Year 2018, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 519 - 537 2018-12-27

STATE-BUILDING PROCESS IN UZBEKISTAN: MANY MILES TO GO
ÖZBEKİSTAN’DA DEVLET İNŞASI SÜRECİ: KATEDİLMESİ GEREKEN UZUN YOLLAR

Gürhan Ünal [1]

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This study examines the developments in post-Soviet Uzbekistan in the field of state building. With the dissolution of USSR, newly independent states struggled to function as independent nation-states since the transition efforts from Communism to post-Communism created an uncharted area for the post-Soviet societies. Transition studies gained widespread attention with the democratization of Latin America and Southern Europe. However, it became evident that current transition literature which solely focuses on democratization and marketization lacks the explanatory power on transition process of post-Soviet states due to the Soviet legacy which left its marks not only in terms of democracy and economy but also on national-identity and religious affairs. Therefore, it is argued that a quadruple transition model which focuses on democratization, marketization, stateness and nationality is more appropriate to analyze the developments in post-Soviet states. In Uzbekistan, transition process was operated by Islam Karimov until 2016. Contrary to some other Central Asian countries, Uzbekistan enjoyed a more stable transition process mostly due to Karimov’s authoritarian rule. However, after more than two decades, it is difficult to consider Uzbekistan neither as a full democracy nor as a market economy. Moreover, the struggle between so-called radical Islamist groups and the government poses serious threats to the stability of the country. Lately Shavkat Mirziyoyev’s presidency following the death of Karimov created a more fertile ground for further democratization of Uzbekistan. Considering these developments, this study evaluates state-building policies of Uzbekistan in five topics regarding nation-building, democratization, marketization, religion and foreign affairs. It is argued that despite relative stability and progress, Uzbekistan is far from being an example of successful transition.
Bu çalışma Sovyet sonrası dönemde Özbekistan’ın yürüttüğü devlet inşası politikalarını incelemektedir. SSCB’nin ayrışması neticesinde bağımsızlıklarını ilan devlet-ler bağımsız ve modern birer ulus devlet olarak fonksiyon göstermekte zorlanmış, komünizm sonrasına geçiş çabaları halkı ve yöneticileri alışık olmadıkları konularla tanıştır-mıştır. Mevcut ekonomik ve siyasal sistemden bir başka sisteme dönüşümü anlatan geçiş çalışmaları, bilhassa Latin Amerika ve Güney Avrupa’daki demokratikleşme hareket-leriyle birlikte araştırmacıların ilgi odağına girmiştir. Fakat, yalnızca demokratikleşmeye ve market ekonomisine geçişe odaklanan mevcut geçiş çalışmaları alan yazınının, eski Sov-yet ülkelerinin dönüşümlerini açıklamakta yeterli olmadığı görülmüştür. Bunun sebebi, Sovyet mirasının, ülkelerin sadece yönetim biçimlerini ve ekonomilerini değil, aynı zamanda ulusal kimliklerini ve dini ilişkilerini de etkilemiş olmasıdır. Bu sebeple, eski Sovyet ülkelerinin yeniden inşa sürecini incelerken, demokrasi, market ekonomisi, devlet kapasitesi ve millet inşası konularını kapsayan dörtlü bir ge-çiş modelinin kullanılmasının fayda sağlayacağı öne sürül-müştür. Özbekistan’ın geçiş süreci 2016 yılına kadar İslam Karimov tarafından yürütülmüştür. Bazı Orta Asya ülke-lerine nazaran Özbekistan, Karimov’un tutucu politikaları sebebiyle göreceli bir istikrara kavuşmuştur, ancak tam bir demokratik rejime ya da işleyen bir market ekonomisine sahip olduğunu söylemek oldukça güçtür; radikal İslamcı olarak adlandırılan gruplarla hükümet arasındaki mücadele istikrarı tehdit etmektedir. Son dönemde, Karimov’un ölümüyle başkanlığa seçilen Şevket Mirziyoyev’in önderliğinde Özbekistan’ın demokratikleşmesi için daha uygun bir ortamın oluştuğu inancı yaygınlaşmıştır. Bu gelişmeler çerçevesinde, bu çalışma ulus inşası, demokratikleşme, market ekonomisine geçiş, din ve dış ilişkiler konulu beş başlıkta Özbekistan’ın devlet inşası politikalarını değerlendirmektedir. Sonuç olarak, görece istikrar ve ilerlemeye rağmen Özbekistan’ın halen başarılı bir geçiş örneği teşkil etmediği değerlendirilmektedir.
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Primary Language en
Subjects Political Science
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-9242-8770
Author: Gürhan Ünal (Primary Author)
Institution: ONDOKUZ MAYIS ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date: December 27, 2018

APA Ünal, G . (2018). STATE-BUILDING PROCESS IN UZBEKISTAN: MANY MILES TO GO. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 5 (3), 519-537. DOI: 10.30798/makuiibf.410992