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The Welfare of Honey Bees

Yıl 2019, Cilt 8, Sayı 2, 96 - 108, 21.01.2020

Öz

Sustainable beekeeping requires a holistic approach to the honey bee colony, beekeepers and environmental factors. Quality and healthy production of honey bee products such as honey, royal jelly, pollen and propolis is important for food quality and safety. Honey bees, which are also a pollinator, play an important role in the protection of ecosystem health. The management of honey bees, which still preserve their natural life form widely and their rearing with a high yield-oriented strategy puts pressure on honey bees and adversely affects honey bee health and welfare. Especially in recent years, it has been observed that mass honey bee deaths have occurred. In this review, honey bee welfare was addressed with conceptual and ethical dimensions from the perspective of food safety and sustainable food production and the environmental factors affecting honey bee welfare were discussed based on the interaction of beekeeping with the environment.

Kaynakça

  • Akbay, R. (1986). Arı ve İpekböceği Yetiştiriciliği. Ankara Üniv. Basımevi, 78-81.
  • Alaux, C., Ducloz, F., Crauser, D., Le Conte, Y. (2010). Diet effects on honeybee immunocompetence. Biology letters, 6(4): 562-565.
  • Anonim, (2019). One health applied to bees – honey bee viruses (https://www.bee-safe.eu/articles/bee-thoughts/one-health-applied-to-bees-honey-bee-viruses/. Erişim Tarihi: 09.Eylül 2019).
  • Brodschneider, R., Crailsheim, K. (2010). Nutrition and health in honey bees. Apidologie, 41(3): 278-294.
  • Broom, D. M. (2013). The welfare of invertebrate animals such as insects, spiders, snails and worms. In Animal suffering: From Science to Law, International 4 Symposium, ed. Kemp, T. A. van der and Lachance, M., 135-152.
  • Carruthers, P. (2006). Invertebrate minds: A challenge for ethical 57. theory. J Ethics, 11:275-97.
  • Cramer, W., Guiot, J., Fader, M., Garrabou, J., Gattuso, J. P., Iglesias, Lange M., A., Lionello, P., Llasat, M. C., Paz, S., Peneulas, J., Snoussi, M., Toreti, A., Tsimplis, M. N., Xoplaki, E. (2018). Climate change and interconnected risks to sustainable development in the Mediterranean. Nature Climate Change, 8(11): 972-980.
  • Decourtye, A., Alaux, C., Le Conte, Y., Henry, M. (2019). Toward the protection of bees and pollination under global change: present and future perspectives in a challenging applied science. Current opinion in insect science, 35:123-131.
  • Doublet, V., Labarussias, M., de Miranda, J. R., Moritz, R. F. A., Paxton, R. J. (2015). Bees under stress: Sublethal doses of a neonicotinoid pesticide and pathogens interact to elevate honey bee mortality across the life cycle. Environmental Microbiology, 17: 969–983.
  • Eisemann, C. H., Jorgensen, W. K., Merritt, D. J., Rice, M. J., Cribb, B. W., Webb, P. D., Zalucki M. P. (1984). Do insects feel pain? A biological view. Experientia, 40:164-167.
  • Elwood, R. W. (2011). Pain and suffering in invertebrates? Ilar Journal, 52(2): 175-184.
  • Elwood, R. W. (2019). Assessing the potential for pain in crustaceans and other invertebrates. In The Welfare of Invertebrate Animals. Springer, Cham.
  • European Commission, (2015). Sustainable development. What is sustainable development? (https://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/policy-making/sustainable-development/. Erişim Tarihi: 02.07.2019).
  • FAO, (2009). ‘How to Feed the World in 2050’. FAO High-level Expert Forum, Rome, 12–13 October 2009.
