Year 2016, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 10 - 22 2016-12-15

TOLERANCE, MIGRATION AND HYBRID IDENTITIES: NORMATIVE REASONING OF INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE IN A BLURRING STRUCTURE

Armando ALİU [1] , İlyas ÖZTÜRK [2] , Dorian ALİU [3] , Ömer ÖZKAN [4]

11 87

The aim of this study is to proof the argument – i.e. ‘there are significant linkages amongst tolerance, hybrid identities and migration.’ These linkages can be comprehended by means of conceptualising extensions of hybrid identities in aggregate trans/inter-migration processes. It can be put forward that arising hybrid identities are embedded in a blurring structure of thoughts, beliefs, states of affairs, facts, belongings and so forth. From multiculturalism and cosmopolitanism viewpoints, it is argued that tolerance and migration ought to be analysed in frame of sociology of law, human rights, international migration law, and of course the European Union law. So far, normative arguments and soft law approaches are very much well integrated with social aspects of migration, tolerance, identity and culture. In this context, the study examines to what extent cultural and human components are protected by law in multiple levels from an interdisciplinary perspective. In this framework, it is crucial to raise the research enquiries: What are possible criteria for the limits of tolerance? To what extent tolerance is related to human rights and morality? What ought to be the limit of tolerance towards hybrid identities in multicultural and cosmopolitan societies? In a consistent manner, the criteria and standards developed by some leading scholars were reconstructed and discussed throughout this paper. These criteria and standards are both moral (part of a universal system of morality) and legal (international, supranational, or national – i.e. constitutional). In order to apply such standards their validity was discussed (i.e. the respective normative power has the norms at the various levels). In the case of morals, their difference to particular ethnic systems was established (i.e. criteria by which the two can be distinguished). Then the research argument was elaborated on whether and how the legal standards comply with the moral standards, how national standards comply with supranational or international standards. Likewise, the study highlights the crucial contributions of “World Society and World System Paradigms” that are associated with social space, global civil society, cosmopolitanism, ethnic diversity, cultural hybridity, human rights activism and public sphere. Recent debates in Refugee Studies (e.g. Syrian Refugee Crisis, Dual and Multiple Citizenship Issues and so forth) highlight the fact that the European Union needs to consider new aspects of tolerance for hybrid identities and tolerate cultural rights of hybrid identities, create cohesion in communities and establish intercultural dialogue amongst home-states and host-states. Sanguinely, the efforts of hybrid identities are strengthening the relations between home-host states and these ought to attract some considerable attention. The authors of this study hope that their endeavours may contribute somewhat towards that.

