Derleme
PDF Mendeley EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

TITANIUM AND THE PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM

Yıl 2015, Cilt 25, Sayı , 151 - 159, 07.10.2015
https://doi.org/10.17567/dfd.73222

Öz

Titanium has been used first in aviation industry. In later periods, biological compatibility, easy shaping, soldering and resistance to corrosion of titanium has found a wide range of applications in the medical and dental fields. In this article, a literature search was conducted related to general information about the features, dental applications of titanium and titanium in dentistry.

Titanium has been used first in aviation industry. In later periods, biological compatibility, easy shaping, soldering and resistance to corrosion of titanium has found a wide range of applications in the medical and dental fields. In this article, a literature search was conducted related to general information about the features, dental applications of titanium and titanium in dentistry

Kaynakça

  • Lautenschlager E, Monaghan P. Titanium and titanium alloys as dental materials. Int Dent J 1993;43:245-53.
  • Codel M. Analytical chemistry of titanium metals and compounds. New York, London: Interscience publishers, Inc. 1959, p.3-6.
  • Crawford PR. Titanium. The metal of the gods. NYSDJ. 1994;60:180-1.
  • Palmer JJ. Light Alloys-Metalurgy of the Light Metals. 1981;6:163-208.
  • Jaffee RI, Promisel NE. The science technology and application of titanium. 1st ed., Ozford, Pergamon Pres,1970.
  • Boyer, Howard E. and Timothy Gai. Metal Handbook. American Society for Metals. Metals park.8th ed, Ohio, gall, 1985
  • Williams DF. Titanium and titanium alloys.In: Biocompatibility of clinical implant materials, ed. By DF Williams, CRC Pres Fld, 1981, p. 9-44.
  • Leyens C. Peters M. Titanium and Titanium alloys, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2003.
  • Shastry CV, Goldberg AJ. The ınfluence of drawing parameters on the mechanical properties of two beta titanium alloys.J Dent Res 1983;62:1092-4.
  • Can G, Ersoy E, Aksu LM. Diş Hekimliğinde Maddeler Bilgisi. Özyurt matbacılık, 2014, p. 210-4.
  • Könönen M, Kivikahti J. Fusing of dental ceramics to titanium, J Dent Res. 2001;80:848-54.
  • O’Brien WJ. Dental materials and their selection, 2nd ed, ed by WJ O2Brien, Quintessence Pub Co Inc, Carol Stream , Illinois, 1997.
  • Donley TG, Gillette WB. Titanium endoosseos implant soft tissue interface.: A literature review. J Periodontol 1991;62:153-60.
  • Sundgren JE, Bodö P, Lundström I. Auger electron spectroscopic studies of the interface between human tissue and implants of titanium and stainless stell. J Colloid Interf Sci. 1986;110:9-20.
  • Stewart KI, Rudd KD, Kuebker WA. Clinical removable partial prosthodontics 2nd ed. St. Louis,Tokyo: Ishiyaku Euro america Inc. 1992, p. 351-3.
  • Brustone CJ, Goldberg AJ. Beta titanium: a neworthodontic alloy. Am J Orthod 1980;77:121- 32.
  • Hruska AR. Intraoral welding of pure tianium. Quint International. 1987; 18:683-8.
  • Ulusoy M ve Aydın K. Diş hekimliğinde Hareketli Bölümlü Protezler. Ankara Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi yayınları,Ankara, 2003.
  • Hamanaka H, Doı H, Yoneyama T, Okuno O. Dental casting of titanium and Ni-Ti alloys by a new casting machine. J Dent Res 1989;68: 1529
  • Hero H, Syverud M, Waarli M. mold filling and prosity in casting of titanium. Dent Mater 1993;9:15-8.
  • Johansson B, Bergman B. Corrosion of titanium and amalgam couples. Effect of fluoride, area size, surface preparation and fabrication procedures. Dent Mater 1995;1:41-6.
  • Craig RG. Restorative dental materials, 10th ed, Ed, Mosby year book St. Louis. 1997.
