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The Welfare of Poultry at Slaughter and Killing from The Perspective of Turkey's Accession to the European Union

Yıl 2018, Cilt 7, Sayı 2, 15 - 29, 14.12.2018

Öz

After the entry into force the first legislation on the protection of animals during killing in the

European Union in 1974, the Lisbon Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union introduced the

recognition that animals are sentient beings. All member states have implemented the Council Regulation

(EC) No 1099/2009 from 1 January 2013 which takes an integrated approach to all slaughtering processes

from the time animals arrived to slaughterhouses. Turkey which accession negotiations are conducting to the

European Union also have to transfer the Council Regulation to national legislation. In this review, the

poultry welfare standards defined by Regulation (EC) No 1099/2009 on unloading, lairage, restraint,

shackling, stunning and bleeding were explained in detail. The European Union Guideline and other related

national guidelines prepared to increase compliance with the provisions of the Regulation have been

considered. In addition, Turkey's legislative alignment to the European Union' standards related to poultry

welfare at the time of killing was assessed and within the same scope the national regulations governing the

production of poultry meat have been examined and the provisions in line with European Union standards

have been summarized.

Kaynakça

  • Anonim, (1996). Kanatlı hayvan eti ve et ürünleri üretim tesislerinin kuruluş, açılış, çalışma ve denetleme usul ve esaslarına dair yönetmelik. Resmi Gazete, 23.06.1996 tarih, Sayı:22675.
  • Anonim, (2005). Kanatlı hayvan eti ve et üretim tesislerinin çalışma ve denetleme usul ve esaslarına dair yönetmelik. Resmi Gazete, 8 Ocak 2005 tarih, Sayı: 25694.
  • Anonim, (2006). Türk Gıda Kodeksi çiğ kanatlı eti ve hazırlanmış kanatlı eti karışımları tebliği. Resmi Gazete, 7 Temmuz 2006 tarih, Sayı:26221.
  • Anonim, (2008). Kanatlı hayvan eti ve et ürünleri üretim tesislerinin çalışma ve denetleme usul ve esaslarına dair yönetmelikte değişiklik yapılması hakkında yönetmelik. Resmi Gazete, 31 Ekim 2008 tarih, Sayı: 27040.
  • Anonim, (2010). Eurogroup for Animals, Areas of Concern. Analysis of Animal Welfare ssues in The European Union. Eurogrup For Animals. (http://www.animalwelfareintergroup.eu/wpcontent/ uploads/2011/10/EurogroupForAnimals.Areasofconcern2010.pdf, Erişim:23.02.2018).
  • Anonim, (2011). Guidance for on-farm poultry slaughter. Food Safety Authority of Ireland. ISBN: 1-904465- 86-2 (https://www.fsai.ie/guidanceforonfarmpoultryslaughter.html, Erişim: 27.03.2018).
  • Anonim, (2012). Kesim Yönetmeliği. Et ve balık Kurumu Genel Müdürlüğü. No:37, Sayfa No 1/20.
  • Anonim, (2015). Food Standards Agency results of the 2013 animal welfare survey in Great Britain. Food Standarts Agency. (www.food.gov.uk, Erişim:29.02.2018).
  • Anonim, (2018). Poultry Stunning: A review of current and experimental techniques. a literature based assessment of welfare issues and other factors.(https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0aab/ fad1c2f32431edf88f6f8fdc90dcac6b23f1.pdf, Erişim: 01.02.3017).
  • Anonim, (2018b). Şoklama Nedir? Şoklama Kazanı Bilgisi? Hayvanların Sersemletilmesi (http://www.gimdes.org/gimdes-sertifikali-urunlerde-en-cok-merak-edilen-konu-bir-tavuk-firmasinindenetiminden. html, Erişim:04.03.2018)