Tolerance, Migration, Hybrid Identities, İntercultural Dialogue, Sociology of Law
  • Aliu, Armando (2011), “Tolerance and Law: How the European Union Respects Minorities’ Rights in the Member States”, Unpublished Research Report, University of Hamburg, Hamburg. Aliu, Armando (2012), “International Migration and the European Union Relations in the Context of a Comparison of Western Balkans and North African Countries: Controlling Migration and Hybrid Model”, MPRA Paper No. 41102, Ludwig Maximilians Universität München, 05 June 2016, Retrieved from: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/41102/1/MPRA_paper_41102.pdf Aliu, Armando (2013), “The Theory of Interhybridity: Socio-political Dimensions and Migration Experiences of Post-communist Western Balkan States”, Journal of Advanced Research in Organizational Psychology, Vol.2, No.2, pp.5–54. Apel, Karl-Otto (1997), “Plurality of the Good? The Problem of Affirmative Tolerance in a Multicultural Society from an Ethical Point of View”, Ratio Juris, Vol.10, No.2, pp.199–212. Barnard, L. E. (1855), Moral Sayings of Confucius: A Chinese Philosopher, A. B. & CO, Cleveland. Baumann, G. (1999), The Multicultural Riddle: Rethinking National, Ethnic and Religious Identities, Routledge, London. Beck, Ulrich (2000), “The Cosmopolitan Perspective: Sociology of the Second Age of Modernity”, British Journal of Sociology, Vol.51, No.1, pp.79–105. Beck, Ulrich (2003), “Toward a New Critical Theory with a Cosmopolitan Intent”, Constellations, Vol.10, No.4, pp.453–468. Beck, Ulrich (2004a), “Cosmopolitical Realism: On the Distinction between Cosmopolitanism in Philosophy and the Social Science”, Global Networks, Vol.4, No.2, pp.131–156. Beck, Ulrich (2004b), “The Truth of Others: A Cosmopolitan Approach”, Common Knowledge, Vol.10, No.3, pp.430–449. Beck, Ulrich (2005), “The Cosmopolitan State: Redefining Power in the Global Age”, International Journal of Politics, Culture & Society, Vol.18, No.3, pp.143–159. Beck, Ulrich and Natan Sznaider (2006), “Unpacking Cosmopolitanism for the Social Sciences: A Research Agenda”, The British Journal of Sociology, Vol.57, No.1, pp.1–23. Beck, Ulrich and Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim (2009), “Global Generations and the Trap of Methodological Nationalism for a Cosmopolitan Turn in the Sociology of Youth and Generations”, European Sociological Review, Vol.25, No.1, pp.25–36. Beck, Ulrich and Edgar Grande (2010), “Varieties of Second Modernity: The Cosmopolitan Turn in Social and Political Theory and Research”, The British Journal of Sociology, Vol.61, No.3, pp.409–443. Beck, Ulrich (2011a), “Multiculturalism or Cosmopolitanism: How Can We Describe and Understand the Diversity of the World?” Social Sciences in China, Vol.32, No.4, pp.52–58. Beck, Ulrich (2011b), “We Do Not Live in an Age of Cosmopolitanism But in an Age of Cosmopolitisation: The ‘Global Other’ is in Our Midst”, Irish Journal of Sociology, Vol.19, No.1, pp.16–34. Braudel, F. (1985), Civilisation and Capitalism 15th and 18th Century – Vol. I: The Structures of Everyday Life, Translated by S. Reynolds, Collins, London. Braudel, F. (1983), Civilisation and Capitalism 15th and 18th Century – Vol. II: The Wheels of Commerce, Translated by S. Reynolds, Collins, London. Braudel, F. (1984), Civilisation and Capitalism 15th and 18th Century – Vol. III: The Perspective of the World, Translated by S. Reynolds, Collins, London. Bulag, U. E. (1998), Nationalism and Hybridity in Mongolia. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Burke, P. (2009), Cultural Hybridity, Polity Press, Cambridge. Cranmer-Byng, L. (1906), The Classics of Confucius: The Book of Odes (Shi-King), 2nd edition, John Murray, London. Dahrendorf, R. (1959), Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society, Stanford University Press, Stanford. Dawson, M. M. (1915), The Ethics of Confucius, 3rd edition, The Knickerbocker Press, New York. Drichel, Simone (2008), “The Time of Hybridity”, Philosophy and Social Criticism, Vol.34, No.6, pp.587–615. Field, Sean (1999), “Ambiguous Belongings: Negotiating Hybridity in Cape Town, 1940s-1990s”, Kronos, No.25, pp.227–238. Forst, Rainer (2004), “The Limits of Toleration”, Constellations, Vol.11, No.3, pp.312–325. Garapon, Antoine (1996), “The Law and the New Language of Tolerance”, Diogenes, Vol.44/4, No.176, pp.71–89. Günther, Klaus (2005), “World Citizens between Freedom and Security”, Constellations, Vol.12, No.3, pp.379–391. Habermas, Jürgen (1988), “Law and Morality”, Translated by Kenneth