  • Phillips RW. Skinner’s Science of dental materials 9th ed, Philadephia, W.B, Saunders Co, 1997.
  • Pohler EM. Unalloyed titaniumfor implants in bone surgery, Injury Int J Care Injured 2002;31:7-13.
  • Parr GR, Gardner LK, Toth RW, Titanium: The mystery metal of implant dentistry. Dental materials aspects. J Prosthet Dent 1985;54:410-4.
  • Ezugwu EO, Wang ZM. Titanium alloys and their machinability,, journal of material processing technology 1997;68:262-74.
  • Chern JH, Moser JB, Taira M, Greener EH. Cu-Ti, Co-Ti and Ni-Ti systems: Corrosion and micrrohardness. J Oral Rehabil 1990;17:383-93.
  • Taira M, Moser JB, Greener EH. Studies oftitanium alloys for dental castings. Dent Mater 1989;5:45- 50.
  • Adachi M, Mackert JR, Parry EE. Oxide adherence and porcelain bonding to titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy. J DEnt Res 1990;69: 1230-5.
  • Akagi K, Okomoto Y, Matsuura T. Properties of test metal ceramic titanium alloys. J Prosthet Dent. 1992;68:462-7.
  • Blackman R, Barghi NC. Dimensional changes in casting titanium removable partial denture framework. J Prosthet Dent 1991;65:309-15.
  • Lloyd CD. Dental casting alloys: dental materials review: titanium. J Dent 1995 23:77-80.
  • Tooth WR, Rarr GR, Gardner LK. Soft tissue Response to endoosseos titanium oral implants J Prosthet Dent 1985;54:464-7.
  • Elegli K, Neut C, Romond C. İn-vitro effect of titanium poeder on oral bacteria. Biomaterials 1992;13:25-7.
  • Togaya T, Mashaski S, Tsutsumi S: an appliication of pure titanium to the metal porcelain systems. Dent Mater 1983;2:210-9.
  • Raunhclt G. Corrosion current and PH rise around titanium coupled to dental alloys. Scan J Dent Res 1988;96:466-72.
  • Longoni S, Sartori M, Davide R. A simplified method to reduce prosthetic misfit for a screw- retained, implant-supported complete denture using a luting technique and laser weldin, J Prosth Dent. 2004;91:595-8.
  • Rilo B, da Silva JL, Martinez-Insua A, Santana U. A titanium and visible light polymerized resin obturator, J Oral Rehabil 1997;24:338-41.
  • Ismailoğlu K, Coskunfirat OK, Tetik G, Ozgentas HE. Complication and removable rates of miniplates and screws used for maxillofacial fractures. Ann Plast Surg 2002;4883:265-8.
  • Walker MP,White RJ, Kula KS. Effect of fluride prophylactic agents on the mechanical properties of nickel-titanium-based orthodontic wires, Am j Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2005 127:662-9.
  • GotoY, Nicholls JI, Phillips KM, Junge T. Fatigue resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with three dowel-and-core systems, J Prosthet Dent 2005;93:45-50.
  • Rangel S, Cremonese R, Bryant S, Dummer P. Shapping ability of race rotary nickel-titanium instruments in stimulated root canals. J Endod 2005;31:460-3.
  • Šegovic S, Ferk S, Anic I, Jukic S, Galic N, Sistig S. Changes in dentin after insertion of self-threaading titanium-reinforced compos,te cement. J Prosthet Dent 1992;68:910-2.
  • Cortellini P, Tonetti Ms. Clinical performance of a regenerative strategy for intrabony defects: scientific evidence and clinical exxperience, J Periodontol 2005;76:341-50.
  • Stevenson GC, Connely ME. Titanium palate maxillary overdenture: a clinical report, J Prosthodont 1992;1:57-60.
  • Cohen BI, Pagnillo MK, Newman I, Musikant BL, Deutsch AS. Effects of three bonding systems on the torsionel resistance of titanium-reinforced composite cores supported by two post designs. J Prosthet Dent 1999;81:678-83.
  • Cohen BI, Condos S, Musikant BL, Deutsch AS. Retentive properties of threaded splint-shaft posts with titanium-reinforced composite cement. J Prosthet Dent 1992;68:910-2.