  • Freibauer, A., Mathijs, E., Brunori, G., Damianova, Z., Faroult, E., i Gomis, J. G., O¢Brien L, Treyer, S. (2011). Sustainable Food Consumption and Production in a Resource‐constrained World Summary Findings of the EU SCAR Third Foresight Exercise. EuroChoices, 10(2):38-43.
  • Fries, I. (2010). Nosema ceranae in European honey bees (Apis mellifera). Journal of invertebrate pathology, 103:73-79.
  • Fürst, M. A., McMahon, D. P., Osborne, J. L., Paxton, R. J., Brown, M. J. F. (2014). Disease associations between honeybees and bumblebees as a threat to wild pollinators. Nature, 506: 364-366.
  • Garrido, C., Nanetti, A. (2019). Welfare of Managed Honey Bees. In The Welfare of Invertebrate Animals. Springer, Cham.
  • Geldmann, J., González-Varo, J. P. (2018). Conserving honey bees does not help wildlife. Science, 359:392-393.
  • Han, F., Wallberg, A., Webster, M. T. (2012). From where did the Western honeybee (A pis mellifera) originate? Ecology and Evolution, 2(8):1949-1957.
  • Honeybee Health Coalition, (2019). Best Management Practices For Hive Health. A Guide For Beekeepers. Healthy Bees Healthy People Healthy Planet. First Edition(https://honeybeehealthcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/HBHC_Hive_BMPs_v1.0_reduced.pdf. Erişim tarihi: 11.07.2019).
  • Horvath, K., Angeletti, D., Nascetti, G., Carere, C. (2013). Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue. Ann Ist Super Sanità, 49(1): 9-17.
  • Hossam, F. A. (2012). Tolerance of two honey bee races to various temperature and relative humidity gradients. Env Exp Biol 10(4):133–138.
  • Johnson, W. A., Carder, J. W. (2012). Drosophila nociceptors mediate larval aversion to dry surface environments utilizing both the painless TRP channel and the DEG/ENaC subunit, PPK1. PLoS One, 7 (3):e32878.
  • King, L. E., Serem, E., Russo, L. (2018). Minimal effect of honey beehive fences on native bee diversity and abundance at the farm scale during the dry season in southern Kenya. Apidologie, 49(6):862-871.
  • Klein, C., Barron, A. B. (2016). Insects have the capacity for subjective experience. Animal Sentience, 1(9):1.
  • Kouchner, C., Ferrus, C., Blanchard, S., Decourtye, A., Basso, B., Le Conte, Y., Tchamitchian, M. (2019). Bee farming system sustainability: An assessment framework in metropolitan France. Agricultural Systems, 176:102653.
  • Kösoglu, M., Topal, E., Takma, Ç., Özkırım, A., Özsoy, N., Karaca, Ü. (2019). Perspective of Izmir Province Beekeepers on Bee Diseases and Pests, Ege Univ. Ziraat Fak. Derg., 56 (2):187-193.
  • Laurant, M., Hendrikx, P., Ribiere-Chabert, M., Chauzat, M. P. (2015). A pan-European epidemiological study on honey bee colony losses 2012–2014. Sophia Antipolis: European Union Reference Laboratory for honey bee health (EURL).
  • Mahaman, B. D., Harizanis, P., Filis, I., Antonopoulou, E., Yialouris, C. P., Sideridis, A. B. (2002). A diagnostic expert system for honeybee pests. Computers and electronics in agriculture, 36(1):17-31.
  • Mallinger, R. E., Gaines-Day, H. R., Gratton, C. (2017). Do managed bees have negative effects on wild bees? A systematic review of the literature. PloS one, 12(12):e0189268.
  • Manley, R., Temperton, B., Doyle, T., Gates, D., Hedges, S., Boots, M., Wilfert, L. (2019). Knock‐on community impacts of a novel vector: spillover of emerging DWV‐B from Varroa‐infested honeybees to wild bumblebees. Ecology letters.
  • Menzel, R., Giurfa, M. (2001). Cognitive architecture of a mini-brain: the honeybee. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5: 62-71.