Baynes, The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, No.8, pp.219–279, 05 June 2016, Retrieved from: http://tannerlectures.utah.edu/_documents/a-to-z/h/habermas88.pdf Habermas, Jürgen (1995), “Kants Idee des Ewigen Friedens: Aus dem historischen Abstand von 200 Jahren”, Kritische Justiz, Vol.28, No.3, pp.293–319. Habermas, J. (1997), Die Einbeziehung des Anderen: Studien zur politischen Theorie, Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main. Habermas, Jürgen (2003a), “Intolerance and Discrimination”, International Journal of Constitutional Law, Vol.1, No.1, pp.2–12. Habermas, Jürgen (2003b), “A Historical Critique of John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice: Failure to Communicate the Tradition”, 05 June 2016, Retrieved from: https://ia601409.us.archive.org/8/items/JrgenHabermasCritiqueOfJohnRawls/JrgenHabermasCritiques Rawls.pdf Habermas, J. (2005), Zwischen Naturalismus und Religion: Philosophische Aufsätze, Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main. Hart, Herbert L. A. (1967), “Social Solidarity and Enforcement of Morality”, The University of Chicago Law Review, Vol.35, No.1, pp.1–13. Hersch, Jeanne (1996), “Tolerance: Between Liberty and Truth”, Diogenes, Vol.44/4, No.176, pp.27– 33. Horten, M. (1912), Die Metaphysik des Averroes, Verlag von Max Niemeyer, Halle. Horten, M. (1913), Die Hauptlehren des Averroes nach Seiner Schrift: Die Widerlegung des Gazali, A. Marcus und E. Webers Verlag, Bonn. Hutnyk, John (2005), “Hybridity”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol.28, No.1, pp.79–102. Jamil-Ur-Rehman, M. (1921), The Philosophy and Theology of Aveorres, A. G. Widgery, Baroda. Kavas, Serap and Arland Thornton (2013), “Adjustment and Hybridity in Turkish Family Change: Perspectives from Developmental Idealism”, Journal of Family History, Vol.38, No.2, pp.223–241. Kawash, S. (1997), Dislocating the Color Line: Identity, Hybridity and Singularity in African-American Narrative, Stanford University Press, Stanford. Köprülü, M. F. (2013), Türk Edebiyatında İlk Mutasavvıflar, Akçağ Yayınları, Ankara. Kraidy, M. (2005), Hybridity, or the Cultural Logic of Globalisation, Temple University Press, Philadelphia. Kuçuradi, İoanna (1996), “On Tolerance and the Limits of Toleration”, Diogenes, Vol.44/4, No.176, pp.163–174. Laffey, Mark and Suthaharan Nadarajah (2012), “The Hybridity of Liberal Space: States, Diasporas and Insecurity”, Security Dialogue, Vol.43, No.5, pp.403–420. Luhmann, Niklas (1983), “Insistence on Systems Theory: Perspectives from Germany – An Essay”, Social Forces, Vol.61, No.4, pp.987–998. Luhmann, Niklas (1984), “Die Wirtschaft der Gesellschaft als autopoietisches System”, Zeitschrift für Soziologie, Vol.13, No.4, pp.308–327. Luhmann, Niklas (1985), “Society, Meaning, Religion: Based on Self-Reference”, Sociological Analysis, Vol.46, No.1, pp.5–20. Luhmann, Niklas (1994), “What is the Case? And What Lies Behind It? The Two Sociologies and the Theory of Society”, Translated by Stephen Fuchs, Sociological Theory, Vol.12, No.2, pp.126–139. Luhmann, N. (1995a), Die Kunst der Gesellschaft. Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main. Luhmann, Niklas (1995b), “Why Does Society Describe Itself as Modern?” Cultural Critique, No.30, pp.171–186. Luhmann, Niklas (1996), “System as Difference”, Organization, Vol.13, No.1, pp.37–57. Luhmann, Niklas (1997), “Globalization or World Society: How to Conceive of Modern Society?”, International Review of Sociology, Vol.7, No.1, pp.67–79. Luhmann, Niklas (2011), Einführung in die Systemtheorie, Sechste Auflage, Carl-Auer-Systeme Verlag, Heidelberg. Mevlânâ (2005), Mesnevî Şerif Şerhi (Cilt 1-13), Tercüme: Ahmed Avni Konuk, Kitabevi, İstanbul. McPharlin, P. (1939), The Sayings of Confucius, Peter Pauper Press, New York. McWilliams, Susan (2013), “Hybridity in Herodotus”, Political Research Quarterly, Vol.20, No.10, pp.1–11. Müller, M. J. (1875), Philosophie und Theologie von Averroes, Akademie der Wissenschaften, München. Nafafé, José Lingna (2012), “Europe in Africa and Africa in Europe: Rethinking Postcolonial Space, Cultural Encounters and Hybridity”, European Journal of Social Theory, Vol.16, No.1, pp.51–68. Öztürk, İlyas (2011), “Avrupa Birliği’nde Çeviri Çalışmaları”, XI. Uluslararası Dil – Yazın – Deyisbilim Sempozyumu: Gönüllülük ve Hosgörü, 1. Cilt, ss. 416-429. Papastergiadis, N. (2000), The Turbulence of Migration: Globalization, Deterritorialization and Hybridity, Polity Press, Oxford. Pieterse, Jan Nederveen (2001), “Hybridity, So What? The