  • Nissan J, Dmitry Y, Assif D. The use of reinforced composite resin cement as compensation for reduced post length. J Prosthet Dent 2001;86:304
  • Walter M, Böning K, Repel PD, Freesmeyer WB. Six-year follow-up of titanium and high-gold porcelain-fused-to-metal fixed partial dentures J Oral Rehabil 1999;26:91-6.
  • Hautanıemı JA, Hero H,.on the bonding of porcelain on titanium. J Material Science 1992;3:186-91.
  • Kaus T, Pröbster L, Weber H. Clinical follow-up study of ceramic veneered titanium restorations- three-year results. Int J Prosthodont;1996;9:9-15.
  • Au AR, Lechner SK, Thomas CJ, Mori T, Chung P. Titanium for removablepartial dentures (III): 2- year clinical follow-up in an undergraduate programme. J Oral Rehabil 2000;27:978-84.
  • Mori T, Togaya T, Jean-Louis M, Yabugami M. titanium for removable dentures. I. Laborarory procedures, J Oral rehabil 1997;24:338-41.
  • May KB, Fox J, Razzoog ME, Lang BR. Silane to enhance the bond between polymethyl metacrylate and titanium. J Prosthet Dent 1995;73: 428-31.
  • Leinfelder KF, Lemons JE, Clinical restorative materials Lea&Febiger, 1988, p. 251-67. Philadephia.
  • Rekow Ed: Dental CAD-CAM Systems. What is the State of art? JADA 1991;122:43-8.
  • Brick RM, Rense AW, Gordon RB. Structure and properties of engineering material 4th ed. Mc Grawn Hill Inc., Tokyo, 1977.
  • Cernavin I, Pugatschew A, Boer N, Tyas MJ. Laser applications in dentistry: A review of the literature. Aust Dent J. 1994;39:28-32.
  • Razzoog ME, Lang BR, Russel MM, May KB. Comparison of the color stability of convantional and titanium dental porcelain. J Prosthet Dent 1994;72:453-6.
  • Hung CC, Hou GL, Tsai CC, Huang CC. Pure titanium casting into zirconia-modified magnesia- based investment molds. 2004;20:846-51.
  • Ohkubo C, Watanabe I, Ford JP, Nakajıma H, Hosoı T, Okabe T. The machinability of cast titanium and Ti6Al4V. Biomaterials 2000;21:421-8.
  • Zinelis S, Tsetsekou A, Papadopoulos T. Thermal expansion ofexperimental metal-ceramic titanium alloys. J Prosthet Dent;2003;90:332-8. analysis
  • Kimura H, Horgn C, Okazaki M, Takashi J. Oxidation effects on porcelain-titanium interface reactions and bond strengths. Dent Mater 1990;9:91-9.
  • Tesch U, Passler K, Mann E. Untersuchungen zum titan-keramik verbund, dental labor, 1993;41:71-4.
  • Peutzfeldt A, Asmussen E. Distortion of alloy by sandblasting, Am J Dent 1996;9:65-6.
  • Kern M, Thompson VP. Effect of stanblasting and silica coating procedures on puretitanium. J Dent 1994;22:300-6.
  • LimBS, Heo SM, Lee YK, Kim CW. Shearbond strength between titanium alloys and composite resin: standbalsting versus fluorid-gel treatment, J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2003;64:38- 43.
  • Papadopoulos T, Tsetsekou A, Eliades G. Effect of aluminium oxide sandblasting on cast commercially pure titanium surfaces. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent. 1999;7:15-21.
  • Uzun IH. Bayındır F. Dental uygulamalarda titanyum ve özellikleri. Atatürk Üniv Diş Hek Fak Derg 2010;20: 213-20.
  • Boretos, J., M. Eden, and Y. Fung, Contemporary Biomaterials: Material and Host Response, Clinical Applications, New Technology and Legal Aspects. J Biomecha Eng, 1985;107:87.
  • Maurer AM, Merritt K, Brown SA. Cellular uptake of titanium and vanadium from addition of salts or fretting corrosion in vitro. J Biomed Mater Res 1994;28:241-6.
  • Kudelska-Mazur D, Lewandowska-Szumiez M, Komender J. Human osteoblast in contact with various biomaterials in vitro. Ann Transplant 1999;4:98-100.
  • Schmidt C, Ignatius AA, Claes LE. Proliferation and differentiation parameters of human osteoblasts on titanium and steel surfaces. J Biomed Mater Res 2001;54:209-15.