  • Battula, V., Schilling, M. W., Vizzler-Thaxton, Y., Behrends, J. M., Williams, J. B., Schmidt, T. B. (2008). The effects of low atmosphere stunning and deboning time on broiler meat breast meat quality. Poultry Science, 87:1202−1210.
  • Bedanova, E., Voslarova, P., Chloupek, V., Pistekova, P., Suchy, J., Blahova, R., Dobsikova, V., Vecerek M. (2007). Stress in broilers resulting from shackling. Poultry Science, 86(6):1065–1069.
  • Berg, C., Raj, M. (2015). A review of different stunning methods for poultry—Animal welfare aspects (stunning methods for poultry). Animals, 5:1207-1219.
  • Bozkurt, Z. (2018). Nakil sırasında tavukların korunmasına ilişkin Avrupa Birliği Standartları ve Türkiye'nin topluluk mevzuatına uyumunun değerlendirilmesi. Bahri Dağtaş Hayvancılık Araştırma Dergisi, 7(1): 49- 63.
  • Broom D, M. (2017). Animal welfare in the European Union. Directorate General for Internal Policcies. Policy Department C: citizens' rights and constitutional affairs petitions. Brussels: European Parliament Policy Department, Citizen’s Rights and Constitutional Affairs, Study for the PETI Committee, pp 75. (http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/583114/IPOL_STU(2017)583114_EN.pdf. Erişim: 18.02.2018).
  • Compassion in World Farming, (2018). Humane alaughter: Broiler chickens (https://www.compassioninfoodbusiness.com/media/7427577/humane-slaughter-broiler-chickens.pdf).
  • Council Directive, (1974). Council Directive 0f 18 November 1974 on stunning of animal before slaughter (74/577/EEC). Official Journal of European Commission, No L 316/10, 26.11.1974, p:52.
  • Council Regulation, (1993). Council Directive 93/119/EC of 22 December 1993 on the protection of animals at the time of slaughter or killing. Official Journal L340, 31.12.1993, p: 0021-0034.
  • Council Regulation, (2005). Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 of 22 December 2004 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations. Official Journal L 3, 5.1.2005, p: 001-0044.
  • Council Regulation, (2009). Council Regulation (EC) No. 1099/2009 of 24 September 2009 on the Protection of Animals at the Time of Killing. Official Journal of the European Union, L 303/1.
  • DEFRA, (2007). The welfare of poultry at slaughter or killing. (https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/48565 9/pb13539-welfare-poultry-slaughter.pdf. Erişim:13.02.2018).
  • EFSA, (2004). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the main systems of stunning and killing the main commercial species of animals. EFSA J. 2004, 45, 1–29.
  • EFSA, (2013). Guidance on the assessment criteria for studies evaluating the effectiveness of stunning interventions regarding animal protection at the time of killing. EFSA Journal 2013;11(12):3486.
  • EFSA, (2013a) . Scientific Opinion on monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for poultry. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW). EFSA Journal 2013;11(12):3521.
  • EFSA, (2014). Scientific opinion on electrical requirements for poultry waterbath stunning equipment. EFSA Journal. 2014;12(1): 3745.
  • EFSA, (2014a). Scientific opinion on the use of low atmosphere pressure system (LAPS) for stunning poultry. EFSA Journal 12(1):3488.
  • European Commission, (2012). Study on various methods of stunning for poultry. framework contract for evaluation and evaluation related services—Lot 3: Food Chain; Final Report; European Commission: Brussel, Belgium, 2012; p. 123.
  • European Commission, (2013). Report from the commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the various stunning methods for poultry. Brussels, COM, 915.
