Year 2018, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 111 - 115 2018-12-30

Acute Phase Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus Positive Milks

Sena Çenesiz [1] , Hande Gürler [2] , Arzu Fındık [3] , Gülay Çiftci [4] , Ali Ertekin [5] , Metin Çenesiz [6]

10 85

In this study, acute phase proteins including haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, albumin and total protein levels were investigated in cows with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) positive subclinical mastitis. Healthy Jersey cows in lactation constituted the animal materials of the study. CMT test were applied to detect subclinical mastitis. In 21 milk samples collected from cows with subclinical mastitis, S. aureus was identified by PCR after bacteriologic isolation. These milk samples formed the study group. Healthy milks in which no bacteriological growth was observed were used as the control group. Elevations in haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels in infected milk group compared to control milk group were statistically determined as p<0,05. Although an increase was observed in fibrinogen (Fb), total protein (TP) and albumin (Alb) levels, the variations were not statistically significant.
In conclusion, in infected milks, total protein elevation is an expected result due to the presence of somatic cell and bacteria. In the present study, an increase was determined in total protein level, but it had no statistical significance. However, a significant increase was determined regarding haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in infected milk samples. This suggests that haptoglobin and serum amyloid A are more sensitive indicators in subclinical mastitis and may be beneficial in clinical practice.
Acute phase proteins, Cows, Subclinical mastitis, S. aureus
  • 1. Aarestrup FM, Larsen HD, Eriksen NH, Elsberg CS, Jensen NE, (1999). Frequency of alpha- and beta-haemolysin in Staphylococcus aureus of bovine and human origin. A comparison between pheno- and genotype and variation in phenotypic expression. APMIS. 107, 425–430.
  • 2. Abd El-razik A, Abdelrahman KA, Ahmed YF, Gomaa AM, Eldebaky HA, (2010). Direct identification of major pathogens of the bubaline subclinical mastitis in Egypt using PCR. J Amer Sci. 6, 652–660.
  • 3. Akineden O, Annemuller C, Hassan AA, Lammler C, Wolter W, Zschöch M, (2001). Toxin genes and other characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk of cows with mastitis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 8, 959–964.
  • 4. Albenzio M, Taibi L, Muscio A, Sevi A, (2002). Prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis in intensively managed flocs and related changes in the yield and quality of ewe milk. Small Rumin Res. 43, 219–226.
  • 5. Bramley AJ, Patel AH, Reilly MO, Foster R, Foster TJ, (1989). Roles of alpha-toxin and beta-toxin in virulence of Staphylococcus aureus for the mouse mammary gland. Infect Immun. 57, 2489–2494.
  • 6. Ceron JJ, Eckersal PD, Martinez-subiela S, (2005). Acute phase proteins in dogs and cats: current knowledge and future perspective. Vet Clin Pathol. 34, 85-99.
  • 7. Colla MF, Valle SF, Secchi P, Duda N, Scalon M, Durr JW, Hilario F, González D, (2011). Plasma haptoglobin values in cows with different somatic cell counting in milk samples. Acta Sci Vet. 39, 944.
  • 8. Eckersall PD, (2000). Recent advances and future prospects for the use of acute phase proteins as markers of disease in animals. Rev Med Vet. 151, 577-584.
  • 9. Eckersall PD, Young FJ, Mccomb C, Hogarth CJ, Safi S, Weber A, Mcdonald T, Nolan AM, Fitzpatrick JL, (2001). Acute phase proteins in serum and milk from dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Vet Rec. 148, 35-41.
  • 10. Eckersall PD, Young FJ, Nolan AM, Knight CH, Mccomb C, Waterston MM, Hogarth CJ, Scott EM, Fitzpatrick JL, (2006). Acute phase proteins in bovine milk in an experimental model of Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis. J Dairy Sci. 89, 1488-1501.
  • 11. El-deeb WM, (2013). Clinicobiochemical investigations of gangrenous mastitis in does: immunological responses and oxidative stress biomarker. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 14, 33- 39.
  • 12. Fabres-Klein MH, Klein RC, De Paula SO, Ribon AOB, (2013). Immunorelevant proteins for the diagnosis of bovine staphylococcal mastitis. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 29, 1155-1160.
  • 13. Getaneh AM, Mekonnen SA, Hogeveen H, (2017). Stochastic bio-economic modeling of mastitis in Ethiopian dairy farms. Prev Vet Med. 138, 94-103.
  • 14. Gill R, Howard WH, Leslie KE, Lissemore K, (1990). Economics of mastitis control. J Dairy Sci. 73, 3340-3348.