Anti-Hybridity Backlash and Riddles of Recognition”, Theory, Culture & Society, Vol.18, No.2-3, pp.219–245. Polanyi, K. (2001), The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time, 2nd edition, Beacon Press, Boston. Pnina, W. and T. Modood (1997), Debating Cultural Hybridity: Multicultural Identities and the Politics of Anti-Racism, Zed Books, London. Pries, L. (Ed.) (2001), New Transnational Social Spaces: International Migration and Transnational Companies in the Early Twenty-first Century, Routledge, London. Ramos-García, L. A. (2002), The State of Latino Theater in the United States: Hybridity, Transculturation, and Identity, Routledge, New York. Ricoeur, Paul (1973), “Ethics and Culture: Habermas and Gadamer in Dialogue”, Philosophy Today, Vol.17, No.2, pp.153–165. Ricoeur, Paul (1996a), “Obstacles and Limits to Tolerance”, Diogenes, Vol.44/4, No.176, pp.161–162. Ricoeur, Paul (1996b), “To Think Tolerance”, Diogenes, Vol.44/4, No.176, pp.25–26. Ricoeur, Paul (1996c), “Tolerance, Rights, and the Law”, Diogenes, Vol.44/4, No.176, pp.51–52. Ricoeur, P. (2000), The Just, Translated by D. Pellauer, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Riegel, Jeffrey (2013), “Confucius”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 05 June 2016, Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/confucius/ Riemer, Andrew (1999), “Hybridity: Making a Meal of Multiculturalism”, Australian Quarterly, Vol.71, No.2, pp.6–10. Said, E. W. (1994), Culture and Imperialism. Vintage Books, New York. Serin, N. (Ed.) (1990), La Tolérance, Les Cultures et Les Religions: Hier et Aujourd’hui, Ankara University Publications, Ankara. Sokol, B. J. (2008), Shakespeare and Tolerance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Swiebel, Joke (2008), “Intercultural Dialogue and Diversity within the EU”, Eurolimes, No.6, pp.101–112. The European Union (2016), “Consolidated Version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union”, Official Journal of the European Union, Vol.59, No.2016/C202/01-02, 05 June 2016, Retrieved from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=OJ:C:2016:202:FULL&from=EN United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (1996), “The Declaration of Principles on Tolerance”, Diogenes, Vol.44/4, No.176, pp.207–213. van Norden, Bryan (2014), “Mencius”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 05 June 2016, Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mencius/ Vermeersch, Peter (2007), “Ethnic Minority Protection and Anti-discrimination in Central Europe Before and After EU Accession: The Case of Poland”, Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, Vol.6, No.1, pp.1–21. Vertovec, Steven (1999), “Conceiving and Researching Transnationalism”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol.22, No.2, pp.447–462. Vertovec, Steven (2001a), “Transnational Challenges to the “New” Multiculturalism”, ESRC Transnational Communities Research Programme Working Papers, 05 June 2016, Retrieved from: http://www.transcomm.ox.ac.uk/working%20papers/WPTC-2K-06%20Vertovec.pdf Vertovec, Steven (2001b), “Transnationalism and Identity”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol.27, No.4, pp.573–582. Vertovec, Steven (2003), “Migration and Other Modes of Transnationalism: Towards Conceptual Cross- Fertilization”, International Migration Review, Vol.37, No.3, pp.641–665. Vertovec, Steven (2004), “Migrant Transnationalism and Modes of Transformation”, International Migration Review, Vol.38, No.3, pp.970–1001. Vertovec, Steven (2007), “Introduction: New Directions in the Anthropology of Migration and Multiculturalism”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol.30, No.6, pp.961–978. Waterlot, Ghislain (1996), “Human Rights and the Fate of Tolerance”, Diogenes, Vol.44/4, No.176, pp.53–70. Wallerstein, I. (1976), The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century, Academic Press, New York. Wallerstein, I. (2006), World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction, 4th edition, Duke University Press, London. Weber, M. (1922), Grundriss der Sozialökonomik: III. Abteilung – Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, J.C.B. Mohr, Tübingen. Worms, M. (1900), Die Lehre von der Anfangslosigkeit der Welt bei den mittelalterlichen arabischen Philosophen des Orients und Ihre Bekämpfung durch die arabischen Theologen (Mutakallimûn), Druck und Verlag der Aschendorffschen Buchhandlung, Münster.
Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Armando ALİU (Primary Author)

