 4(1),13-24.
  • Stapleton, P., Sheldon, T., Porter, B., & Whitty, J. (2010). A randomized clinical trial of a meridian-based intervention for food cravings with six month follow-up. Behavior Change, 28(1),1-16.
  • Stein, P., & Brooks, A. (2011). Efficacy of EFT provided by coaches vs licenses therapists in veterans with PTSD. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research and Treatment, 3(1),11-18.
  • Swack, J. A. (2001). The biochemistry of energy psychology: An immunologist’s perspective on physiological mechanisms underlying energy psychology treatments. Keynote presentation, Third Annual International Energy Psychology Conference, San Diego, CA, May.
  • Swingle, P. (2010). Emotional freedom techniques (EFT) as an effective adjunctive treatment in the neurotherapeutic treatment of seizure disorders. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 2(1):29-38.
  • Swingle, P. G., Pulos, L., & Swingle, M. K. (2004). Neurophysiological indicators of EFT treatment of post traumatic stress. Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine, 15(1), 75-86.
  • Temple, G., & Mollon, P. (2011). Reducing anxiety in dental patients using emotional freedom techniques (EFT): a pilot study. Energy Psychol Theory Res Treat, 3(2), 53-56.
  • Craig, G. (2017). The EFT Tapping Home. www.emofree.com, Erişim Tarihi: 04.04.2017.
  • Ulett, G. A. (1992). Beyond yin and yang; How acupuncture really works. St. Louis: Warren S. Green, 38-53.
  • Van der Kolk, B. A. (2002). Beyond the talking cure: Somatic experience and subcortical imprints in the treatment of trauma. In F. Shapiro (Ed.), EMDR, promises for a paradigm shift New York: APA Press.
  • Waite, W. L., & Holder, M. D. (2003). Assessment of the emotional freedom technique. Sci Rev Ment Health Pract, 2(1), 1-10.
  • Wells, S., Polglase, K., Andrews, H. B., & Carrington, P. (2003). Efficacy of a meridian based desensitization technique (EFT) versus diaphragmatic breathing in the treatment of specific phobias. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59, 943-966.
  • Wolpe, J. (1973). The Practice of Behavior Therapy. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Pergamon Press.
  • Wolpe, J., & Wolpe, D. (1981). Our useless fears. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 48-61.
  • Zhang, Y., Feng, B., Xie, J. P., Xu, F. Z., & Chen, J. (2011). Clinical study on treatment of the earthquake-caused post- traumatic stress disorder by cognitive behavior therapy and acupoint stimulation. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 31(1), 60-63.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Nursing, Psychology
Journal Section Volume:2, Issue:3 June
Authors

Pınar IRMAK VURAL (Primary Author)
İSTANBUL MEDİPOL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8070-2840
Türkiye


Ergül ASLAN
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FLORENCE NİGHTİNGALE HEMŞİRELİK FAKÜLTESİ, HEMŞİRELİK BÖLÜMÜ, KADIN SAĞLIĞI VE HASTALIKLARI HEMŞİRELİĞİ ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0002-6529-5992
Türkiye

Publication Date June 1, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume 2, Issue 3

Cite

APA Irmak Vural, P. & Aslan, E. (2018). Duygusal Özgürleşme Tekniği (EFT) Kapsamı ve Uygulama Alanları . Yaşam Becerileri Psikoloji Dergisi , 2 (3) , 11-25 . DOI: 10.31461/ybpd.383026