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Subscapularis tendon tears: A narrative review

Yıl 2024, Cilt: 5 Sayı: 1, 1 - 6, 30.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.47482/acmr.1413317

Öz

The subscapularis muscle, which is the strongest muscle of the rotator cuff, plays important roles in shoulder biomechanics and stability. The emergence of a significant percentage of subscapular tendon tears in rotator cuff tears with advancing arthroscopic techniques has brought the importance of subscapular repair to the agenda along with different dynamics to the arthroscopic perspective. Patient training will reduce postoperative patient morbidity in addition to physical examination, imaging, and medical and surgical approaches to the treatment.

Kaynakça

  • Bakhsh W, Nicandri G. Anatomy and physical examination of the shoulder. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2018 ;26(3):e10-e22.
  • Longo UG, Berton A, Marinozzi A, Maffulli N, Denaro V. Subscapularis tears. Med Sport Sci. 2012;57:114-121.
  • Keating JF, Waterworth P, Shaw-Dunn J, Crossan J: The relative strengths of the rotator cuff muscles. A cadaver study. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1993;75:137– 140.
  • Arai R, Sugaya H, Mochizuki T, Nimura A, Moriishi J, Akita K: Subscapularis tendon tear: an anatomic and clinical investigation. Arthroscopy 2008;24:997– 1004.
  • Richards DP, Burkhart SS, Tehrany AM, Wirth MA: The subscapularis footprint: an anatomic descrip- tion of its insertion site. Arthroscopy 2007;23:251– 254.
  • Siwetz M, Hammer N, Ondruschka B, Kieser DC. Variations in subscapularis muscle innervation-a report on case series. Medicina (Kaunas). 2020;56(10):532.
  • Gerber C, Hersche O, Farron A. Isolated rupture of the subscapularis tendon. Results of operative repair. J Bone Joint Surg 1996;78:1015-23.
  • Lee J, Shukla DR, Sánchez-Sotelo J. Subscapularis tears: hidden and forgotten no more. JSES Open Access. 2018;2(1):74-83.
  • Edwards TB, Bradley Edwards T, Walch G, Nove-Josserand L, Boulahia A, Neyton L, et al. Arthroscopic debridement in the treatment of patients with isolated tears of the subscapularis. Arthroscopy 2006;22:941-6.
  • Saremi H, Seifrabiei M. Subscapularis tendon tear classification and diagnosis: A systemic review and meta-analysis. Front Surg. 2023;10:916694.
  • Ghasemi SA, McCahon JAS, Yoo JC, Toussaint B, McFarland EG, Bartolozzi AR, Raphael JS, Kelly JD. Subscapularis tear classification implications regarding treatment and outcomes: consensus decisionmaking. JSES Rev Rep Tech. 2023;3(2):201-208.
  • Lafosse L, Lanz U, Saintmard B, Campens C. Arthroscopic repair of subscapularis tear: surgical technique and results. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2010;96:S99- 108.
  • Clark RJ, Marchessault J, Sizer PS Jr, Slauterbeck J. Isolated traumatic rupture of the subscapularis tendon. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2002;15(4):304-8.
  • Gerber C, Krushell RJ. Isolated rupture of the tendon of the subscapularis muscle. Clinical features in 16 cases. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1991;73(3):389-94.
  • Balke M, Banerjee M, Greshake O, Hoeher J, Bouillon B, Liem D. The coracohumeral distance in shoulders with traumatic and degenerative subscapularis tendon tears. Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(1):198-201.
  • Lo IK, Burkhart SS. The etiology and assessment of subscapularis tendon tears: a case for subcoracoid impingement, the rollerwringer effect, and TUFF lesions of the subscapularis. Arthroscopy. 2003;19(10):1142-50.
  • Houglum PA. Rehabilitation for subacromial impingement starts at the scapula. J Orthop Trauma Rehabil. 2013;17:54-60.
  • Plachel F, Moroder P, Gehwolf R, Tempfer H, Wagner A, Auffarth A, et al, risk factors for rotator cuff disease: An experimental study on intact human subscapularis tendons. J Orthop Res. 2020;38(1):182-191.