  • Migdał, P., Roman, A., Popiela-Pleban, E., Kowalska-Góralska, M., Opaliński, S. (2018). The Impact of Selected Pesticides on Honey Bees. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 27(2). 787–792.
  • Mitchell, D. (2016). Ratios of colony mass to thermal conductance of tree and man-made nest enclosures of Apis mellifera: implications for survival, clustering, humidity regulation and Varroa destructor. International journal of biometeorology, 60(5):629-638.
  • Morawetz, L., Köglberger, H., Griesbacher, A., Derakhshifar, I., Crailsheim, K., Brodschneider, R., Moosbeckhofer, R. (2019). Health status of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera) and disease-related risk factors for colony losses in Austria. PloS one, 14(7): e0219293.
  • Muz, M. N. (2008). Bal arılarında ani koloni sönmesi. Türkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi, 32 (3): 271- 275.
  • Nabarro, D., Wannous, C. (2014). The potential contribution of livestock to food and nutrition security: the application of the One Health approach in livestock policy and practice. Rev Sci Tech, 33:475-485.
  • Naug, D., Gibbs, A. (2009). Behavioural changes mediated by hunger in honey bees infected with Nosema ceranae. Apidologie 40 (6): 595-599.
  • OIE, (2007). Terrestrial Animal Health Code. Appendix 3.7.1. - Introduction to the guidelines for animal welfare, ( https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D5517.PDF, Erişim tarihi 11.09.2019).
  • OIE, (2015): The OIE alongside WHO to ensure food safety. https://www.oie.int/en/for-the-media/editorials/detail/article/the-oie-alongside-who-to-ensure-food-safety/. Erişim tarihi 16.09.2019)
  • Popescu, C. R. G., Popescu, G. N. (2019). The social, economic, and environmental ımpact of ecological beekeeping in Romania. In Agrifood Economics and Sustainable Development in Contemporary Society. IGI Global.
  • Ramsey, S. D., Ochoa, R., Bauchan, G., Gulbronson, C., Mowery, J. D., Cohen, A., Lim, A., Joklik, J., Cicero, J., M., Ellis, J. D., Hawthorne, D., van Engelsdorp, D. (2019). Varroa destructor feeds primarily on honey bee fat body tissue and not hemolymph. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(5):1792-1801.
  • Sağlam, N. E., Düzgüneş, E., Balık, İ. (2008). Küresel Isınma ve İklim Değişikliği. Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 25(1): 89-94.
  • Scharlaken, B., De Graaf, D. C., Memmi, S., Devreese, B., Van Beeumen, J., Jacobs, F. J. (2007). Differential protein expression in the honey bee head after a bacterial challenge. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology: Published in Collaboration with the Entomological Society of America, 65(4):223-237.
  • Seeley, T. D. (2019). The Lives of Bees: The Untold Story of the Honey Bee in the Wild. Princeton University Press.
  • Seitz, N., Traynor, K. S., Steinhauer, N., Rennich, K., Wilson, M. E., Ellis, J. D., Rose, R.,Tarpy, D. R., Sagili, R. R., Caron, D. M., Delaplane, K. S., Rangel, J., Lee, K., Baylis, K., Wilkes, J. T., Skinner, J. A., Pettis, J. S., van Engelsdorp, D. (2015). A national survey of managed honey bee 2014–2015 annual colony losses in the USA. Journal of Apicultural Research, 54(4): 292-304.
  • Simone-Finstrom, M., Li-Byarlay, H., Huang, M. H., Strand, M. K., Rueppell, O., Tarpy, D. R. (2016). Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees. Scientific Reports, 6:32023.
  • Simpson, J. (1961). Nest climate regulation in honey bee colonies. Science 3461:1331–1332.
  • Smart, M., Otto, C., Cornman, R., Iwanowicz, D. (2018). Using colony monitoring devices to evaluate the impacts of land use and nutritional value of forage on honey bee health. Agriculture, 8(1): 2.
