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Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Aquatic Life

Yıl 2011, Cilt 3, Sayı 1, 73 - 88, 01.05.2011
https://doi.org/10.1501/Csaum_0000000046

Öz

In water, PCBs are adsorbed on sediments and other organic matter; experimental and monitoring data have shown that PCB concentrations in sediment and suspended matter are higher than those in associated water columns. Strong adsorption on sediment, especially in the case of the higher chlorinated PCBs, decreases the rate of volatilization. Although adsorption can immobilize PCBs for relatively long periods in the aquatic environment, desorption into the water column has been shown to occur by both abiotic and biotic routes. The substantial quantities of PCBs in aquatic sediments can therefore act as both an environmental sink and a reservoir of PCBs for organisms. Most of the environmental load of PCBs has been estimated to be in the aquatic sediment. Experimentally determined bioconcentration factors of various PCBs in aquatic species ranging from 200 up to 70000 or more. In the open ocean, there is bioaccumulation of PCBs in higher trophic levels with an increased proportion of higher chlorinated biphenyls in higher ranking predators

Kaynakça

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Poliklorlu Bifeniller ve Sucul Yaşam

Yıl 2011, Cilt 3, Sayı 1, 73 - 88, 01.05.2011
https://doi.org/10.1501/Csaum_0000000046

Öz

Suda PCB’ler sediment ve diğer organik maddeler üzerine adsorbe olurlar. Deneysel çalışmalar ve izleme çalışmaları PCB konsantrasyonlarının sediment tabakasında ve askıdaki katı maddede, su kolonuna göre daha yüksek olduğunu göstermiştir. Özellikle yüksek seviyede klor ihtiva eden poliklorlu bifenillerin sediment tabakasına adsorbsiyonu volatilizasyon oranını düşürür. PCB’lerin adsorbsiyonu sucul çevrede bu maddelerin uzun yıllar boyunca kalmasına sebebiyet verse de su kolonuna karışmaları abiotik ve biotik yollarla olmaktadır. Sucul sedimentteki poliklorlu bifenil miktarları çevresel çökelme sonucu oluştuğu gibi, aynı zamanda çevrede poliklorlu bifenil döngüsü için rezervuar görevi yapar. Poliklorlu bifenillerin birçoğu çevrede sucul sedimentte bulunurlar. Genel olarak yüksek derecede klorlanmış bileşikler daha fazla akümüle olurlar. Birçok poliklorlu bifenilin biyokonsantrasyon faktörleri balık, karides, midye gibi sucul türlerde deneysel olarak tespit edilmiş ve 200’den 70000 veya daha yüksek değerlere kadar değiştiği tespit edilmiştir. Açık denizde yüksek trofik seviyelerde poliklorlu bifeniller biyoakümüle olurlar ve bu birikim yüksek predatörlerde özellikle yüksek oranda klorlanmış bifenillerin artan oranı olarak görülür