  • Park HB, Gwark JY, Na JB. Risk factors of chronic subscapularis tendon tear. Clin Shoulder Elb. 2022;25(4):257-264.
  • Lo IK, Burkhart SS. The etiology and assessment of subscapularis tendon tears: a case for subcoracoid impingement, the rollerwringer effect, and TUFF lesions of the subscapularis. Arthroscopy. 2003;19(10):1142-50.
  • Goldberg DB, Tamate TM, Hasegawa M, Kane TJK 4th, You JS, Crawford SN. Literature review of subscapularis tear, associated injuries, and the available treatment options. Hawaii J Health Soc Welf. 2022;81(3 Suppl 1):2-7.
  • Rigsby R, Sitler M, Kelly JD. Subscapularis tendon integrity: an examination of shoulder index tests. J Athl Train. 2010;45(4):404-6.
  • Bak K. The practical management of swimmer’s painful shoulder: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Clin J Sport Med. 2010;20(5):386-90.
  • Mengi A, Akif Guler M. Nocturnal pain in patients with rotator cuff related shoulder pain: A prospective study. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2022;59:102536.
  • Seppel G, Voss A, Henderson DJH, Waldt S, Haller B, Forkel P, et al. Atrophy patterns in isolated subscapularis lesions. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2021;22(1):378.
  • Günay C. Investigation of clinical effectiveness of specific shoulder examination tests, Osmangazi Journal of Medicine, 2020;42(6):670-681
  • Wahezi SE, Duarte R, Kim C, Sehgal N, Argoff C, Michaud K, et al. An algorithmic approach to the physical exam for the pain medicine practitioner: A review of the literature with multidisciplinary consensus. Pain Med. 2022;23(9):1489-1528.
  • Barth JR, Burkhart SS, De Beer JF. The bear-hug test: a new and sensitive test for diagnosing a subscapularis tear. Arthroscopy. 2006;22(10):1076-84.
  • Lee J, Shukla DR, Sánchez-Sotelo J. Subscapularis tears: hidden and forgotten no more. JSES Open Access. 2018; 2(1):74-83.
  • Wang Q, Zhao J, Zhou S, Lv Y, Liu X, Yang H. Quantitative MRI indicators and features for partial subscapularis tendon tears on conventional shoulder MRI. Insights Imaging. 2022;13(1):168.
  • Sarıkaya B, Bahadır B, Kaya İ, Oklaz B, Bekin Sarıkaya PZ, Kanatlı U. Can subcoracoid effusion be a more specific finding for subscapularis tear among rotator cuff pathologies on magnetic resonance imaging? J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2023;32(1):17-23.
  • Bhatnagar A, Bhonsle S, Mehta S. Correlation between MRI and arthroscopy in diagnosis of shoulder pathology. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016;10(2):RC18-21.
  • Aiken AJ, Field LD. Techniques and tips for identification of comma tissue in subscapularis tears. Arthrosc Tech. 2020 ;9(7):e859-e862.
  • Rodriguez HC, Rust B, Hansen PY, Maffulli N, Gupta M, Potty AG, et al. Artificial intelligence and machine learning in rotator cuff tears. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2023;31(3):67-72.
  • Oeding JF, Pareek A, Nieboer MJ, Rhodes NG, Tiegs-Heiden CA, Camp CL, et al. A machine learning model demonstrates excellent performance in predicting subscapularis tears based on pre-operative imaging parameters alone. Arthroscopy. 2023;S0749-8063(23)00766-1.
  • Sewick A, Kelly J, Leggin B. Subscapularis tears: diagnosis and treatment. Univ Pa Orthop J. 2011;21:25-30.
  • Brusalis CM, Chan JJ, Jackson GR, Khan ZA, Kaplan DJ, Allahabadi S, et al. Advanced subscapularis repair techniques. Oper Tech Sports Med. 2023;31(1); 150981.
  • Boudreault J, Desmeules F, Roy JS, Dionne C, Frémont P, Macdermid JC. The efficacy of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Rehabil Med. 2014;46(4):294-306.
  • Gruson KI, Ruchelsman DE, Zuckerman JD. Subacromial corticosteroid injections. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2008;17(1 Suppl):118S-130S.