  • 15. Gronlund U, Hulten C, Eckersall PD, Hogarth C, Waller KP, (2003). Haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in milk and serum during acute and chronic experimentally induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. J Dairy Res. 70, 379-386.
  • 16. Gruys E, Obwolo MJ, Toussaint M, (1994). Diagnostic significance of the major acute phase proteins in veterinary clinical chemistry: A Review. Vet Bull. 64, 1009-1018.
  • 17. Gruys E, Toussaint MJM, Niewold TA, Koopmans SJ, (2005). Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 11, 1045-1056.
  • 18. Guidry A, Fattom A, Atul P, Oõbrien C, Shepherd S, Lohuis J, (1998). Serotyping scheme for Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cows with mastitis. Am J Vet Res. 59, 1537- 1539.
  • 19. Hadimli HH, Ates M, Guler L, Kav K, Oncel T, (2001). Some virulence factors and antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcal strains isolated from cows with subclinical mastitis. Vet Bil Derg. 17, 21-25.
  • 20. Hiss S, Mielenz M, Bruckmaier RM, Sauerwein H, (2004). Haptoglobin concentrations in blood and milk after endotoxin challenge and quantification of mammary Hp mRNA expression. J Dairy Sci. 87, 3778-3784.
  • 21. Hiss S, Mueller U, Neu-zahren A, Sauerwein H, (2007). Haptoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase measurements in milk for the identification of subclinically diseased udder quarters. Vet Med. 52, 245-252.
  • 22. Janzen JJ, (1970). Economic losses resulting from mastitis. A review. J Dairy Sci. 53, 1151-1161.
  • 23. Kaneko JJ, John W, Bruss HM, (2008). Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals Gulf Academic press, sixth edition.
  • 24. Korhonen H, Kaartinen L, (1995). Changes in the composition of milk induced by mastitis. In: Sandholm M., Honkanen- Buzalski T., Kaartinen L. & Pyorala S. (Eds). The bovine udder and mastitis. Jyvaskila: Gummerus Kirjapaino, 76-82.
  • 25. Mcdonald LT, Larson MA, Mack DR, Weber A, (2001). Elevated extrahepatic expression and secretion of mammary- associated serum amyloid A 3 (M-SAA3) into colostrum. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 83, 203-211.
  • 26. Murata H, Shimada N, Yoshioka M, (2004). Current research on acute phase proteins in veterinary diagnosis: an overview. Vet J. 168, 28-40.
  • 27. Mutluer D, Hatipoğlu FŞ, Türütoğlu H, Özmen Ö, Oğuz N, Ata A, Alçi S, Köker A, Karakurum Ç, (2001). Mastitis oluşumu, tanısı ve sağaltımı. Süt İnekçiliğinde Mastitis Sempozyum Kitabı., 04-05 Mayıs, Akdeniz Üniversitesi, 27-38.
  • 28. Nazıfi S, Haghkhah M, Asadi Z, Ansari-lari M, Tabandeh MR, Esmailnezhad Z, Aghamiri M, (2011). Evaluation of sialic acid and acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A) in clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis. Pakistan Vet J. 31, 55-59.
  • 29. Nielsen BH, Jacobsen S, Andersen PH, Niewold TA, Heegaard PMH, (2004). Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions. Vet Rec. 15, 361-365.
  • 30. Nukina H, Sudo N, Aiba Y, Oyama N, Koga Y, Kubo C, (2001). Restraint stress elevates the plasma interleukin-6 levels in germ-free mice. J Neuroimmunol. 115, 46-52.
  • 31. Petersen HH, Nielsen JP, Heegard PMH, (2004). Application of acute phase protein measurements in veterinary clinical chemistry. Vet Res. 35, 163-187.
  • 32. Quinn PJ, Carter ME, Markey BK, Carter GR, (1994). Clinical Veterinary Microbiology. Mosby: U.K. 33. Shamay A, Homans R, Fuerman Y, Levin I, Barash H, Silanikove N, Mabjeesh SJ, (2005). Expression of Albumin in Nonhepatic Tissues and its Synthesis by the Bovine Mammary Gland. J Dairy Sci. 88, 69-76.
  • 34. Shitandi A, Kihumbu G, (2004). Assessment of the California mastitis test usage in small holder dairy herds and risk of violative antimicrobial residues. J Vet Sci. 5, 5-9.
  • 35. Steel DM, Whithead AS, (1994). The major acute phase reactants: C-reactive protein, serum amyloid P component and serum amyloid A protein. Immunol Today. 15, 81-88.
  • 36. Tabrizi AD, Batavani RA, Rezaei SA, Ahmadi M. (2008). Fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin in plasma and milk from dairy cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis. Pakistan J Biol Sci. 11, 571-576.
  • 37. Tel OY, Keskin O, Zonturlu AK, Arserim Kaya NB, (2009). Subclinical mastitis prevalance and determination of the antibiotics susceptibility in Sanliurfa region. Fırat Üniv Sağl Bil Vet Derg. 23, 101-106.
Primary Language en
Journal Section Issue

Author: Sena Çenesiz

Author: Hande Gürler

Author: Arzu Fındık

Author: Gülay Çiftci (Primary Author)

Author: Ali Ertekin

Author: Metin Çenesiz

APA Çenesiz, S , Gürler, H , Fındık, A , Çiftci, G , Ertekin, A , Çenesiz, M . (2018). Acute Phase Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus Positive Milks. Etlik Veteriner Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi, 29 (2), 111-115. Retrieved from