  • Smith, E. S. J., Lewin, G. R. (2009). Nociceptors: a phylogenetic view. Journal of Comparative Physiology Part A, 195: 1089-1106.
  • Sneddon, L. U., Elwood, R. W., Adamo, S. A., Leach, M. C. (2014). Defining and assessing animal pain. Animal Behaviour, 97:201-212.
  • Stefano, G. B., Scharrer, B. (1981). High affinity binding of an enkephalin analog in the cerebral ganglion of the insect. anLeucophaea maderae (Blattaria). Brain Res. 225: 107-114.
  • Tesfaye, B., Dadi, G., Gelgelu, T. (2017). Assessment of honeybee enemies (pests and predators) in Bale zone, southeastern Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 9(4):53-61.
  • Türkoğlu, N., Çiçek, İ., Şensoy, S. (2012). Türkiye’de iklim değişikliğinin meyve ağaçları ve tarla bitkilerinin fenolojik dönemlerine etkileri. TÜCAUM Uluslararası Coğrafya Sempozyumu Kitabı, Ankara.
  • van Huis, A. (2019). "Welfare of farmed insects." Journal of Insects as Food and Feed: 5 (3):159 – 162.
  • Williams, P. H., Osborne, J. L. (2009). Bumblebee vulnerability and conservation world-wide. Apidologie 40:367–387.

Bal Arılarında Refah

Yıl 2019, Cilt 8, Sayı 2, 96 - 108, 21.01.2020

Öz

Sürdürülebilir arıcılık bal arısı ailesi, arıcılar ve çevresel faktörlerin bütüncül bir yaklaşımla ele alınmasını gerektirmektedir. Bal, arı sütü, polen ve propolis gibi arı ürünlerinin kaliteli ve sağlıklı bir şekilde üretilmesi gıda kalitesi ve güvenliği için önem taşımaktadır. Ayrıca bir polinatör de olan bal arıları ekosistem sağlığının korunması için önemli bir rol üstlenmiştir. Halen doğal yaşam formunu büyük ölçüde korumakta olan bal arılarının insan tarafından yönetilmesi ve yüksek verim odaklı bir stratejisi ile yetiştirilmesi arılar üzerinde baskı oluşturmakta, arı sağlığı ve refahını olumsuz etkilemektedir. Özellikle son yıllarda kitlesel arı ölümlerinin meydana geldiği görülmektedir. Bu derlemede, gıda güvenliği ve sürdürülebilir gıda üretimi perspektifinden, kavramsal ve etik boyutları ile arı refahı ele alınmış ve arı yetiştiriciliğinin çevre ile etkileşimi temelinde arı refahını etkileyen çevresel faktörler tartışılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Akbay, R. (1986). Arı ve İpekböceği Yetiştiriciliği. Ankara Üniv. Basımevi, 78-81.
  • Alaux, C., Ducloz, F., Crauser, D., Le Conte, Y. (2010). Diet effects on honeybee immunocompetence. Biology letters, 6(4): 562-565.
  • Anonim, (2019). One health applied to bees – honey bee viruses (https://www.bee-safe.eu/articles/bee-thoughts/one-health-applied-to-bees-honey-bee-viruses/. Erişim Tarihi: 09.Eylül 2019).
  • Brodschneider, R., Crailsheim, K. (2010). Nutrition and health in honey bees. Apidologie, 41(3): 278-294.
  • Broom, D. M. (2013). The welfare of invertebrate animals such as insects, spiders, snails and worms. In Animal suffering: From Science to Law, International 4 Symposium, ed. Kemp, T. A. van der and Lachance, M., 135-152.
  • Carruthers, P. (2006). Invertebrate minds: A challenge for ethical 57. theory. J Ethics, 11:275-97.