TİTANTUM VE ÖZELLİKLERİ

Yıl 2015, Cilt 25, Sayı , 151 - 159, 07.10.2015
https://doi.org/10.17567/dfd.73222

Öz

Titanyum ilk olarak havacılık endüstrisinde kullanılmıştır. Daha sonraki dönemlerde ise biyolojik uyumluluğu, kolayca şekillendirilmesi ve lehimlenmesi, korozyona direnci ile medikal ve dental alanda geniş bir kullanım alanı bulmuştur. Bu makalede diş hekimliğinde titanyum, titanyumun özellikleri ve uygulamaları hakkında genel bilgi veren bir literatür taraması yapılmıştır.Titanyum yer kabuğunda bulunan elementlerin %0.6’ sını oluşturan elementtir. Doğada genellikle rutile (TiO2) ya da ilmenit (FeTiO3) formunda bulunan bu element, 1789 da William McGregor tarafından bulunmuştur. %98-99’ luk saf titanyum ilk olarak 1910 yılında Hunter’ ın tarafından elde edilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Lautenschlager E, Monaghan P. Titanium and titanium alloys as dental materials. Int Dent J 1993;43:245-53.
  • Codel M. Analytical chemistry of titanium metals and compounds. New York, London: Interscience publishers, Inc. 1959, p.3-6.
  • Crawford PR. Titanium. The metal of the gods. NYSDJ. 1994;60:180-1.
  • Palmer JJ. Light Alloys-Metalurgy of the Light Metals. 1981;6:163-208.
  • Jaffee RI, Promisel NE. The science technology and application of titanium. 1st ed., Ozford, Pergamon Pres,1970.
  • Boyer, Howard E. and Timothy Gai. Metal Handbook. American Society for Metals. Metals park.8th ed, Ohio, gall, 1985
  • Williams DF. Titanium and titanium alloys.In: Biocompatibility of clinical implant materials, ed. By DF Williams, CRC Pres Fld, 1981, p. 9-44.
  • Leyens C. Peters M. Titanium and Titanium alloys, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2003.
  • Shastry CV, Goldberg AJ. The ınfluence of drawing parameters on the mechanical properties of two beta titanium alloys.J Dent Res 1983;62:1092-4.
  • Can G, Ersoy E, Aksu LM. Diş Hekimliğinde Maddeler Bilgisi. Özyurt matbacılık, 2014, p. 210-4.
  • Könönen M, Kivikahti J. Fusing of dental ceramics to titanium, J Dent Res. 2001;80:848-54.
  • O’Brien WJ. Dental materials and their selection, 2nd ed, ed by WJ O2Brien, Quintessence Pub Co Inc, Carol Stream , Illinois, 1997.
  • Donley TG, Gillette WB. Titanium endoosseos implant soft tissue interface.: A literature review. J Periodontol 1991;62:153-60.
  • Sundgren JE, Bodö P, Lundström I. Auger electron spectroscopic studies of the interface between human tissue and implants of titanium and stainless stell. J Colloid Interf Sci. 1986;110:9-20.
  • Stewart KI, Rudd KD, Kuebker WA. Clinical removable partial prosthodontics 2nd ed. St. Louis,Tokyo: Ishiyaku Euro america Inc. 1992, p. 351-3.
  • Brustone CJ, Goldberg AJ. Beta titanium: a neworthodontic alloy. Am J Orthod 1980;77:121- 32.
  • Hruska AR. Intraoral welding of pure tianium. Quint International. 1987; 18:683-8.
  • Ulusoy M ve Aydın K. Diş hekimliğinde Hareketli Bölümlü Protezler. Ankara Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi yayınları,Ankara, 2003.
  • Hamanaka H, Doı H, Yoneyama T, Okuno O. Dental casting of titanium and Ni-Ti alloys by a new casting machine. J Dent Res 1989;68: 1529
  • Hero H, Syverud M, Waarli M. mold filling and prosity in casting of titanium. Dent Mater 1993;9:15-8.
  • Johansson B, Bergman B. Corrosion of titanium and amalgam couples. Effect of fluoride, area size, surface preparation and fabrication procedures. Dent Mater 1995;1:41-6.
  • Craig RG. Restorative dental materials, 10th ed, Ed, Mosby year book St. Louis. 1997.
  • Phillips RW. Skinner’s Science of dental materials 9th ed, Philadephia, W.B, Saunders Co, 1997.
  • Pohler EM. Unalloyed titaniumfor implants in bone surgery, Injury Int J Care Injured 2002;31:7-13.