Kaynakça

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  • Anonymous 1992. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Terphenyls (PCTs) Health and Safety Guide No: 68. IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety. 52 p. World Health Organization, GENEVA.
  • Anonymous 1993. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Terphenyls (Second Edition). Environmental Health Criteria 140. IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety. 683 p. World Health Organization, GENEVA.
  • Anonymous 1999. Codex Alimentarius Comission. Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations. World Health Organization. CX/FAC 00/26. Agenda Item 17 (d). Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants. 12 p.
  • Anonymous 2001. Commission of the European Communities. Brussels. 593 final. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee. Community Strategy for dioxins, furans and PCBs. 31 p.
  • Anonymous 2004. European Commission, Brussels. Dioxins and PCBs: Environmental levels and human exposure in candidate countries. Reference: ENV.C.2./SER/2002/0085. Final report. ELICC. Consortium: Environmental levels in candidate countries under supervision of Gunther Umlauf (JRC). BIPRO (Beratungsgesellschaft für integrierte problemlösungen). 333p.
  • Bakan, G. ve Ariman, S. 2004. Persistent organochlorine residues in sediments along the coast of mid-Black Sea region of Turkey. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48; 1031-1039.
  • Baxter, R. A., Gilbert, P. E., Lidgett, R. A., Mainprize, J. H. ve Vodden, H. A. 1975. The degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by micoorganisms. Sci. Total Environment, 4; 53-61.
  • Bayarri, S., Baldassarri, L. T., Iacovella, N., Ferrara, F. ve Di Domenico, A. 2001. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDE in edible marine species from the Adriatic Sea. Chemosphere, 43; 601-610.
  • Beurskens, J. E. M. ve Stortelder, P. B. M. 1995. Microbial transformation of PCB’s in sediments: What can we learn to solve practical problems?. Water Science Technology, 31 (8); 99-107.
  • Bhavsar, S. P., Jackson, D. A., Hayton, A., Reiner, E. J., Chen, T. ve Bodnar, J. 2007. Are PCB levels in fish from the Canadian Great Lakes Still Declining? Journal of Great Lakes Research, 33 (3); 592-605.
  • Bidleman, T. F. ve Olney, C. E. 1974. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Sargasso Sea atmosphere and surface water. Science, 183; 516-518.
  • Bilcke, C.V. 2002. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. RECIEL, 11 (3); 328-342.
  • Bletchly, J. D. 1985. Report to the commission of the European communities on a study of measures to avoid deispersion into the environment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinted terphenyls (PCTs) from existing installations, Luxembourg, Commission of the European communities. 22-33 pp.
  • Bodiguel, X., Maury, O., Mellon-Duval, C., Roupsard, F., Le Guellec, A. M. ve Loizeau, V. A dynamic and mechanistic model PCB bioaccumulation in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius). 2009. Journal of Sea Research, 62 (2- 3); 124-134.
  • Brown, Jr., J. F., Bedard, D. L., Brennan, M. J., Carnahan, J. C., Feng, H. ve Wagner, R. E. 1987. Polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination in aquatic sediments. Science, 236; 709-712.
  • Chiu, A., Chiu, N., Beaubier, N. T., Beaubier, J., Nalesnik, R., Singh, D., Hill, W. R., Lau, C. ve Riebow, J. 2000. Effects and mechanisms of PCB ecotoxicity in food chains: algae, fish, seal, polar bear. Environmental Carcinogenesis and Ecotoxicology Reviews, C18 (2); 127-152.
  • Covaci, A., Gheorghe, A., Hulea, O. ve Schepens, P. 2006. Levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments and biota from the Danube Delta, Romania. Environmental Pollution, 140 (1); 136-149.
  • Dercová, K., Čičmanová, J., Lovecká, P., Demnerová, K., Macková, M., Hucko, P. ve Kušnír, P. Isolation and identification of PCB-degrading microorganisms from contaminated sediments. 2008. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 62 (3); 219-225.
  • Eljarrat, E., De La Cal, A., Larrazabal, D., Fabrellas, B., Fernandez-Alba, A. R., Borrull, F., Marce, R. M., ve Barcelo, D. 2005. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls in coastal sediments from Spain. Environmental Pollution, 136; 493-501.
  • Encomio, V. ve Chu, F-L. E. 2000. The effect of PCBs on glycogen reserves in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Marine Environmental Research, 50; 45-49 p.
  • Erdogrul, Ö., Covaci, A. ve Schepens, P. 2005. Levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish species from Kahramanmaras, Turkey. Environment International, 31 (5); 703-711.
  • Falandysz, J., Wyrzykowska, B., Puzyn, T., Strandberg, L. ve Rappe, C. 2002. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their congener specific accumulation in edible fish from the Gulf of Gdansk, Baltic Sea. Food Additives and Contaminants, 19 (8); 779-795.
  • Fernandes, A., White, S., D’Silva, K. ve Rose, M. 2004. Simultaneous determination of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and PBDEs in food. Talanta, 63; 1147-1155 p.
  • Fernandez, M. A., Lopez, J., Blasco, J., Rodriguez, A. ve Jimenez, B. 2002. Levels of PCBs and DDTs in sediments from the Guadalete Estuary (South Spain). Organohalogen Compounds, 57; 365-368.
  • Fillmann, G., Readman, J. W., Tolosa, I., Bartocci, J., Villeneuve, J. P., Cattini, C. ve Mee, L. D. 2002. Persistent organochlorine residues in sediments from the Black Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44; 122-133.
  • Fisher, J. B., Petty, R. L. ve Luck, W. 1983. Release of polychlorinated biphenyls from contaminated lake sediments: flux and apparent diffusivities of four individual PCBs. Environmental Pollution, B5; 121-132.
  • Fu, C. T. ve Wu, S. C. 2006. Seasonal variation of the distribution of PCBs in sediments and biota in a PCB contaminated estuary. Chemosphere, 62 (11); 1786-1794.
  • Fung, C. N., Zheng, G. J., Connell, D. W., Zhang, X., Wong, H. L., Giesy, J. P., Fang, Z. ve Lam, P. K. S. 2005. Risks posed by trace organic contaminants in coastal sediments in the Pearl River Delta, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50 (10); 1036-1049.
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Ayrıntılar