  • European Commission, (2017). Preparation of best practices on the protection of animals at the time of killing. (https://www.slu.se/globalassets/ew/org/centrb/scaw/kontaktpunkt-slakt/eu-com-best-practicesslaughter- icf-report-2017.pdf, Erişim:19.01.2018).
  • Gerritzen, M. A., Reimert, H. G., Hindle, V. A., Verhoeven, M. T., Veerkamp, W. B. (2013). Multistage carbon dioxide gas stunning of broilers. Poultry Science, 92(1):41–50.
  • Gibson, T. J., Taylor, A. H., Gregory, N. G. (2016). Assessment of the effectiveness of head only and backof- the-head electrical stunning of chickens. Br Poult Sci.57(3): 295–305.
  • Grandin, T. (2010). Auditing animal welfare at slaughter plants. Meat Science 86: 56–65.
  • Hindle, V. A., Lambooij, E., Reimert, H. G. M., Workel, L. D., Gerritzen, M. A. (2010). Animal welfare concerns during the use of the waterbath for stunning broilers, hens, and ducks. Poultry Science 89(3): 401-412.
  • Humane Slaughter Association, (2013). Captive-Bolt stunning of livestock.
  • (https://www.hsa.org.uk/mechanical-methods-poultry/non-penetrative-captive-bolt.Erişim: 11.03.2018). İzmirli, S., Yaşar, A. (2010). A survey on animal welfare attitudes of veterinary surgeries, veterinary students, animal owners and society in Turkey. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg. 16 (6): 981-985.
  • Kannen, G., Heath, J. L., Wabeck, C. J., Mench, J. A. (1997). Shackling broilers effects on stress response and breast meat quality. British Poultry Science, 38: 323−332.
  • Lambooij, E, Pieterse, C, Hillebrand, S. J., Dijksterhuis, W. (1999). The effects of captive bolt and electrical stunning and restraining methods on broiler meat quality. Poultry Science 78, 600-607.
  • Lambooij, E., Reimert, H. G. M., Verhoeven, M. T. V., Hindle, V. A. (2014). Cone restraining and head-only electrical stunning in broilers: Effects on physiological responses and meat quality. Poultry Science, 93:512–518.
  • McKeegan, D. E. F., Sandercock, D. A., Gerritzen, M. A. (2013). Physiological responses to low atmospheric pressure stunning and the implications for welfare. Poult. Sci., 92: 858–868.
  • OIE, (2017). Terrestrial Animal Health Code. Chapter 7.5.- Slaughter of animals.
  • Özen, A. (2017). A historical overview of Turkey’s animal welfare legislation. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg, 23 (6): 1019-1026.
  • Raj, A. B., O’Callaghan, M. (2001). Evaluation of a pneumatically operated captive bolt for stunning/killing broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 42(3):295–299.
  • Raj, M. (2017). Welfare of poultry at slaughter. regional approach of the implementation and enforcement of Regulation 1099/2009 workshop organised by Regional Animal Welfare Centre (RAWC) for Balkan region, University of Bristol.(http://rawc.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/8.-Welfare-of-poultry-atslaughter- Mohan-Raj.pdf,Erişim: 12.10.2017).
  • Sparrey, J. M., Wotton, S. B. (1997). The design of pig stunning tong electrodes - a review.Meat Science. 1997;47:125–133.
  • Vieira, F. M. C., Silvia, I. J. O., Barbosa-Filho, J. A. D., Viera, A. M. C., Broom, D. M. (2011). Preslaughter mortality of broilers in relation to lairage and season in a subtropical climate. Poultry Science,90:2127- 2133.
  • Webster, A. B., Fletcher, D. L. (2004). Assessment of the aversion of hens to different gas atmospheres using an approach-avoidance test. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci, 88:275–287.