  • Parr GR, Gardner LK, Toth RW, Titanium: The mystery metal of implant dentistry. Dental materials aspects. J Prosthet Dent 1985;54:410-4.
  • Ezugwu EO, Wang ZM. Titanium alloys and their machinability,, journal of material processing technology 1997;68:262-74.
  • Chern JH, Moser JB, Taira M, Greener EH. Cu-Ti, Co-Ti and Ni-Ti systems: Corrosion and micrrohardness. J Oral Rehabil 1990;17:383-93.
  • Taira M, Moser JB, Greener EH. Studies oftitanium alloys for dental castings. Dent Mater 1989;5:45- 50.
  • Adachi M, Mackert JR, Parry EE. Oxide adherence and porcelain bonding to titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy. J DEnt Res 1990;69: 1230-5.
  • Akagi K, Okomoto Y, Matsuura T. Properties of test metal ceramic titanium alloys. J Prosthet Dent. 1992;68:462-7.
  • Blackman R, Barghi NC. Dimensional changes in casting titanium removable partial denture framework. J Prosthet Dent 1991;65:309-15.
  • Lloyd CD. Dental casting alloys: dental materials review: titanium. J Dent 1995 23:77-80.
  • Tooth WR, Rarr GR, Gardner LK. Soft tissue Response to endoosseos titanium oral implants J Prosthet Dent 1985;54:464-7.
  • Elegli K, Neut C, Romond C. İn-vitro effect of titanium poeder on oral bacteria. Biomaterials 1992;13:25-7.
  • Togaya T, Mashaski S, Tsutsumi S: an appliication of pure titanium to the metal porcelain systems. Dent Mater 1983;2:210-9.
  • Raunhclt G. Corrosion current and PH rise around titanium coupled to dental alloys. Scan J Dent Res 1988;96:466-72.
  • Longoni S, Sartori M, Davide R. A simplified method to reduce prosthetic misfit for a screw- retained, implant-supported complete denture using a luting technique and laser weldin, J Prosth Dent. 2004;91:595-8.
  • Rilo B, da Silva JL, Martinez-Insua A, Santana U. A titanium and visible light polymerized resin obturator, J Oral Rehabil 1997;24:338-41.
  • Ismailoğlu K, Coskunfirat OK, Tetik G, Ozgentas HE. Complication and removable rates of miniplates and screws used for maxillofacial fractures. Ann Plast Surg 2002;4883:265-8.
  • Walker MP,White RJ, Kula KS. Effect of fluride prophylactic agents on the mechanical properties of nickel-titanium-based orthodontic wires, Am j Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2005 127:662-9.
  • GotoY, Nicholls JI, Phillips KM, Junge T. Fatigue resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with three dowel-and-core systems, J Prosthet Dent 2005;93:45-50.
  • Rangel S, Cremonese R, Bryant S, Dummer P. Shapping ability of race rotary nickel-titanium instruments in stimulated root canals. J Endod 2005;31:460-3.
  • Šegovic S, Ferk S, Anic I, Jukic S, Galic N, Sistig S. Changes in dentin after insertion of self-threaading titanium-reinforced compos,te cement. J Prosthet Dent 1992;68:910-2.
  • Cortellini P, Tonetti Ms. Clinical performance of a regenerative strategy for intrabony defects: scientific evidence and clinical exxperience, J Periodontol 2005;76:341-50.
  • Stevenson GC, Connely ME. Titanium palate maxillary overdenture: a clinical report, J Prosthodont 1992;1:57-60.
  • Cohen BI, Pagnillo MK, Newman I, Musikant BL, Deutsch AS. Effects of three bonding systems on the torsionel resistance of titanium-reinforced composite cores supported by two post designs. J Prosthet Dent 1999;81:678-83.
  • Cohen BI, Condos S, Musikant BL, Deutsch AS. Retentive properties of threaded splint-shaft posts with titanium-reinforced composite cement. J Prosthet Dent 1992;68:910-2.
  • Nissan J, Dmitry Y, Assif D. The use of reinforced composite resin cement as compensation for reduced post length. J Prosthet Dent 2001;86:304