  • Sengodan VC, Kurian S, Ramasamy R. Treatment of partial rotator cuff tear with ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma. J Clin Imaging Sci. 2017;7:32.
  • Harrison A, Shatsky J, Parsons B, Flatow E, Outcomes of open and arthroscopic subscapularis repairs (SS-18). Arthroscopy, 27(5), 2011; e38-e39.
  • Hernigou P, Flouzat Lachaniette CH, Delambre J, Zilber S, Duffiet P, Chevallier N, et al. Biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair with mesenchymal stem cells during arthroscopy improves healing and prevents further tears: a case-controlled study. Int Orthop. 2014:1811-8.
  • Oh JH, Chung SW, Kim SH, Chung JY, Kim JY. 2013 Neer Award: Effect of the adipose-derived stem cell for the improvement of fatty degeneration and rotator cuff healing in rabbit model. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014 :445-55.
  • Burkhart SS, Tehrany AM. Arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repair: Technique and preliminary results. Arthroscopy. 2002 18(5):454-63.
  • Edwards P, Ebert J, Joss B, Bhabra G, Ackland T, Wang A. Exercise rehabilitation in the non-operative management of rotator cuff tears: A review of the literature. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2016;11(2):279-301.
  • Warner JJ, Higgins L, etal. Diagnosis and treatmen to fanterosu periorro tato rcufftears. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2001;10:37-46.
  • Adams CR, Schoolfield JD, Burkhart SS. The results of arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repairs. Arthroscopy. 2008 24(12):1381-9.
  • Barlow JD, Everhart JS. Arthroscopic subscapularis repair through a single anterior portal. Arthrosc Tech. 2017;6(5):e1593-e1598.
  • Lalehzarian SP, Agarwalla A, Liu JN. Management of proximal biceps tendon pathology. World J Orthop. 2022;13(1):36-57.
  • Vopat ML, Yang SY, Gregor CM, Kallail KJ, Saunders BM. Medial dislocation of the long head of the biceps without concomitant subscapularis tear: A case report. J Orthop Case Rep. 2020;9(6):6-10.
  • Valenti P, Maroun C, Schoch B, Arango SO, Werthel JD. Arthroscopic trillat coracoid transfer procedure using a cortical button for chronic anterior shoulder instability. Arthrosc Tech. 2019;8(2):e199-e204.
  • Ahmed AS, Lafosse T, Graf AR, Karzon AL, Gottschalk MB, Wagner ER. Modern treatment of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome: Pathoanatomy, diagnosis, and arthroscopic surgical technique. J Hand Surg Glob Online. 2023;5(4):561-576.
  • Zielinska N, Tubbs RS, Podgórski M, Konschake M, Aragonés P, Grzelecki D, et al. Relationships among coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, and pectoralis minor muscles and their correlation with bifurcated coracoid process. biomed res int. 2022;2022:8939359.
  • Burkhart S.S., Brady P.C. Arthroscopic subscapularis repair: surgical tips and pearls A to Z. Arthroscopy. 2006;22:1014–1027.
  • Pearce SS, Ruzbarsky JJ, Ernat JJ, Rakowski DR, Hanson JA, Millett PJ. Arthroscopic subcoracoid decompression, coracoplasty, and subscapularis repair for subscapularis tears in the Setting of Subcoracoid impingement. Arthrosc Tech. 2022;11(3):e333-e338.
  • Dilisio MF, Neyton L. Comma sign-directed repair of anterosuperior rotator cuff tears. Arthrosc Tech. 2014;3(6):e695-8.
  • Altintas B, Bradley H, Logan C, Delvecchio B, Anderson N, Millett PJ. Rehabilitation following subscapularis tendon repair. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2019;14(2):318-332.
  • Miranda H, Viikari-Juntura E, Martikainen R, Takala EP, Riihimäki H. A prospective study of work related factors and physical exercise as predictors of shoulder pain. Occup Environ Med. 2001a;58(8):528-34.
Yıl 2024, Cilt: 5 Sayı: 1, 1 - 6, 30.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.47482/acmr.1413317