  • Cramer, W., Guiot, J., Fader, M., Garrabou, J., Gattuso, J. P., Iglesias, Lange M., A., Lionello, P., Llasat, M. C., Paz, S., Peneulas, J., Snoussi, M., Toreti, A., Tsimplis, M. N., Xoplaki, E. (2018). Climate change and interconnected risks to sustainable development in the Mediterranean. Nature Climate Change, 8(11): 972-980.
  • Decourtye, A., Alaux, C., Le Conte, Y., Henry, M. (2019). Toward the protection of bees and pollination under global change: present and future perspectives in a challenging applied science. Current opinion in insect science, 35:123-131.
  • Doublet, V., Labarussias, M., de Miranda, J. R., Moritz, R. F. A., Paxton, R. J. (2015). Bees under stress: Sublethal doses of a neonicotinoid pesticide and pathogens interact to elevate honey bee mortality across the life cycle. Environmental Microbiology, 17: 969–983.
  • Eisemann, C. H., Jorgensen, W. K., Merritt, D. J., Rice, M. J., Cribb, B. W., Webb, P. D., Zalucki M. P. (1984). Do insects feel pain? A biological view. Experientia, 40:164-167.
  • Elwood, R. W. (2011). Pain and suffering in invertebrates? Ilar Journal, 52(2): 175-184.
  • Elwood, R. W. (2019). Assessing the potential for pain in crustaceans and other invertebrates. In The Welfare of Invertebrate Animals. Springer, Cham.
  • European Commission, (2015). Sustainable development. What is sustainable development? (https://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/policy-making/sustainable-development/. Erişim Tarihi: 02.07.2019).
  • FAO, (2009). ‘How to Feed the World in 2050’. FAO High-level Expert Forum, Rome, 12–13 October 2009.
  • Freibauer, A., Mathijs, E., Brunori, G., Damianova, Z., Faroult, E., i Gomis, J. G., O¢Brien L, Treyer, S. (2011). Sustainable Food Consumption and Production in a Resource‐constrained World Summary Findings of the EU SCAR Third Foresight Exercise. EuroChoices, 10(2):38-43.
  • Fries, I. (2010). Nosema ceranae in European honey bees (Apis mellifera). Journal of invertebrate pathology, 103:73-79.
  • Fürst, M. A., McMahon, D. P., Osborne, J. L., Paxton, R. J., Brown, M. J. F. (2014). Disease associations between honeybees and bumblebees as a threat to wild pollinators. Nature, 506: 364-366.
  • Garrido, C., Nanetti, A. (2019). Welfare of Managed Honey Bees. In The Welfare of Invertebrate Animals. Springer, Cham.
  • Geldmann, J., González-Varo, J. P. (2018). Conserving honey bees does not help wildlife. Science, 359:392-393.
  • Han, F., Wallberg, A., Webster, M. T. (2012). From where did the Western honeybee (A pis mellifera) originate? Ecology and Evolution, 2(8):1949-1957.
  • Honeybee Health Coalition, (2019). Best Management Practices For Hive Health. A Guide For Beekeepers. Healthy Bees Healthy People Healthy Planet. First Edition(https://honeybeehealthcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/HBHC_Hive_BMPs_v1.0_reduced.pdf. Erişim tarihi: 11.07.2019).
  • Horvath, K., Angeletti, D., Nascetti, G., Carere, C. (2013). Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue. Ann Ist Super Sanità, 49(1): 9-17.
  • Hossam, F. A. (2012). Tolerance of two honey bee races to various temperature and relative humidity gradients. Env Exp Biol 10(4):133–138.
  • Johnson, W. A., Carder, J. W. (2012). Drosophila nociceptors mediate larval aversion to dry surface environments utilizing both the painless TRP channel and the DEG/ENaC subunit, PPK1. PLoS One, 7 (3):e32878.
