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Öğretim Etkinliklerinin Öğrencilerin Sınıf-İçi Eleştirel Düşünme Engellerinin Kaldırılmasına Etkisi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 3, 737 - 757, 13.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.14686/buefad.1120124

Öz

Eleştirel düşünme, insanların günümüz dünyasında hayatta kalmak ve başarılı olmak için ihtiyaç duyduğu bir beceridir. Bireyleri gelişen dünyaya hazırlamak için her konu alanında eleştirel düşünme becerilerinin öğretilmesi önemlidir. Dolayısıyla, bu beceriyi öğretebilmek için ilk etapta bu becerinin geliştirilmesine engel olabilecek eleştirel düşünme engellerinin belirlenmesi gerekir. Eleştirel düşünmeyi engelleyen engellerin ortadan kaldırılması, eleştirel düşünmenin geliştirilmesini ve uygulanmasını kolaylaştırabilir. Bu araştırmanın temel amacı, eleştirel düşünme engellerinin kaldırılmasına dayalı öğrenme etkinliklerinin İngilizce hazırlık sınıfı öğrencilerinin eleştirel düşünme engellerinin ortadan kaldırılmasına etkisini belirlemektir. Bu doğrultuda nitel ve nicel araştırmaları içeren karma model kullanılmıştır. Sınıf ortamında, üzerinde çalışılabilecek eleştirel düşünmenin önündeki engelleri belirlemek için deneysel çalışma açısından bir anket ve derslerde kullanılmak üzere öğretim etkinlikleri geliştirilmiştir. Eleştirel düşünmenin önündeki engelleri kaldırmayı amaçlayan bu etkinlikler, öğrencilerin eleştirel düşünme becerilerinin önündeki engelleri kaldırma ve geliştirme üzerindeki etkisini incelemek için 11 haftalık bir süre boyunca uygulanmıştır. Ardından nicel yöntemi desteklemek için vaka çalışması yapılmıştır. Nicel araştırmanın sonuçları, öğrencilerin eleştirel düşünmenin önündeki engellerin ortadan kaldırılmasına dair anlamlı bir istatistiksel kanıt ortaya koymasa da, nitel analizlerle birlikte değerlendirildiğinde, bu çalışma, eleştirel düşünme engellerini ortadan kaldırmaya ilişkin etkinlik kullanımının, eleştirel düşünmenin önündeki engelleri ortadan kaldırmaya yönelik önemini desteklemektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Acock, A. C. (2008). A gentle introduction to stata, 2nd Edition. Texas: Stata Press Publication.
  • Akbıyık, C. and Seferoğlu, S. S. (2006). Eleştirel düşünme eğilimleri ve akademik başarı [Critical thinking tendencies and academic success]. Çukurova University Journal of Faculty of Education, 2 (32), 90-99.
  • Alagözlü, N. and Süzer, S. S. (2009). Language and cognition: Is critical thinking a myth in turkish educational system? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 782-786.
  • Aliakbari, M. and Sadeghdaghighi, A. (2013). Teachers’ perception of the barriers to critical thinking. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences (70), 1-5.
  • Aybek, B. (2007). Eleştirel düşünmenin öğretiminde öğretmenin rolü [The role of the teacher in teaching critical thinking]. Journal of Science, Education and Thinking, 7 (2), 1-12.
  • Baker, M. and Rudd, R. (2001). Relationships between critical and creative thinking. Journal of Southern Agricultural Education Research, 51 (1), 173-188.
  • Bland, J. M. and Altman, D. G. (1997). Statistics notes: Cronbach’s alpha. British Medical Journal, 314(7080), 572.
  • Brookfield, S. D. (1997). Developing critical thinkers: Challenging adults to explore alternative ways of thinking and acting. England: Open University Press.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç-Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş. and Demirel, F. (2010). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods], 7th Edition. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Carroll, R. T. (2004). Chapter One: Critical thinking. Retrieved from; http://www.skepdic.com/refuge/ctlessons/ch1.pdf on June 16, 2011.
  • Chabanchi, Z. and Behrooznia, S. (2014). The impact of brainstorming on reading comprehension and critical thinking ability of EFL learners. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 513-521.
  • Chaffee, J. (1997). Thinking critically, 5th Edition. USA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Chaffee, J. (1999). Critical thinking, thoughtful writing: A rhetoric with readings. USA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education, 6th Edition. London and NewYork: Rotledge.
  • Coughlan, A. (2008). Learning to learn: Creative thinking and critical thinking, DCU Student Learning Sources. Retrieved from; https://www.dcu.ie/sites/default/files/students/studentlearning/creativeandcritical.pdf on January 12, 2015.
  • Dam, G. T. and Volman, M. (2004). Critical thinking a citizenship competence: Teaching strategies. Learning and Instruction, 14, 359-379.