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Bakhsh W, Nicandri G. Anatomy and physical examination of the shoulder. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2018 ;26(3):e10-e22.
  • Longo UG, Berton A, Marinozzi A, Maffulli N, Denaro V. Subscapularis tears. Med Sport Sci. 2012;57:114-121.
  • Keating JF, Waterworth P, Shaw-Dunn J, Crossan J: The relative strengths of the rotator cuff muscles. A cadaver study. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1993;75:137– 140.
  • Arai R, Sugaya H, Mochizuki T, Nimura A, Moriishi J, Akita K: Subscapularis tendon tear: an anatomic and clinical investigation. Arthroscopy 2008;24:997– 1004.
  • Richards DP, Burkhart SS, Tehrany AM, Wirth MA: The subscapularis footprint: an anatomic descrip- tion of its insertion site. Arthroscopy 2007;23:251– 254.
  • Siwetz M, Hammer N, Ondruschka B, Kieser DC. Variations in subscapularis muscle innervation-a report on case series. Medicina (Kaunas). 2020;56(10):532.
  • Gerber C, Hersche O, Farron A. Isolated rupture of the subscapularis tendon. Results of operative repair. J Bone Joint Surg 1996;78:1015-23.
  • Lee J, Shukla DR, Sánchez-Sotelo J. Subscapularis tears: hidden and forgotten no more. JSES Open Access. 2018;2(1):74-83.
  • Edwards TB, Bradley Edwards T, Walch G, Nove-Josserand L, Boulahia A, Neyton L, et al. Arthroscopic debridement in the treatment of patients with isolated tears of the subscapularis. Arthroscopy 2006;22:941-6.
  • Saremi H, Seifrabiei M. Subscapularis tendon tear classification and diagnosis: A systemic review and meta-analysis. Front Surg. 2023;10:916694.
  • Ghasemi SA, McCahon JAS, Yoo JC, Toussaint B, McFarland EG, Bartolozzi AR, Raphael JS, Kelly JD. Subscapularis tear classification implications regarding treatment and outcomes: consensus decisionmaking. JSES Rev Rep Tech. 2023;3(2):201-208.
  • Lafosse L, Lanz U, Saintmard B, Campens C. Arthroscopic repair of subscapularis tear: surgical technique and results. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2010;96:S99- 108.
  • Clark RJ, Marchessault J, Sizer PS Jr, Slauterbeck J. Isolated traumatic rupture of the subscapularis tendon. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2002;15(4):304-8.
  • Gerber C, Krushell RJ. Isolated rupture of the tendon of the subscapularis muscle. Clinical features in 16 cases. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1991;73(3):389-94.
  • Balke M, Banerjee M, Greshake O, Hoeher J, Bouillon B, Liem D. The coracohumeral distance in shoulders with traumatic and degenerative subscapularis tendon tears. Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(1):198-201.
  • Lo IK, Burkhart SS. The etiology and assessment of subscapularis tendon tears: a case for subcoracoid impingement, the rollerwringer effect, and TUFF lesions of the subscapularis. Arthroscopy. 2003;19(10):1142-50.
  • Houglum PA. Rehabilitation for subacromial impingement starts at the scapula. J Orthop Trauma Rehabil. 2013;17:54-60.
  • Plachel F, Moroder P, Gehwolf R, Tempfer H, Wagner A, Auffarth A, et al, risk factors for rotator cuff disease: An experimental study on intact human subscapularis tendons. J Orthop Res. 2020;38(1):182-191.
  • Park HB, Gwark JY, Na JB. Risk factors of chronic subscapularis tendon tear. Clin Shoulder Elb. 2022;25(4):257-264.
  • Lo IK, Burkhart SS. The etiology and assessment of subscapularis tendon tears: a case for subcoracoid impingement, the rollerwringer effect, and TUFF lesions of the subscapularis. Arthroscopy. 2003;19(10):1142-50.
  • Goldberg DB, Tamate TM, Hasegawa M, Kane TJK 4th, You JS, Crawford SN. Literature review of subscapularis tear, associated injuries, and the available treatment options. Hawaii J Health Soc Welf. 2022;81(3 Suppl 1):2-7.
  • Rigsby R, Sitler M, Kelly JD. Subscapularis tendon integrity: an examination of shoulder index tests. J Athl Train. 2010;45(4):404-6.