  • Walter M, Böning K, Repel PD, Freesmeyer WB. Six-year follow-up of titanium and high-gold porcelain-fused-to-metal fixed partial dentures J Oral Rehabil 1999;26:91-6.
  • Hautanıemı JA, Hero H,.on the bonding of porcelain on titanium. J Material Science 1992;3:186-91.
  • Kaus T, Pröbster L, Weber H. Clinical follow-up study of ceramic veneered titanium restorations- three-year results. Int J Prosthodont;1996;9:9-15.
  • Au AR, Lechner SK, Thomas CJ, Mori T, Chung P. Titanium for removablepartial dentures (III): 2- year clinical follow-up in an undergraduate programme. J Oral Rehabil 2000;27:978-84.
  • Mori T, Togaya T, Jean-Louis M, Yabugami M. titanium for removable dentures. I. Laborarory procedures, J Oral rehabil 1997;24:338-41.
  • May KB, Fox J, Razzoog ME, Lang BR. Silane to enhance the bond between polymethyl metacrylate and titanium. J Prosthet Dent 1995;73: 428-31.
  • Leinfelder KF, Lemons JE, Clinical restorative materials Lea&Febiger, 1988, p. 251-67. Philadephia.
  • Rekow Ed: Dental CAD-CAM Systems. What is the State of art? JADA 1991;122:43-8.
  • Brick RM, Rense AW, Gordon RB. Structure and properties of engineering material 4th ed. Mc Grawn Hill Inc., Tokyo, 1977.
  • Cernavin I, Pugatschew A, Boer N, Tyas MJ. Laser applications in dentistry: A review of the literature. Aust Dent J. 1994;39:28-32.
  • Razzoog ME, Lang BR, Russel MM, May KB. Comparison of the color stability of convantional and titanium dental porcelain. J Prosthet Dent 1994;72:453-6.
  • Hung CC, Hou GL, Tsai CC, Huang CC. Pure titanium casting into zirconia-modified magnesia- based investment molds. 2004;20:846-51.
  • Ohkubo C, Watanabe I, Ford JP, Nakajıma H, Hosoı T, Okabe T. The machinability of cast titanium and Ti6Al4V. Biomaterials 2000;21:421-8.
  • Zinelis S, Tsetsekou A, Papadopoulos T. Thermal expansion ofexperimental metal-ceramic titanium alloys. J Prosthet Dent;2003;90:332-8. analysis
  • Kimura H, Horgn C, Okazaki M, Takashi J. Oxidation effects on porcelain-titanium interface reactions and bond strengths. Dent Mater 1990;9:91-9.
  • Tesch U, Passler K, Mann E. Untersuchungen zum titan-keramik verbund, dental labor, 1993;41:71-4.
  • Peutzfeldt A, Asmussen E. Distortion of alloy by sandblasting, Am J Dent 1996;9:65-6.
  • Kern M, Thompson VP. Effect of stanblasting and silica coating procedures on puretitanium. J Dent 1994;22:300-6.
  • LimBS, Heo SM, Lee YK, Kim CW. Shearbond strength between titanium alloys and composite resin: standbalsting versus fluorid-gel treatment, J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2003;64:38- 43.
  • Papadopoulos T, Tsetsekou A, Eliades G. Effect of aluminium oxide sandblasting on cast commercially pure titanium surfaces. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent. 1999;7:15-21.
  • Uzun IH. Bayındır F. Dental uygulamalarda titanyum ve özellikleri. Atatürk Üniv Diş Hek Fak Derg 2010;20: 213-20.
  • Boretos, J., M. Eden, and Y. Fung, Contemporary Biomaterials: Material and Host Response, Clinical Applications, New Technology and Legal Aspects. J Biomecha Eng, 1985;107:87.
  • Maurer AM, Merritt K, Brown SA. Cellular uptake of titanium and vanadium from addition of salts or fretting corrosion in vitro. J Biomed Mater Res 1994;28:241-6.
  • Kudelska-Mazur D, Lewandowska-Szumiez M, Komender J. Human osteoblast in contact with various biomaterials in vitro. Ann Transplant 1999;4:98-100.
  • Schmidt C, Ignatius AA, Claes LE. Proliferation and differentiation parameters of human osteoblasts on titanium and steel surfaces. J Biomed Mater Res 2001;54:209-15.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Diş Hekimliği
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Perihan OYAR