  • D’Angelo, B. J. (2001). Using source analysis to promote critical thinking. Research Strategies, 18, 303-309.
  • Dekker, T. J. (2020). Teaching critical thinking through engagement with multiplicity. Elsevier-Thinking Skills and Creativity, 37, 1-9, 100701.
  • Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Selections From Part One. The Problem of Training Thought, 1-14. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co.
  • Dewey, J. (1957). Düşüncenin terbiyesi [Cultivation of thought]. (Çeviri: Ovide Decroly, Orhan Etker, Baha Arıkan). İstanbul: İstanbul Muallimler Cemiyeti.
  • Ennis, R. H. (1996). Critical thinking. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
  • Facione, P. A. (2011). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Milbrae, CA: Measured Reasons and The California Academic Press. (ilk baskı 1992)
  • Fairclough, D. L. (2010). Design and analysis of quality of life studies in clinical trials, 2nd Edition. New York: Taylor and Francis Group, CRC Press.
  • Fell, E. V. and Lukianova, N. A. (2015). British universities: International students’ alleged lack of critical thinking. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 215, 2-8.
  • Flick, U. (2014). An introduction to qualitative research, 5th Edition. London: Sage.
  • Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E. and Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education, 8th Edition. NewYork: McGrawHill.
  • Freeman, T. (2006). ‘Best practice’ in focus group research: Making sense of different views. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 56(5), 491-497. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.04043.x
  • Freitos, H., Oliveira, M., Jenkins, M. and Popjoy, O. (1998). The focus group, a qualitative research method, 1-22. ISRC, Merrick School of Business, University of Baltimore, WP ISRC No: 010298.
  • Garrison, D. R. (2002). Inquiry and critical thinking-reflective inquiry. Learning commons, university of calgory. Retrieved from; http://tlc.ucalgary.ca/documents/ReflectiveInquiry.pdf on November 30, 2011.
  • Gheith, A. G. (2007). Developing critical thinking for children through EFL learning. The spirit of inquiry: Developing critical thinking, creativity and community. Faculty of Education, Ain Shoms University, Cairo, Egypt.
  • Giancarlo, C. A. and Facione, P. A. (2001). A look across four years at the disposition toward critical thinking among undergraduate students. Journal of General Education, 50(1), 1-26.
  • Gibson, C. (1995). Critical thinking: Implications for instructions. American Library Association, 35(1), 27-35.
  • Gliem, J. A. and Gliem R. R. (2003). Calculating, interpreting, and reporting cronbach’s alpha reliability coeffiecient for likert-type scale, 82-88. 2003 Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University. Retrieved from;http://scholarworks.iupui.edu/handle/1805/344 January 13, 2018.
  • Gul, R., Cassum, S., Ahmand, A., Khan, S., Saeed, T. and Parpio, Y. (2010). Enhancement of critical thinking in curriculum design and delivery: A randomized controlled trial for educators. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 3219-3225.
  • Halpern, D. F. (1997). Critical thinking across the curriculum: A brief edition of thought and knowledge. Mahwah, New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Halpern, D. F. (2003). Thought and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking, 4th Edition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Hirschhorn, D. (2008). Critical thinking and analysis for effective speaking and writing. JC Centers Organization.
  • Huang, M.-Y., Tu, H.-Y., Wang, V.-Y., Chen, J.-F., Yu, Y.-T. and Chou, C.-C. (2017). Effects of cooperative learning and concept mapping intervention on critical thinking and basketball skills in elementary school. Elsevier-Thinking Skills and Creativity, 23, 207-216.
  • Klimoviene, G., Urboniene, J. and Barzdziukiene, R. (2006). Developing critical thinking through cooperative learning. Studies About Language, (9), 77-85.
  • Lee, K. S. (2004). Effects of individual versus online collaborative case study learning strategies on critical thinking of undergraduate students, Unpublished PhD. Theses. Texas University, Texas.
  • Leming, S. J. (1998). Some critical thoughts about the teaching of critical thinking. Social Studies, 89(2), 61-67.
  • Li, M. and Zhang, Y. (2013). Impacts of student background and extracurricular activities on the output of general education. International Journal of Chinese Education, 2, 93-107.