  • King, L. E., Serem, E., Russo, L. (2018). Minimal effect of honey beehive fences on native bee diversity and abundance at the farm scale during the dry season in southern Kenya. Apidologie, 49(6):862-871.
  • Klein, C., Barron, A. B. (2016). Insects have the capacity for subjective experience. Animal Sentience, 1(9):1.
  • Kouchner, C., Ferrus, C., Blanchard, S., Decourtye, A., Basso, B., Le Conte, Y., Tchamitchian, M. (2019). Bee farming system sustainability: An assessment framework in metropolitan France. Agricultural Systems, 176:102653.
  • Kösoglu, M., Topal, E., Takma, Ç., Özkırım, A., Özsoy, N., Karaca, Ü. (2019). Perspective of Izmir Province Beekeepers on Bee Diseases and Pests, Ege Univ. Ziraat Fak. Derg., 56 (2):187-193.
  • Laurant, M., Hendrikx, P., Ribiere-Chabert, M., Chauzat, M. P. (2015). A pan-European epidemiological study on honey bee colony losses 2012–2014. Sophia Antipolis: European Union Reference Laboratory for honey bee health (EURL).
  • Mahaman, B. D., Harizanis, P., Filis, I., Antonopoulou, E., Yialouris, C. P., Sideridis, A. B. (2002). A diagnostic expert system for honeybee pests. Computers and electronics in agriculture, 36(1):17-31.
  • Mallinger, R. E., Gaines-Day, H. R., Gratton, C. (2017). Do managed bees have negative effects on wild bees? A systematic review of the literature. PloS one, 12(12):e0189268.
  • Manley, R., Temperton, B., Doyle, T., Gates, D., Hedges, S., Boots, M., Wilfert, L. (2019). Knock‐on community impacts of a novel vector: spillover of emerging DWV‐B from Varroa‐infested honeybees to wild bumblebees. Ecology letters.
  • Menzel, R., Giurfa, M. (2001). Cognitive architecture of a mini-brain: the honeybee. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5: 62-71.
  • Migdał, P., Roman, A., Popiela-Pleban, E., Kowalska-Góralska, M., Opaliński, S. (2018). The Impact of Selected Pesticides on Honey Bees. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 27(2). 787–792.
  • Mitchell, D. (2016). Ratios of colony mass to thermal conductance of tree and man-made nest enclosures of Apis mellifera: implications for survival, clustering, humidity regulation and Varroa destructor. International journal of biometeorology, 60(5):629-638.
  • Morawetz, L., Köglberger, H., Griesbacher, A., Derakhshifar, I., Crailsheim, K., Brodschneider, R., Moosbeckhofer, R. (2019). Health status of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera) and disease-related risk factors for colony losses in Austria. PloS one, 14(7): e0219293.
  • Muz, M. N. (2008). Bal arılarında ani koloni sönmesi. Türkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi, 32 (3): 271- 275.
  • Nabarro, D., Wannous, C. (2014). The potential contribution of livestock to food and nutrition security: the application of the One Health approach in livestock policy and practice. Rev Sci Tech, 33:475-485.
  • Naug, D., Gibbs, A. (2009). Behavioural changes mediated by hunger in honey bees infected with Nosema ceranae. Apidologie 40 (6): 595-599.
  • OIE, (2007). Terrestrial Animal Health Code. Appendix 3.7.1. - Introduction to the guidelines for animal welfare, ( https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D5517.PDF, Erişim tarihi 11.09.2019).
  • OIE, (2015): The OIE alongside WHO to ensure food safety. https://www.oie.int/en/for-the-media/editorials/detail/article/the-oie-alongside-who-to-ensure-food-safety/. Erişim tarihi 16.09.2019)
  • Popescu, C. R. G., Popescu, G. N. (2019). The social, economic, and environmental ımpact of ecological beekeeping in Romania. In Agrifood Economics and Sustainable Development in Contemporary Society. IGI Global.