Türkiye’nin Avrupa Birliği’ne Katılımı Perspektifinden İtlaf ve Kesimde Kanatlı Refahı

Yıl 2018, Cilt 7, Sayı 2, 15 - 29, 14.12.2018

Öz

Avrupa Birliği'nde hayvanların öldürülmesi sırasında korunmasına ilişkin ilk mevzuat 1974'de

yürürlüğe girdikten sonra Avrupa Birliği'nin işleyişine ilişkin Lizbon Antlaşması da hayvanları hissedebilen

varlıklar olarak kabul etmiştir. Üye ülkeler hayvanların kesimhaneye getirildikleri andan itibaren tüm kesim

sürecini bütüncül bir yaklaşımla ele alan (EC) No 1099/2009 sayılı Konsey Tüzüğünü 1 Ocak 2013

tarihinden itibaren yürürlüğe koymuştur. Avrupa Birliği'ne üyelik müzakerelerini yürüten Türkiye de bu

konsey tüzüğünü ulusal mevzuata aktarmak zorundadır. Bu derlemede, (EC) No 1099/2009 sayılı tüzükte yer

alan hükümler ile tanımlanmış olan ve kanatlı hayvan kesimleri sırasında boşaltma, dinlendirme, zapt etme,

askıya alma, sersemletme ve kesim işlemleri ile ilgili olan hayvan refahı standartları geniş şekilde

açıklanmıştır. Kanatlı hayvan kesimlerinin Tüzük hükümlerine uyumunu desteklemek için hazırlanmış olan

Avrupa Birliği Rehberi ve ilgili diğer ulusal rehberlerden de yararlanılmıştır. Ayrıca, Avrupa Birliği'nin

kesim ve itlaf sırasında kanatlı hayvan refahı standartlarına Türkiye’nin uyumu değerlendirilmiştir ve aynı

kapsamda kanatlı eti üretimini düzenleyen ulusal yönetmelikler incelenerek Avrupa Birliği standartlarına