  • McKendree, J., Small, C., Stenning, K. and Conlon, T. (2002). The role of representation in teaching and learning critical thinking. Educational Review, 54 (1), 57-67.
  • Moon, J. (2008). Critical Thinking: An exploration of theory and practice. London: Routledge.
  • Moore, B. N. and Parker, R. (2009). Critical thinking, 9th Edition. Boston: McGrw-Hill.
  • Morgan, D. L. (1997). Focus groups as qualitative reasearch: Planning and research design for focus groups, 32-46. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Nosich, G. M. (2012). Eleştirel düşünme ve disiplinler arası eleştirel düşünme rehberi [A guide to critical thinking and interdisciplinary critical thinking]. (Çeviren: Yrd. Doç. Dr. Birsel Aybek). Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık. (2001)
  • Onosko, J. J. (1991). Barriers to the promotion of higher order thinking in social studies, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Washington, D.C. ED 340640.Retrieved from; http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/thesis/600 on March 15, 2017.
  • Paul, R. W. (1993). Critical thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world,J. Willsen and A. J. A. Binker (Editörler). Santa Roca, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.
  • Paul, R., Elder, L. and Bartell, T. (1997). A brief history of the idea of critical thinking. California Teacher Preparation for Instruction in Critical Thinking: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations: State of California, California Commission on Teacher Credentialing, Sacromento, C.A.
  • Paul, R. and Elder, L. (2006). The miniature guide to critical thinking concepts and tools, 4th Edition, The Foundation for Critical Thinking.
  • Pogrow, S. (1988). Teaching thinking to at-risk elementary students. Educational Leadership, 79-85. Santos, J. R. A. (1999). Cronbach’s alpha: A tool for assessing the reliability of scales. The Journal of Extention, 37(2).
  • Shcheglova, I., Koreshnikova, Y. and Parshina, O. (2019). The role of engagement in the development of critical thinking in undergraduates. Educational Studies Moscow, 1, 264-289.
  • Shor, I. (1980). Critical teaching and everyday life. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Sipahi, B., Yurtkoru, S. and Çinko, M. (2006). Sosyal bilimlerde SPSS analizi [SPSS analysis in social sciences]. Istanbul: Beta.
  • Smith, C. B. (1990). A Commitment to Critical Thinking. USA: Grayson Bernard Publishers.
  • Swartz, R. (2002). Robert swartz: The national center for teaching thinking, university of massachussets. (Ed.Alistair Smith) Thinking for learning. Mel Rockett ve Simon Percival. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.
  • Tan, P. N., Steinbach, M. and Kumar, V. (2006). Introduction to data mining (Chapter 8: Cluster Analysis: Basic Concepts and Algorithms, 487-568). Pearson Addison Wesley. Retrieved from; www.users.cs.umn.edu>dmbook July 19, 2017.
  • Tappen, R. M. (2011). Advanced nursing research. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
  • Tavakol, M. and Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of cronbach’s alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 53-55.
  • Thompson, C. (2011). Critical thinking across the curriculum: Process over output. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(9), 1-7.
  • Vaus, D. (2002). Analyzing social science data: 50 Key Problems in Data Analysis. London: Sage.
  • Vieira, R. M., Tenreiro-Vieira, C. and Martins, I. P. (2011). Critical thinking: Conceptual clarification and its importance in science education. Science Education International, 22(1), 43-54.
  • Vong, S. A. and Kaewurai, W. (2017). Instructional model development to enhance critical thinking and critical thinking teaching ability of trainee students at regional teaching training center in Takeo province, Cambodia. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 38, 88-95.
  • Wessel, J. and Williams, R. (2004). Critical thinking and learning styles of students in a problem-based, master’s entry-level physical therapy program. Physitherapy Theory and Practice, 20, 79-89.
  • Wilson, K. (2016). Critical reading, critical thinking: Delicate scaffolding in English for Academic Purposes (EAP). Elsevier-Thinking Skills and Creativity, 22, 256-265.
  • Yıldırım, A. and Şimşek, H. (2008). Sosyal bilimlerde ntel araştırma yöntemleri [Qualitative research methods in social sciences], 8thEdition. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Zhang, L.-F. (2003). Contributions of thinking styles to citical thinking dispositions. Journal of Psychology, 137(6), 517-543.