Author: İlyas ÖZTÜRK
Institution: SAKARYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ

Author: Dorian ALİU

Author: Ömer ÖZKAN

Bibtex @research article { icps498327, journal = {Uluslararası Politik Araştırmalar Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2149-8539}, address = {Politik Ekonomik ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Merkezi}, year = {2016}, volume = {2}, pages = {10 - 22}, doi = {10.25272/j.2149-8539.2016.2.3.02}, title = {TOLERANCE, MIGRATION AND HYBRID IDENTITIES: NORMATIVE REASONING OF INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE IN A BLURRING STRUCTURE}, key = {cite}, author = {ALİU, Armando and ÖZTÜRK, İlyas and ALİU, Dorian and ÖZKAN, Ömer} }
APA ALİU, A , ÖZTÜRK, İ , ALİU, D , ÖZKAN, Ö . (2016). TOLERANCE, MIGRATION AND HYBRID IDENTITIES: NORMATIVE REASONING OF INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE IN A BLURRING STRUCTURE. Uluslararası Politik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 2 (3), 10-22. DOI: 10.25272/j.2149-8539.2016.2.3.02
MLA ALİU, A , ÖZTÜRK, İ , ALİU, D , ÖZKAN, Ö . "TOLERANCE, MIGRATION AND HYBRID IDENTITIES: NORMATIVE REASONING OF INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE IN A BLURRING STRUCTURE". Uluslararası Politik Araştırmalar Dergisi 2 (2016): 10-22 <http://dergipark.org.tr/icps/issue/41254/498327>
Chicago ALİU, A , ÖZTÜRK, İ , ALİU, D , ÖZKAN, Ö . "TOLERANCE, MIGRATION AND HYBRID IDENTITIES: NORMATIVE REASONING OF INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE IN A BLURRING STRUCTURE". Uluslararası Politik Araştırmalar Dergisi 2 (2016): 10-22
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - TOLERANCE, MIGRATION AND HYBRID IDENTITIES: NORMATIVE REASONING OF INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE IN A BLURRING STRUCTURE AU - Armando ALİU , İlyas ÖZTÜRK , Dorian ALİU , Ömer ÖZKAN Y1 - 2016 PY - 2016 N1 - doi: 10.25272/j.2149-8539.2016.2.3.02 DO - 10.25272/j.2149-8539.2016.2.3.02 T2 - Uluslararası Politik Araştırmalar Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 10 EP - 22 VL - 2 IS - 3 SN - -2149-8539 M3 - doi: 10.25272/j.2149-8539.2016.2.3.02 UR - https://doi.org/10.25272/j.2149-8539.2016.2.3.02 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Uluslararası Politik Araştırmalar Dergisi TOLERANCE, MIGRATION AND HYBRID IDENTITIES: NORMATIVE REASONING OF INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE IN A BLURRING STRUCTURE %A Armando ALİU , İlyas ÖZTÜRK , Dorian ALİU , Ömer ÖZKAN %T TOLERANCE, MIGRATION AND HYBRID IDENTITIES: NORMATIVE REASONING OF INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE IN A BLURRING STRUCTURE %D 2016 %J Uluslararası Politik Araştırmalar Dergisi %P -2149-8539 %V 2 %N 3 %R doi: 10.25272/j.2149-8539.2016.2.3.02 %U 10.25272/j.2149-8539.2016.2.3.02
ISNAD ALİU, Armando , ÖZTÜRK, İlyas , ALİU, Dorian , ÖZKAN, Ömer . "TOLERANCE, MIGRATION AND HYBRID IDENTITIES: NORMATIVE REASONING OF INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE IN A BLURRING STRUCTURE". Uluslararası Politik Araştırmalar Dergisi 2 / 3 (December 2016): 10-22. https://doi.org/10.25272/j.2149-8539.2016.2.3.02