uyumlu olan hükümler özetlenmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Anonim, (1996). Kanatlı hayvan eti ve et ürünleri üretim tesislerinin kuruluş, açılış, çalışma ve denetleme usul ve esaslarına dair yönetmelik. Resmi Gazete, 23.06.1996 tarih, Sayı:22675.
  • Anonim, (2005). Kanatlı hayvan eti ve et üretim tesislerinin çalışma ve denetleme usul ve esaslarına dair yönetmelik. Resmi Gazete, 8 Ocak 2005 tarih, Sayı: 25694.
  • Anonim, (2006). Türk Gıda Kodeksi çiğ kanatlı eti ve hazırlanmış kanatlı eti karışımları tebliği. Resmi Gazete, 7 Temmuz 2006 tarih, Sayı:26221.
  • Anonim, (2008). Kanatlı hayvan eti ve et ürünleri üretim tesislerinin çalışma ve denetleme usul ve esaslarına dair yönetmelikte değişiklik yapılması hakkında yönetmelik. Resmi Gazete, 31 Ekim 2008 tarih, Sayı: 27040.
  • Anonim, (2010). Eurogroup for Animals, Areas of Concern. Analysis of Animal Welfare ssues in The European Union. Eurogrup For Animals. (http://www.animalwelfareintergroup.eu/wpcontent/ uploads/2011/10/EurogroupForAnimals.Areasofconcern2010.pdf, Erişim:23.02.2018).
  • Anonim, (2011). Guidance for on-farm poultry slaughter. Food Safety Authority of Ireland. ISBN: 1-904465- 86-2 (https://www.fsai.ie/guidanceforonfarmpoultryslaughter.html, Erişim: 27.03.2018).
  • Anonim, (2012). Kesim Yönetmeliği. Et ve balık Kurumu Genel Müdürlüğü. No:37, Sayfa No 1/20.
  • Anonim, (2015). Food Standards Agency results of the 2013 animal welfare survey in Great Britain. Food Standarts Agency. (www.food.gov.uk, Erişim:29.02.2018).
  • Anonim, (2018). Poultry Stunning: A review of current and experimental techniques. a literature based assessment of welfare issues and other factors.(https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0aab/ fad1c2f32431edf88f6f8fdc90dcac6b23f1.pdf, Erişim: 01.02.3017).
  • Anonim, (2018b). Şoklama Nedir? Şoklama Kazanı Bilgisi? Hayvanların Sersemletilmesi (http://www.gimdes.org/gimdes-sertifikali-urunlerde-en-cok-merak-edilen-konu-bir-tavuk-firmasinindenetiminden. html, Erişim:04.03.2018)
  • Battula, V., Schilling, M. W., Vizzler-Thaxton, Y., Behrends, J. M., Williams, J. B., Schmidt, T. B. (2008). The effects of low atmosphere stunning and deboning time on broiler meat breast meat quality. Poultry Science, 87:1202−1210.
  • Bedanova, E., Voslarova, P., Chloupek, V., Pistekova, P., Suchy, J., Blahova, R., Dobsikova, V., Vecerek M. (2007). Stress in broilers resulting from shackling. Poultry Science, 86(6):1065–1069.
  • Berg, C., Raj, M. (2015). A review of different stunning methods for poultry—Animal welfare aspects (stunning methods for poultry). Animals, 5:1207-1219.
  • Bozkurt, Z. (2018). Nakil sırasında tavukların korunmasına ilişkin Avrupa Birliği Standartları ve Türkiye'nin topluluk mevzuatına uyumunun değerlendirilmesi. Bahri Dağtaş Hayvancılık Araştırma Dergisi, 7(1): 49- 63.
  • Broom D, M. (2017). Animal welfare in the European Union. Directorate General for Internal Policcies. Policy Department C: citizens' rights and constitutional affairs petitions. Brussels: European Parliament Policy Department, Citizen’s Rights and Constitutional Affairs, Study for the PETI Committee, pp 75. (http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/583114/IPOL_STU(2017)583114_EN.pdf. Erişim: 18.02.2018).
  • Compassion in World Farming, (2018). Humane alaughter: Broiler chickens (https://www.compassioninfoodbusiness.com/media/7427577/humane-slaughter-broiler-chickens.pdf).
  • Council Directive, (1974). Council Directive 0f 18 November 1974 on stunning of animal before slaughter (74/577/EEC). Official Journal of European Commission, No L 316/10, 26.11.1974, p:52.
  • Council Regulation, (1993). Council Directive 93/119/EC of 22 December 1993 on the protection of animals at the time of slaughter or killing. Official Journal L340, 31.12.1993, p: 0021-0034.
  • Council Regulation, (2005). Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 of 22 December 2004 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations. Official Journal L 3, 5.1.2005, p: 001-0044.
  • Council Regulation, (2009). Council Regulation (EC) No. 1099/2009 of 24 September 2009 on the Protection of Animals at the Time of Killing. Official Journal of the European Union, L 303/1.
  • DEFRA, (2007). The welfare of poultry at slaughter or killing. (https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/48565 9/pb13539-welfare-poultry-slaughter.pdf. Erişim:13.02.2018).
  • EFSA, (2004). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the main systems of stunning and killing the main commercial species of animals. EFSA J. 2004, 45, 1–29.
  • EFSA, (2013). Guidance on the assessment criteria for studies evaluating the effectiveness of stunning interventions regarding animal protection at the time of killing. EFSA Journal 2013;11(12):3486.