Diğer ID JA87SB96CZ
Bölüm Makale
Yazarlar

Gül Çelik ÇAKIROĞULLARI Bu kişi benim
T.C.Tarım ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı, Ankara İl Kontrol Laboratuar Müdürlüğü, Ankara


Selçuk SEÇER Bu kişi benim
T.C.Tarım ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı, Ankara İl Kontrol Laboratuar Müdürlüğü, Ankara

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Mayıs 2011
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2011, Cilt 3, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @ { aucevrebilim477254, journal = {Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi}, eissn = {2146-1562}, address = {csaum@ankara.edu.tr}, publisher = {Ankara Üniversitesi}, year = {2011}, volume = {3}, number = {1}, pages = {73 - 88}, doi = {10.1501/Csaum\_0000000046}, title = {Poliklorlu Bifeniller ve Sucul Yaşam}, key = {cite}, author = {Çakıroğulları, Gül Çelik and Seçer, Selçuk} }
APA Çakıroğulları, G. Ç. & Seçer, S. (2011). Poliklorlu Bifeniller ve Sucul Yaşam . Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi , 3 (1) , 73-88 . DOI: 10.1501/Csaum_0000000046
MLA Çakıroğulları, G. Ç. , Seçer, S. "Poliklorlu Bifeniller ve Sucul Yaşam" . Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi 3 (2011 ): 73-88 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/aucevrebilim/issue/40117/477254>
Chicago Çakıroğulları, G. Ç. , Seçer, S. "Poliklorlu Bifeniller ve Sucul Yaşam". Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi 3 (2011 ): 73-88
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Poliklorlu Bifeniller ve Sucul Yaşam AU - Gül ÇelikÇakıroğulları, SelçukSeçer Y1 - 2011 PY - 2011 N1 - doi: 10.1501/Csaum_0000000046 DO - 10.1501/Csaum_0000000046 T2 - Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 73 EP - 88 VL - 3 IS - 1 SN - -2146-1562 M3 - doi: 10.1501/Csaum_0000000046 UR - https://doi.org/10.1501/Csaum_0000000046 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi Poliklorlu Bifeniller ve Sucul Yaşam %A Gül Çelik Çakıroğulları , Selçuk Seçer %T Poliklorlu Bifeniller ve Sucul Yaşam %D 2011 %J Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi %P -2146-1562 %V 3 %N 1 %R doi: 10.1501/Csaum_0000000046 %U 10.1501/Csaum_0000000046
ISNAD Çakıroğulları, Gül Çelik , Seçer, Selçuk . "Poliklorlu Bifeniller ve Sucul Yaşam". Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi 3 / 1 (Mayıs 2011): 73-88 . https://doi.org/10.1501/Csaum_0000000046
AMA Çakıroğulları G. Ç. , Seçer S. Poliklorlu Bifeniller ve Sucul Yaşam. Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi. 2011; 3(1): 73-88.
Vancouver Çakıroğulları G. Ç. , Seçer S. Poliklorlu Bifeniller ve Sucul Yaşam. Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi. 2011; 3(1): 73-88.
IEEE G. Ç. Çakıroğulları ve S. Seçer , "Poliklorlu Bifeniller ve Sucul Yaşam", Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi, c. 3, sayı. 1, ss. 73-88, May. 2011, doi:10.1501/Csaum_0000000046