  • Bak K. The practical management of swimmer’s painful shoulder: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Clin J Sport Med. 2010;20(5):386-90.
  • Mengi A, Akif Guler M. Nocturnal pain in patients with rotator cuff related shoulder pain: A prospective study. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2022;59:102536.
  • Seppel G, Voss A, Henderson DJH, Waldt S, Haller B, Forkel P, et al. Atrophy patterns in isolated subscapularis lesions. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2021;22(1):378.
  • Günay C. Investigation of clinical effectiveness of specific shoulder examination tests, Osmangazi Journal of Medicine, 2020;42(6):670-681
  • Wahezi SE, Duarte R, Kim C, Sehgal N, Argoff C, Michaud K, et al. An algorithmic approach to the physical exam for the pain medicine practitioner: A review of the literature with multidisciplinary consensus. Pain Med. 2022;23(9):1489-1528.
  • Barth JR, Burkhart SS, De Beer JF. The bear-hug test: a new and sensitive test for diagnosing a subscapularis tear. Arthroscopy. 2006;22(10):1076-84.
  • Lee J, Shukla DR, Sánchez-Sotelo J. Subscapularis tears: hidden and forgotten no more. JSES Open Access. 2018; 2(1):74-83.
  • Wang Q, Zhao J, Zhou S, Lv Y, Liu X, Yang H. Quantitative MRI indicators and features for partial subscapularis tendon tears on conventional shoulder MRI. Insights Imaging. 2022;13(1):168.
  • Sarıkaya B, Bahadır B, Kaya İ, Oklaz B, Bekin Sarıkaya PZ, Kanatlı U. Can subcoracoid effusion be a more specific finding for subscapularis tear among rotator cuff pathologies on magnetic resonance imaging? J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2023;32(1):17-23.
  • Bhatnagar A, Bhonsle S, Mehta S. Correlation between MRI and arthroscopy in diagnosis of shoulder pathology. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016;10(2):RC18-21.
  • Aiken AJ, Field LD. Techniques and tips for identification of comma tissue in subscapularis tears. Arthrosc Tech. 2020 ;9(7):e859-e862.
  • Rodriguez HC, Rust B, Hansen PY, Maffulli N, Gupta M, Potty AG, et al. Artificial intelligence and machine learning in rotator cuff tears. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2023;31(3):67-72.
  • Oeding JF, Pareek A, Nieboer MJ, Rhodes NG, Tiegs-Heiden CA, Camp CL, et al. A machine learning model demonstrates excellent performance in predicting subscapularis tears based on pre-operative imaging parameters alone. Arthroscopy. 2023;S0749-8063(23)00766-1.
  • Sewick A, Kelly J, Leggin B. Subscapularis tears: diagnosis and treatment. Univ Pa Orthop J. 2011;21:25-30.
  • Brusalis CM, Chan JJ, Jackson GR, Khan ZA, Kaplan DJ, Allahabadi S, et al. Advanced subscapularis repair techniques. Oper Tech Sports Med. 2023;31(1); 150981.
  • Boudreault J, Desmeules F, Roy JS, Dionne C, Frémont P, Macdermid JC. The efficacy of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Rehabil Med. 2014;46(4):294-306.
  • Gruson KI, Ruchelsman DE, Zuckerman JD. Subacromial corticosteroid injections. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2008;17(1 Suppl):118S-130S.
  • Sengodan VC, Kurian S, Ramasamy R. Treatment of partial rotator cuff tear with ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma. J Clin Imaging Sci. 2017;7:32.
  • Harrison A, Shatsky J, Parsons B, Flatow E, Outcomes of open and arthroscopic subscapularis repairs (SS-18). Arthroscopy, 27(5), 2011; e38-e39.
  • Hernigou P, Flouzat Lachaniette CH, Delambre J, Zilber S, Duffiet P, Chevallier N, et al. Biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair with mesenchymal stem cells during arthroscopy improves healing and prevents further tears: a case-controlled study. Int Orthop. 2014:1811-8.
  • Oh JH, Chung SW, Kim SH, Chung JY, Kim JY. 2013 Neer Award: Effect of the adipose-derived stem cell for the improvement of fatty degeneration and rotator cuff healing in rabbit model. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014 :445-55.