The Effects of Learning Activities on Eliminating Learners' In-Class Barriers to Critical Thinking

Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 3, 737 - 757, 13.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.14686/buefad.1120124

Öz

Critical thinking is a skill people need to survive and succeed in today’s world. Whereas it is considered crucial to teach critical thinking skills in every subject area in order to prepare students for the developing world, there are barriers to critical thinking which should be detected in order to be eliminated. Eliminating the barriers that hinder thinking critically can ease the development and implementation of critical thinking. The main purpose of this research is to determine the effect of learning activities based on the removal of critical thinking barriers on eliminating the English preparatory class students’ barriers to critical thinking. In this respect, a mixed model of qualitative and quantitative research was used. A questionnaire has been developed in terms of the experimental study to determine the barriers to critical thinking which can be worked on within the classroom context and alternative activities have been developed. These activities which aimed at eliminating the barriers to critical thinking have been implemented during an 11-week period to examine their effect on removing the barriers to and developing critical thinking skills of the students. Then an interview is conducted as a case study to support the quantitative method. Although the results of the quantitative study revealed no significant statistical evidence on eliminating students’ barriers to critical thinking within the 11-week period, when considered together with the qualitative analyses, the present study supports the importance of eliminating barriers to critical thinking with the support of learning activities for eliminating classroom barriers related to critical thinking.