Yayımlanma Tarihi 7 Ekim 2015
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2015, Cilt 25, Sayı

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { ataunidfd32658, journal = {Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1300-9044}, eissn = {2667-5161}, address = {}, publisher = {Atatürk Üniversitesi}, year = {2015}, volume = {25}, pages = {151 - 159}, doi = {10.17567/dfd.73222}, title = {TİTANTUM VE ÖZELLİKLERİ}, key = {cite}, author = {Oyar, Perihan} }
APA Oyar, P. (2015). TİTANTUM VE ÖZELLİKLERİ . Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi , Supplement 11 , 151-159 . DOI: 10.17567/dfd.73222
MLA Oyar, P. "TİTANTUM VE ÖZELLİKLERİ" . Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi 25 (2015 ): 151-159 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ataunidfd/issue/2531/32658>
Chicago Oyar, P. "TİTANTUM VE ÖZELLİKLERİ". Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi 25 (2015 ): 151-159
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - TİTANTUM VE ÖZELLİKLERİ AU - Perihan Oyar Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - doi: 10.17567/dfd.73222 DO - 10.17567/dfd.73222 T2 - Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 151 EP - 159 VL - 25 IS - SN - 1300-9044-2667-5161 M3 - doi: 10.17567/dfd.73222 UR - https://doi.org/10.17567/dfd.73222 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi TİTANTUM VE ÖZELLİKLERİ %A Perihan Oyar %T TİTANTUM VE ÖZELLİKLERİ %D 2015 %J Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1300-9044-2667-5161 %V 25 %N %R doi: 10.17567/dfd.73222 %U 10.17567/dfd.73222
ISNAD Oyar, Perihan . "TİTANTUM VE ÖZELLİKLERİ". Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi 25 / (Ekim 2015): 151-159 . https://doi.org/10.17567/dfd.73222
AMA Oyar P. TİTANTUM VE ÖZELLİKLERİ. Ata Diş Hek Fak Derg. 2015; 25: 151-159.
Vancouver Oyar P. TİTANTUM VE ÖZELLİKLERİ. Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi. 2015; 25: 151-159.
IEEE P. Oyar , "TİTANTUM VE ÖZELLİKLERİ", Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 25, ss. 151-159, Eki. 2015, doi:10.17567/dfd.73222

Bu eser Creative Commons Alıntı-GayriTicari-Türetilemez 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır. Tıklayınız.