  • Burkhart SS, Tehrany AM. Arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repair: Technique and preliminary results. Arthroscopy. 2002 18(5):454-63.
  • Edwards P, Ebert J, Joss B, Bhabra G, Ackland T, Wang A. Exercise rehabilitation in the non-operative management of rotator cuff tears: A review of the literature. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2016;11(2):279-301.
  • Warner JJ, Higgins L, etal. Diagnosis and treatmen to fanterosu periorro tato rcufftears. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2001;10:37-46.
  • Adams CR, Schoolfield JD, Burkhart SS. The results of arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repairs. Arthroscopy. 2008 24(12):1381-9.
  • Barlow JD, Everhart JS. Arthroscopic subscapularis repair through a single anterior portal. Arthrosc Tech. 2017;6(5):e1593-e1598.
  • Lalehzarian SP, Agarwalla A, Liu JN. Management of proximal biceps tendon pathology. World J Orthop. 2022;13(1):36-57.
  • Vopat ML, Yang SY, Gregor CM, Kallail KJ, Saunders BM. Medial dislocation of the long head of the biceps without concomitant subscapularis tear: A case report. J Orthop Case Rep. 2020;9(6):6-10.
  • Valenti P, Maroun C, Schoch B, Arango SO, Werthel JD. Arthroscopic trillat coracoid transfer procedure using a cortical button for chronic anterior shoulder instability. Arthrosc Tech. 2019;8(2):e199-e204.
  • Ahmed AS, Lafosse T, Graf AR, Karzon AL, Gottschalk MB, Wagner ER. Modern treatment of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome: Pathoanatomy, diagnosis, and arthroscopic surgical technique. J Hand Surg Glob Online. 2023;5(4):561-576.
  • Zielinska N, Tubbs RS, Podgórski M, Konschake M, Aragonés P, Grzelecki D, et al. Relationships among coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, and pectoralis minor muscles and their correlation with bifurcated coracoid process. biomed res int. 2022;2022:8939359.
  • Burkhart S.S., Brady P.C. Arthroscopic subscapularis repair: surgical tips and pearls A to Z. Arthroscopy. 2006;22:1014–1027.
  • Pearce SS, Ruzbarsky JJ, Ernat JJ, Rakowski DR, Hanson JA, Millett PJ. Arthroscopic subcoracoid decompression, coracoplasty, and subscapularis repair for subscapularis tears in the Setting of Subcoracoid impingement. Arthrosc Tech. 2022;11(3):e333-e338.
  • Dilisio MF, Neyton L. Comma sign-directed repair of anterosuperior rotator cuff tears. Arthrosc Tech. 2014;3(6):e695-8.
  • Altintas B, Bradley H, Logan C, Delvecchio B, Anderson N, Millett PJ. Rehabilitation following subscapularis tendon repair. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2019;14(2):318-332.
  • Miranda H, Viikari-Juntura E, Martikainen R, Takala EP, Riihimäki H. A prospective study of work related factors and physical exercise as predictors of shoulder pain. Occup Environ Med. 2001a;58(8):528-34.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Ortopedi
Bölüm REVIEW ARTICLE
Yazarlar

İlhan ÇELİK 0000-0003-3709-2511

Tacettin AYANOĞLU 0000-0002-3089-9913

Günbay DİRLİK 0000-0003-0738-6455

Mustafa ODLUYURT 0000-0003-1039-8430

Abdurrahman VURAL 0000-0002-7105-7624

Fatih İlker CAN 0000-0001-5880-5336

Mustafa Yasin HATİPOGLU 0000-0002-5309-8166

Semih YAŞ 0000-0001-7823-3400

Batuhan BAHADIR 0000-0002-4651-1063

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 30 Ocak 2024
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Ocak 2024
Gönderilme Tarihi 2 Ocak 2024
Kabul Tarihi 22 Ocak 2024
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2024 Cilt: 5 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA ÇELİK, İ., AYANOĞLU, T., DİRLİK, G., ODLUYURT, M., vd. (2024). Subscapularis tendon tears: A narrative review. Archives of Current Medical Research, 5(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.47482/acmr.1413317

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