Kaynakça

  • Acock, A. C. (2008). A gentle introduction to stata, 2nd Edition. Texas: Stata Press Publication.
  • Akbıyık, C. and Seferoğlu, S. S. (2006). Eleştirel düşünme eğilimleri ve akademik başarı [Critical thinking tendencies and academic success]. Çukurova University Journal of Faculty of Education, 2 (32), 90-99.
  • Alagözlü, N. and Süzer, S. S. (2009). Language and cognition: Is critical thinking a myth in turkish educational system? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 782-786.
  • Aliakbari, M. and Sadeghdaghighi, A. (2013). Teachers’ perception of the barriers to critical thinking. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences (70), 1-5.
  • Aybek, B. (2007). Eleştirel düşünmenin öğretiminde öğretmenin rolü [The role of the teacher in teaching critical thinking]. Journal of Science, Education and Thinking, 7 (2), 1-12.
  • Baker, M. and Rudd, R. (2001). Relationships between critical and creative thinking. Journal of Southern Agricultural Education Research, 51 (1), 173-188.
  • Bland, J. M. and Altman, D. G. (1997). Statistics notes: Cronbach’s alpha. British Medical Journal, 314(7080), 572.
  • Brookfield, S. D. (1997). Developing critical thinkers: Challenging adults to explore alternative ways of thinking and acting. England: Open University Press.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç-Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş. and Demirel, F. (2010). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods], 7th Edition. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Carroll, R. T. (2004). Chapter One: Critical thinking. Retrieved from; http://www.skepdic.com/refuge/ctlessons/ch1.pdf on June 16, 2011.
  • Chabanchi, Z. and Behrooznia, S. (2014). The impact of brainstorming on reading comprehension and critical thinking ability of EFL learners. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 513-521.
  • Chaffee, J. (1997). Thinking critically, 5th Edition. USA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Chaffee, J. (1999). Critical thinking, thoughtful writing: A rhetoric with readings. USA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education, 6th Edition. London and NewYork: Rotledge.
  • Coughlan, A. (2008). Learning to learn: Creative thinking and critical thinking, DCU Student Learning Sources. Retrieved from; https://www.dcu.ie/sites/default/files/students/studentlearning/creativeandcritical.pdf on January 12, 2015.
  • Dam, G. T. and Volman, M. (2004). Critical thinking a citizenship competence: Teaching strategies. Learning and Instruction, 14, 359-379.
  • D’Angelo, B. J. (2001). Using source analysis to promote critical thinking. Research Strategies, 18, 303-309.
  • Dekker, T. J. (2020). Teaching critical thinking through engagement with multiplicity. Elsevier-Thinking Skills and Creativity, 37, 1-9, 100701.
  • Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Selections From Part One. The Problem of Training Thought, 1-14. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co.
  • Dewey, J. (1957). Düşüncenin terbiyesi [Cultivation of thought]. (Çeviri: Ovide Decroly, Orhan Etker, Baha Arıkan). İstanbul: İstanbul Muallimler Cemiyeti.
  • Ennis, R. H. (1996). Critical thinking. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
  • Facione, P. A. (2011). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Milbrae, CA: Measured Reasons and The California Academic Press. (ilk baskı 1992)
  • Fairclough, D. L. (2010). Design and analysis of quality of life studies in clinical trials, 2nd Edition. New York: Taylor and Francis Group, CRC Press.
  • Fell, E. V. and Lukianova, N. A. (2015). British universities: International students’ alleged lack of critical thinking. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 215, 2-8.
  • Flick, U. (2014). An introduction to qualitative research, 5th Edition. London: Sage.
  • Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E. and Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education, 8th Edition. NewYork: McGrawHill.
  • Freeman, T. (2006). ‘Best practice’ in focus group research: Making sense of different views. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 56(5), 491-497. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.04043.x
  • Freitos, H., Oliveira, M., Jenkins, M. and Popjoy, O. (1998). The focus group, a qualitative research method, 1-22. ISRC, Merrick School of Business, University of Baltimore, WP ISRC No: 010298.
  • Garrison, D. R. (2002). Inquiry and critical thinking-reflective inquiry. Learning commons, university of calgory. Retrieved from; http://tlc.ucalgary.ca/documents/ReflectiveInquiry.pdf on November 30, 2011.
  • Gheith, A. G. (2007). Developing critical thinking for children through EFL learning. The spirit of inquiry: Developing critical thinking, creativity and community. Faculty of Education, Ain Shoms University, Cairo, Egypt.
  • Giancarlo, C. A. and Facione, P. A. (2001). A look across four years at the disposition toward critical thinking among undergraduate students. Journal of General Education, 50(1), 1-26.
  • Gibson, C. (1995). Critical thinking: Implications for instructions. American Library Association, 35(1), 27-35.
  • Gliem, J. A. and Gliem R. R. (2003). Calculating, interpreting, and reporting cronbach’s alpha reliability coeffiecient for likert-type scale, 82-88. 2003 Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University. Retrieved from;http://scholarworks.iupui.edu/handle/1805/344 January 13, 2018.
  • Gul, R., Cassum, S., Ahmand, A., Khan, S., Saeed, T. and Parpio, Y. (2010). Enhancement of critical thinking in curriculum design and delivery: A randomized controlled trial for educators. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 3219-3225.
  • Halpern, D. F. (1997). Critical thinking across the curriculum: A brief edition of thought and knowledge. Mahwah, New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Halpern, D. F. (2003). Thought and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking, 4th Edition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Hirschhorn, D. (2008). Critical thinking and analysis for effective speaking and writing. JC Centers Organization.
  • Huang, M.-Y., Tu, H.-Y., Wang, V.-Y., Chen, J.-F., Yu, Y.-T. and Chou, C.-C. (2017). Effects of cooperative learning and concept mapping intervention on critical thinking and basketball skills in elementary school. Elsevier-Thinking Skills and Creativity, 23, 207-216.