  • Ramsey, S. D., Ochoa, R., Bauchan, G., Gulbronson, C., Mowery, J. D., Cohen, A., Lim, A., Joklik, J., Cicero, J., M., Ellis, J. D., Hawthorne, D., van Engelsdorp, D. (2019). Varroa destructor feeds primarily on honey bee fat body tissue and not hemolymph. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(5):1792-1801.
  • Sağlam, N. E., Düzgüneş, E., Balık, İ. (2008). Küresel Isınma ve İklim Değişikliği. Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 25(1): 89-94.
  • Scharlaken, B., De Graaf, D. C., Memmi, S., Devreese, B., Van Beeumen, J., Jacobs, F. J. (2007). Differential protein expression in the honey bee head after a bacterial challenge. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology: Published in Collaboration with the Entomological Society of America, 65(4):223-237.
  • Seeley, T. D. (2019). The Lives of Bees: The Untold Story of the Honey Bee in the Wild. Princeton University Press.
  • Seitz, N., Traynor, K. S., Steinhauer, N., Rennich, K., Wilson, M. E., Ellis, J. D., Rose, R.,Tarpy, D. R., Sagili, R. R., Caron, D. M., Delaplane, K. S., Rangel, J., Lee, K., Baylis, K., Wilkes, J. T., Skinner, J. A., Pettis, J. S., van Engelsdorp, D. (2015). A national survey of managed honey bee 2014–2015 annual colony losses in the USA. Journal of Apicultural Research, 54(4): 292-304.
  • Simone-Finstrom, M., Li-Byarlay, H., Huang, M. H., Strand, M. K., Rueppell, O., Tarpy, D. R. (2016). Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees. Scientific Reports, 6:32023.
  • Simpson, J. (1961). Nest climate regulation in honey bee colonies. Science 3461:1331–1332.
  • Smart, M., Otto, C., Cornman, R., Iwanowicz, D. (2018). Using colony monitoring devices to evaluate the impacts of land use and nutritional value of forage on honey bee health. Agriculture, 8(1): 2.
  • Smith, E. S. J., Lewin, G. R. (2009). Nociceptors: a phylogenetic view. Journal of Comparative Physiology Part A, 195: 1089-1106.
  • Sneddon, L. U., Elwood, R. W., Adamo, S. A., Leach, M. C. (2014). Defining and assessing animal pain. Animal Behaviour, 97:201-212.
  • Stefano, G. B., Scharrer, B. (1981). High affinity binding of an enkephalin analog in the cerebral ganglion of the insect. anLeucophaea maderae (Blattaria). Brain Res. 225: 107-114.
  • Tesfaye, B., Dadi, G., Gelgelu, T. (2017). Assessment of honeybee enemies (pests and predators) in Bale zone, southeastern Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 9(4):53-61.
  • Türkoğlu, N., Çiçek, İ., Şensoy, S. (2012). Türkiye’de iklim değişikliğinin meyve ağaçları ve tarla bitkilerinin fenolojik dönemlerine etkileri. TÜCAUM Uluslararası Coğrafya Sempozyumu Kitabı, Ankara.
  • van Huis, A. (2019). "Welfare of farmed insects." Journal of Insects as Food and Feed: 5 (3):159 – 162.
  • Williams, P. H., Osborne, J. L. (2009). Bumblebee vulnerability and conservation world-wide. Apidologie 40:367–387.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Veteriner Hekimlik, Ziraat, Sütçülük ve Hayvan Bilimleri
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Zehra BOZKURT (Sorumlu Yazar)
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ, ZOOTEKNİ VE HAYVAN BESLEME BÖLÜMÜ, VETEİNERLİK ZOOTEKNİ ANABİLİM DALI
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 21 Ocak 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 8, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Bozkurt, Z. (2020). Bal Arılarında Refah . Bahri Dağdaş Hayvancılık Araştırma Dergisi , 8 (2) , 96-108 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/bdhad/issue/51995/677984