  • EFSA, (2013a) . Scientific Opinion on monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for poultry. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW). EFSA Journal 2013;11(12):3521.
  • EFSA, (2014). Scientific opinion on electrical requirements for poultry waterbath stunning equipment. EFSA Journal. 2014;12(1): 3745.
  • EFSA, (2014a). Scientific opinion on the use of low atmosphere pressure system (LAPS) for stunning poultry. EFSA Journal 12(1):3488.
  • European Commission, (2012). Study on various methods of stunning for poultry. framework contract for evaluation and evaluation related services—Lot 3: Food Chain; Final Report; European Commission: Brussel, Belgium, 2012; p. 123.
  • European Commission, (2013). Report from the commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the various stunning methods for poultry. Brussels, COM, 915.
  • European Commission, (2017). Preparation of best practices on the protection of animals at the time of killing. (https://www.slu.se/globalassets/ew/org/centrb/scaw/kontaktpunkt-slakt/eu-com-best-practicesslaughter- icf-report-2017.pdf, Erişim:19.01.2018).
  • Gerritzen, M. A., Reimert, H. G., Hindle, V. A., Verhoeven, M. T., Veerkamp, W. B. (2013). Multistage carbon dioxide gas stunning of broilers. Poultry Science, 92(1):41–50.
  • Gibson, T. J., Taylor, A. H., Gregory, N. G. (2016). Assessment of the effectiveness of head only and backof- the-head electrical stunning of chickens. Br Poult Sci.57(3): 295–305.
  • Grandin, T. (2010). Auditing animal welfare at slaughter plants. Meat Science 86: 56–65.
  • Hindle, V. A., Lambooij, E., Reimert, H. G. M., Workel, L. D., Gerritzen, M. A. (2010). Animal welfare concerns during the use of the waterbath for stunning broilers, hens, and ducks. Poultry Science 89(3): 401-412.
  • Humane Slaughter Association, (2013). Captive-Bolt stunning of livestock.
  • (https://www.hsa.org.uk/mechanical-methods-poultry/non-penetrative-captive-bolt.Erişim: 11.03.2018). İzmirli, S., Yaşar, A. (2010). A survey on animal welfare attitudes of veterinary surgeries, veterinary students, animal owners and society in Turkey. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg. 16 (6): 981-985.
  • Kannen, G., Heath, J. L., Wabeck, C. J., Mench, J. A. (1997). Shackling broilers effects on stress response and breast meat quality. British Poultry Science, 38: 323−332.
  • Lambooij, E, Pieterse, C, Hillebrand, S. J., Dijksterhuis, W. (1999). The effects of captive bolt and electrical stunning and restraining methods on broiler meat quality. Poultry Science 78, 600-607.
  • Lambooij, E., Reimert, H. G. M., Verhoeven, M. T. V., Hindle, V. A. (2014). Cone restraining and head-only electrical stunning in broilers: Effects on physiological responses and meat quality. Poultry Science, 93:512–518.
  • McKeegan, D. E. F., Sandercock, D. A., Gerritzen, M. A. (2013). Physiological responses to low atmospheric pressure stunning and the implications for welfare. Poult. Sci., 92: 858–868.
  • OIE, (2017). Terrestrial Animal Health Code. Chapter 7.5.- Slaughter of animals.
  • Özen, A. (2017). A historical overview of Turkey’s animal welfare legislation. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg, 23 (6): 1019-1026.
  • Raj, A. B., O’Callaghan, M. (2001). Evaluation of a pneumatically operated captive bolt for stunning/killing broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 42(3):295–299.
  • Raj, M. (2017). Welfare of poultry at slaughter. regional approach of the implementation and enforcement of Regulation 1099/2009 workshop organised by Regional Animal Welfare Centre (RAWC) for Balkan region, University of Bristol.(http://rawc.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/8.-Welfare-of-poultry-atslaughter- Mohan-Raj.pdf,Erişim: 12.10.2017).
  • Sparrey, J. M., Wotton, S. B. (1997). The design of pig stunning tong electrodes - a review.Meat Science. 1997;47:125–133.
  • Vieira, F. M. C., Silvia, I. J. O., Barbosa-Filho, J. A. D., Viera, A. M. C., Broom, D. M. (2011). Preslaughter mortality of broilers in relation to lairage and season in a subtropical climate. Poultry Science,90:2127- 2133.
  • Webster, A. B., Fletcher, D. L. (2004). Assessment of the aversion of hens to different gas atmospheres using an approach-avoidance test. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci, 88:275–287.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Zehra BOZKURT (Sorumlu Yazar)
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 14 Aralık 2018
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 7, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Bozkurt, Z. (2018). Türkiye’nin Avrupa Birliği’ne Katılımı Perspektifinden İtlaf ve Kesimde Kanatlı Refahı . Bahri Dağdaş Hayvancılık Araştırma Dergisi , 7 (2) , 15-29 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/bdhad/issue/41302/499200