  • Klimoviene, G., Urboniene, J. and Barzdziukiene, R. (2006). Developing critical thinking through cooperative learning. Studies About Language, (9), 77-85.
  • Lee, K. S. (2004). Effects of individual versus online collaborative case study learning strategies on critical thinking of undergraduate students, Unpublished PhD. Theses. Texas University, Texas.
  • Leming, S. J. (1998). Some critical thoughts about the teaching of critical thinking. Social Studies, 89(2), 61-67.
  • Li, M. and Zhang, Y. (2013). Impacts of student background and extracurricular activities on the output of general education. International Journal of Chinese Education, 2, 93-107.
  • McKendree, J., Small, C., Stenning, K. and Conlon, T. (2002). The role of representation in teaching and learning critical thinking. Educational Review, 54 (1), 57-67.
  • Moon, J. (2008). Critical Thinking: An exploration of theory and practice. London: Routledge.
  • Moore, B. N. and Parker, R. (2009). Critical thinking, 9th Edition. Boston: McGrw-Hill.
  • Morgan, D. L. (1997). Focus groups as qualitative reasearch: Planning and research design for focus groups, 32-46. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Nosich, G. M. (2012). Eleştirel düşünme ve disiplinler arası eleştirel düşünme rehberi [A guide to critical thinking and interdisciplinary critical thinking]. (Çeviren: Yrd. Doç. Dr. Birsel Aybek). Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık. (2001)
  • Onosko, J. J. (1991). Barriers to the promotion of higher order thinking in social studies, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Washington, D.C. ED 340640.Retrieved from; http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/thesis/600 on March 15, 2017.
  • Paul, R. W. (1993). Critical thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world,J. Willsen and A. J. A. Binker (Editörler). Santa Roca, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.
  • Paul, R., Elder, L. and Bartell, T. (1997). A brief history of the idea of critical thinking. California Teacher Preparation for Instruction in Critical Thinking: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations: State of California, California Commission on Teacher Credentialing, Sacromento, C.A.
  • Paul, R. and Elder, L. (2006). The miniature guide to critical thinking concepts and tools, 4th Edition, The Foundation for Critical Thinking.
  • Pogrow, S. (1988). Teaching thinking to at-risk elementary students. Educational Leadership, 79-85. Santos, J. R. A. (1999). Cronbach’s alpha: A tool for assessing the reliability of scales. The Journal of Extention, 37(2).
  • Shcheglova, I., Koreshnikova, Y. and Parshina, O. (2019). The role of engagement in the development of critical thinking in undergraduates. Educational Studies Moscow, 1, 264-289.
  • Shor, I. (1980). Critical teaching and everyday life. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Sipahi, B., Yurtkoru, S. and Çinko, M. (2006). Sosyal bilimlerde SPSS analizi [SPSS analysis in social sciences]. Istanbul: Beta.
  • Smith, C. B. (1990). A Commitment to Critical Thinking. USA: Grayson Bernard Publishers.
  • Swartz, R. (2002). Robert swartz: The national center for teaching thinking, university of massachussets. (Ed.Alistair Smith) Thinking for learning. Mel Rockett ve Simon Percival. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.
  • Tan, P. N., Steinbach, M. and Kumar, V. (2006). Introduction to data mining (Chapter 8: Cluster Analysis: Basic Concepts and Algorithms, 487-568). Pearson Addison Wesley. Retrieved from; www.users.cs.umn.edu>dmbook July 19, 2017.
  • Tappen, R. M. (2011). Advanced nursing research. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
  • Tavakol, M. and Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of cronbach’s alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 53-55.
  • Thompson, C. (2011). Critical thinking across the curriculum: Process over output. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(9), 1-7.
  • Vaus, D. (2002). Analyzing social science data: 50 Key Problems in Data Analysis. London: Sage.
  • Vieira, R. M., Tenreiro-Vieira, C. and Martins, I. P. (2011). Critical thinking: Conceptual clarification and its importance in science education. Science Education International, 22(1), 43-54.
  • Vong, S. A. and Kaewurai, W. (2017). Instructional model development to enhance critical thinking and critical thinking teaching ability of trainee students at regional teaching training center in Takeo province, Cambodia. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 38, 88-95.
  • Wessel, J. and Williams, R. (2004). Critical thinking and learning styles of students in a problem-based, master’s entry-level physical therapy program. Physitherapy Theory and Practice, 20, 79-89.
  • Wilson, K. (2016). Critical reading, critical thinking: Delicate scaffolding in English for Academic Purposes (EAP). Elsevier-Thinking Skills and Creativity, 22, 256-265.
  • Yıldırım, A. and Şimşek, H. (2008). Sosyal bilimlerde ntel araştırma yöntemleri [Qualitative research methods in social sciences], 8thEdition. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Zhang, L.-F. (2003). Contributions of thinking styles to citical thinking dispositions. Journal of Psychology, 137(6), 517-543.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Eğitim, Eğitim Araştırmaları
Bölüm Makaleler / Articles
Yazarlar

Özlem Miraç ÖZKAYA> (Sorumlu Yazar)
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, YABANCI DİLLER YÜKSEKOKULU, YABANCI DİLLER BÖLÜMÜ, YABANCI DİLLER ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0002-6679-1891
Türkiye


Nuriye SEMERCİ>
BARTIN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, EĞİTİM FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-5347-9858
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 13 Ekim 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 11, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

APA Özkaya, Ö. M. & Semerci, N. (2022). The Effects of Learning Activities on Eliminating Learners' In-Class Barriers to Critical Thinking . Bartın University Journal of Faculty of Education , 11 (3) , 737-757 . DOI: 10.14686/buefad.1120124
All the articles published in the journal are open access and distributed under the conditions of CommonsAttribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
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